Flow Length (flow + length)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Enhancing the P trapping of pasture filter strips: successes and pitfalls in the use of water supply residue and polyacrylamide

M. R. Redding
Summary In intensive pastoral systems the landscape at ground level is clad in dense, filtering vegetation , yet phosphorus losses in overland flow do occur, and pollution of surface waters is a serious consequence. The use of pre-applied polyacrylamide (PAM) or chitosan to trap particulate phosphorus (PP) and P-sorbing potable water treatment alum residue (PWTR) to enhance vegetative filtering effects is examined here using field and laboratory overland flow simulation (flows from 0.43 to 0.34 litres s,1 (m width),1) and analysis. Fitted equations suggest that up to 40% of dissolved reactive P applied (0.75 mg P litre,1) in overland flow could be captured in a flow length of 2.1 m (1 kg PWTR m,2). Unfortunately, drying decreased PWTR effectiveness, though little of the P captured was readily desorbed. This effect did not appear to be the result of gibbsite formation. Compared with the other treatments, there was a strong treatment effect of pre-applied PAM on the change in PP losses (P < 0.001) over time, though evidence suggests the PAM effect declined during a 44 minute flow period. We showed that the investigated two-pronged approach to the enhancement of the effectiveness of P trapping by pasture had limitations. Laboratory sheet-flow simulations suggest that a field-stable P sorber with sorption characteristics similar to those of the un-dried PWTR could be an effective retention enhancer for dissolved P. Pre-applied PAM can have an effect on particulate-P trapping but was rapidly dissolved and removed by flow. [source]

A Method for Predicting Chloride Concentrations in Leachate at Natural Attenuation Landfills in the Precambrian Shield Regions of Ontario, Canada

Jim Gehrels
Natural attenuation landfill sites continue to be the preferred method of domestic waste disposal in the Precambrian Shield regions of Ontario due to economic factors. The main challenge in siting these landfills is ensuring that there will be no adverse impact on off-site water resources. Impact risk assessments are generally based on estimated volumes and strengths of chloride in the leachate. While volumes can be estimated using simple water balances, peak chloride concentration predictions are based on judgment and are quite variable. Since design chloride strengths dictate the size of the required attenuation zone, overestimating concentrations will typically make it impossible to find a suitable site, while underestimating concentrations increases the potential for adverse off-site impacts occurring. Hydrogeological data from active and closed landfills in the Precambrian Shield region were collected to help develop a reliable method of predicting peak chloride concentrations in leachate. This study focused on 21 sites located on relatively permeable sandy soils since landfills underlain by low permeability clayey soils retain leachate similar to lined facilities. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if source chloride concentrations at the "sand" sites are significantly influenced by waste thickness, fill area, waste volume, waste deposition rate, hydraulic conductivity, upgradient flow length, depth to the water table, and moisture surplus. A strong relationship (R = 0.957) was found to exist between source chloride concentrations and waste volume. This empirical volume versus chloride regression equation can be used as the basis for establishing design chloride concentrations at new natural attenuation landfills developed over sandy soils in the Precambrian Shield regions of Ontario. An alternative risk assessment approach is required for sites developed over clay soils. [source]

Profiling of injection velocity for uniform mold filling

Xi Chen
Abstract Uniform melt front velocity is recommended for injection mold filling to minimize the part nonuniformity. A method of profiling the injection velocity for such a uniform mold filling is presented in this paper. Based on a neural network model developed for estimating the melt flow length from online measurable variables, the profiling problem is transformed into an optimization to minimize the difference between the predicted melt flow length and a given ramp. The rate of the ramp determines the rate of the melt front velocity traveling in the cavity during filling. Experiments with different molds show that the proposed method is effective in profiling the screw injection velocity to achieve a uniform mold filling. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 25: 13,21, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20054 [source]


Glenn E. Moglen
ABSTRACT: The NRCS curve number approach to runoff estimation has traditionally been to average or "lump" spatial variability into a single number for purposes of expediency and simplicity in calculations. In contrast, the weighted runoff curve number approach, which handles each individual pixel within the watershed separately, tends to result in larger estimates of runoff than the lumped approach. This work proposes further enhancements that consider not only spatial variability, but also the orientation of this variability with respect to the flow aggregation pattern of the drainage network. Results show that the proposed enhancements lead to much reduced estimates of runoff production. A revised model that considers overland flow lengths, consistent with existing NRCS concepts is proposed, which leads to only mildly reduced runoff estimates. Although more physically-based, this revised model, which accounts directly for spatially distributed curve numbers and flow aggregation, leads to essentially the same results as the original, lumped runoff model when applied to three study watersheds. Philosophical issues and implications concerning the appropriateness of attempting to disaggregate lumped models are discussed. [source]