Flow Oscillation (flow + oscillation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and tolerance to antibiotics in response to oscillatory shear stresses of physiological levels

Victoria Kostenko
Abstract Bacterial infections in the blood system are usually associated with blood flow oscillation generated by some cardiovascular pathologies and insertion of indwelling devices. The influence of hydrodynamically induced shear stress fluctuations on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm morphology and tolerance to antibiotics was investigated. Fluctuating shear stresses of physiologically relevant levels were generated in wells of a six-well microdish agitated by an orbital shaker. Numerical simulations were performed to determine the spatial distribution and local fluctuation levels of the shear stress field on the well bottom. It is found that the local biofilm deposition and morphology correlate strongly with shear stress fluctuations and maximum magnitude levels. Tolerance to killing by antibiotics correlates with morphotype and is generally higher in high shear regions. [source]

Numerical investigation of the effect of inlet condition on self-excited oscillation of wet steam flow in a supersonic turbine cascade,

Wu Xiaoming
Abstract Self-excited oscillation can be induced due to the interaction between condensation process and local transonic condition in condensing flow, which is an important problem in wet steam turbine. With an Eulerian/Eulerian numerical model, the self-excited oscillation of wet steam flow is investigated in a supersonic turbine cascade. Owing to supercritical heat addition to the subsonic flow in the convergent part of the cascade, the oscillation frequency decreases with increased inlet supercooling. Mass flow rate increases in the oscillating flow due to the greater supersaturation in condensation process, while the increase will be suppressed with the flow oscillation. Higher inlet supercooling leads to the fact that the condensation process moves upstream and the loss increases. Moreover, some predictions of oscillation effects on outflow angle and aerodynamic force are also presented. Finally, heterogeneous condensations with inlet wetness and periodic inlet conditions, as a result of the interference between stator and rotor, are discussed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

CFD Study of Effects of Module Geometry on Forced Convection in a Channel with Non-Conducting Fins and Flow Pulsation

B. O. Olayiwola
Abstract CFD simulations were carried out to investigate the effects of the module geometry on forced convection in a rectangular channel containing series of regularly spaced non-conducting baffles with flow oscillation. The simulations were performed at constant wall temperature. Steady-flow Reynolds numbers Re in the range of 200 and 600 were studied. The results of the CFD simulations show that, for the effect fin spacing to be significant on heat transfer enhancement in finned system with oscillating flow, the oscillating flow velocity must be higher than the mean flow velocity. Superposition of oscillation yields increasing heat transfer performance with increasing fin height. Fin geometry with pyramidal shape yields highest performance in terms of the heat transfer effectiveness. [source]

Buffeting in transonic flow prediction using time-dependent turbulence model

A. Kourta
Abstract In transonic flow conditions, the shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction and flow separations on wing upper surface induce flow instabilities, ,buffet', and then the buffeting (structure vibrations). This phenomenon can greatly influence the aerodynamic performance. These flow excitations are self-sustained and lead to a surface effort due to pressure fluctuations. They can produce enough energy to excite the structure. The objective of the present work is to predict this unsteady phenomenon correctly by using unsteady Navier,Stokes-averaged equations with a time-dependent turbulence model based on the suitable (k,,) turbulent eddy viscosity model. The model used is based on the turbulent viscosity concept where the turbulent viscosity coefficient (C,) is related to local deformation and rotation rates. To validate this model, flow over a flat plate at Mach number of 0.6 is first computed, then the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil. The comparison with the analytical and experimental results shows a good agreement. The ONERA OAT15A transonic airfoil was chosen to describe buffeting phenomena. Numerical simulations are done by using a Navier,Stokes SUPG (streamline upwind Petrov,Galerkin) finite-element solver. Computational results show the ability of the present model to predict physical phenomena of the flow oscillations. The unsteady shock wave/boundary layer interaction is described. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Application of direct fluid flow oscillations to improve mixing in microbioreactors

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
X. Li
Abstract This article describes an active mixing method for a microbioreactor that was designed, simulated, tested, and successfully implemented. By applying a varying pressure to a microchannel looping tangentially into a cylindrical microreactor an oscillating fluid flow was shown to occur. Such an oscillating fluid flow improved mixing, both by diffusion and convection. The oscillating fluid flow has a large impact on the ratio between the diffusion domain and the convection domain. A good match was obtained between experimental mixing results, computational fluid dynamics simulation results and the results of a simplified mixing model thus demonstrating the potential of simulation on improving the design of microreactors. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Bimodal Oscillation Frequencies of Blood Flow in the Inflammatory Colon Microcirculation

Akira Tsuda
Abstract Rhythmic changes in blood flow direction have been described in the mucosal plexus of mice with acute colitis. In this report, we studied mice with acute colitis induced either by dextran sodium sulfate or by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Both forms of colitis were associated with blood flow oscillations as documented by fluorescence intravital videomicroscopy. The complex oscillation patterns suggested more than one mechanism for these changes in blood flow. By tracking fluorescent nanoparticles in the inflamed mucosal plexus, we identified two forms of blood flow oscillations within the inflammatory mouse colon. Stable oscillations were associated with a base frequency of approximately 2 cycles/sec. Velocity measurements in the upstream and downstream vessel segments indicated that stable oscillations were the result of regional flow occlusion within the mucosal plexus. In contrast, metastable oscillations demonstrated a lower frequency (0.2,0.4 cycles/sec) and appeared to be the result of flow dynamics in vessels linked by the bridging mucosal vessels. These blood flow oscillations were not directly associated with cardiopulmonary movement. We conclude that both the stable and metasable oscillating patterns reflect flow adaptations to inflammatory changes in the mucosal plexus. Anat Rec, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]