Flow Leads (flow + lead)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Impact of wastewater discharge on the channel morphology of ephemeral streams

Marwan A. Hassan
Abstract The impact of wastewater flow on the channel bed morphology was evaluated in four ephemeral streams in Israel and the Palestinian Territories: Nahal Og, Nahal Kidron, Nahal Qeult and Nahal Hebron. Channel changes before, during and after the halting of wastewater flow were monitored. The wastewater flow causes a shift from a dry ephemeral channel with intermittent floods to a continuous flow pattern similar to that of humid areas. Within a few months, nutrient-rich wastewater flow leads to rapid development of vegetation along channel and bars. The colonization of part of the active channel by vegetation increases flow resistance as well as bank and bed stability, and limits sediment availability from bars and other sediment stores along the channels. In some cases the established vegetation covers the entire channel width and halts the transport of bed material along the channel. During low and medium size flood events, bars remain stable and the vegetation intact. Extreme events destroy the vegetation and activate the bars. The wastewater flow results in the development of new small bars, which are usually destroyed by flood flows. Due to the vegetation establishment, the active channel width decreases by up to 700 per cent. The deposition of fine sediment and organic material changed the sediment texture within the stable bar surface and the whole bed surface texture in Nahal Hebron. The recovery of Nahal Og after the halting of the wastewater flow was relatively fast; within two flood seasons the channel almost returned to pre-wastewater characteristics. The results of the study could be used to indicate what would happen if wastewater flows were introduced along natural desert streams. Also, the results could be used to predict the consequences of vegetation removal as a result of human intervention within the active channel of humid streams. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Spring temperatures in the Sagehen Basin, Sierra Nevada, CA: implications for heat flow and groundwater circulation

Abstract Heat flow in the Sierra Nevada, CA, is low despite its young geologic age. We investigate the possibility that advective heat transport by groundwater flow leads to an underestimate of heat flow in the Sierras based purely on borehole measurements. Using temperature and discharge measurements at springs in Sagehen Basin, we find that groundwater removes the equivalent of approximately 20,40 mW m,2 of geothermal heat from the basin. This is comparable with other heat flow measurements in the region and indicates that, in this basin, at least, groundwater does transport a significant amount of geothermal heat within the basin. Additionally, we use estimates of the mean residence time of water discharged at the springs along with hourly temperature records in springs to provide constraints on groundwater flow depths within the basin. An analytical model based on these constraints indicates that the heat removed by groundwater may represent 20% to >90% of the total heat flow in the basin. Without better constraints on the regional hydrogeology and the depth of circulation, we cannot determine whether the heat discharged at the springs represents a change in the mode of heat transfer, i.e. from conduction to advection at shallow depths (<100 m) or whether this is a component of heat transfer that should be added to measured conductive values. If the latter is true, and Sagehen Basin is representative of the Sierras, basal heat flow in the Sierra Nevada may be higher than previously thought. [source]

Instationary aeroelastic computation of yacht sails

Heinrich Schoop
Abstract Effective schemes exist to calculate aerodynamic forces for thin bodies and structural dynamics of flexible membranes. The fluid dynamic of thin wings in a irrotational flow leads to the lifting surface theory. Neglecting the inertia of the membrane the structural dynamics are solved by the non-linear (FEM). But the interaction of flexible membranes and an irrotational flow causes problems due to the different nature of the mathematical equations. On the one hand, there is a partial differential equation for the structural dynamics and on the other hand, there is a singular integral equation for the aerodynamics. The numerical discretization scheme has to fit these different types of equation. Our work introduces a new interaction scheme to couple the singular integral equation of the lifting surface theory with the non-linear FEM of the membrane static. The fundamental examinations, showed by Schoop et al. (International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1998; 41: 217,219), are applied to realistic sail geometries and the aerodynamics is extended to instationary flow conditions. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Towards a quantitative SERS approach , online monitoring of analytes in a microfluidic system with isotope-edited internal standards

Anne März
Abstract In this contribution a new approach for quantitative measurements using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is presented. Combining the application of isotope-edited internal standard with the advantages of the liquid,liquid segmented-flow-based approach for flow-through SERS detection seems to be a promising means for quantitative SERS analysis. For the investigations discussed here a newly designed flow cell, tested for ideal mixing efficiency on the basis of grayscale-value measurements, is implemented. Measurements with the heteroaromatics nicotine and pyridine using their respective deuterated isotopomers as internal standards show that the integration of an isotopically labeled internal standard in the used liquid,liquid two-phase segmented flow leads to reproducible and comparable SERS spectra independent from the used colloid. With the implementation of an internal standard into the microfluidic device the influence of the properties of the colloid on the SERS activity can be compensated. Thus, the problem of a poor batch-to-batch reproducibility of the needed nanoparticle solutions is solved. To the best of our knowledge these are the first measurements combining the above mentioned concepts in order to correct for differences in the enhancement behaviour of the respective colloid. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Phosphatidylcholine Reverses Ethanol-Induced Increase in Transepithelial Endotoxin Permeability and Abolishes Transepithelial Leukocyte Activation

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
Katja Mitzscherling
Background:, Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent transepithelial activation of human leukocytes. Methods:, For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without the addition of CPBS (1.5 mM), PC (0.38 mM), pooled human bile (2%) in combination with ethanol (0 to 66 mM). Results:, Ethanol decreased integrity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayer and enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin. Both the transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes were nearly completely abolished after the apical supplementation of PC with CPBS, but not by CPBS alone. Ethanol up to 66 mM was not able to reverse this effect. Conclusions:, A considerable part of the therapeutic and preventive effect of PC supplementation in ALD might result from a reduction of ethanol-enhanced permeability of endotoxin through the intestinal barrier. [source]

Genetic cholestasis, causes and consequences for hepatobiliary transport

Peter L. M. Jansen
Abstract: Bile salts take part in an efficient enterohepatic circulation in which most of the secreted bile salts are reclaimed by absorption in the terminal ileum. In the liver, the sodium-dependent taurocholate transporter at the basolateral (sinusoidal) membrane and the bile salt export pump at the canalicular membrane mediate hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary secretion of bile salts. Canalicular secretion is the driving force for the enterohepatic cycling of bile salts and most genetic diseases are caused by defects of canalicular secretion. Impairment of bile flow leads to adaptive changes in the expression of transporter proteins and enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 system involved in the metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids. Bile salts act as ligands for transcription factors. As such, they stimulate or inhibit the transcription of genes encoding transporters and enzymes involved in their own metabolism. Together these changes appear to serve mainly a hepatoprotective function. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) results from mutations in various genes encoding hepatobiliary transport proteins. Mutations in the FIC1 gene cause relapsing or permanent cholestasis. The relapsing type of cholestasis is called benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, the permanent type of cholestasis PFIC type 1. PFIC type 2 results from mutations in the bile salt export pump (BSEP) gene. This is associated with permanent cholestasis since birth. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activity is low to normal in PFIC types 1 and 2. Bile diversion procedures, causing a decreased bile salt pool, have a beneficial effect in a number of patients with these diseases. However, liver transplantation is often necessary. PFIC type 3 is caused by mutations in the MDR3 gene. MDR3 is a phospholipid translocator in the canalicular membrane. Because of the inability to secrete phospholipids, patients with PFIC type 3 produce bile acid-rich toxic bile that damages the intrahepatic bile ducts. Serum gamma-GT activity is elevated in these patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy is useful for patients with a partial defect. Liver transplantation is a more definitive therapy for these patients. [source]


Roger G Evans
SUMMARY 1.,It is well established that pressure natriuresis plays a key role in long-term blood pressure regulation, but our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this process is incomplete. 2.,Pressure natriuresis is chiefly mediated by inhibition of tubular sodium reabsorption, because both total renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are efficiently autoregulated. Inhibition of active sodium transport within both the proximal and distal tubules likely makes a contribution. Increased renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) likely inhibits sodium reabsorption by altering passive diffusion through paracellular pathways in ,leaky' tubular elements. 3.,Nitric oxide and products of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism are key signalling mechanisms in pressure natriuresis, although their precise roles remain to be determined. 4.,The key unresolved question is, how is increased renal artery pressure ,sensed' by the kidney? One proposal rests on the notion that blood flow in the renal medulla is poorly autoregulated, so that increased renal artery pressure leads to increased renal medullary blood flow (MBF), which, in turn, leads to increased RIHP. An alternative proposal is that the process of autoregulation of renal blood flow leads to increased shear stress in the preglomerular vasculature and, so, release of nitric oxide and perhaps products of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism, which, in turn, drive the cascade of events that inhibit sodium reabsorption. 5.,Central to the arguments underlying these opposing hypotheses is the extent to which MBF is autoregulated. This remains highly controversial, largely because of the limitations of presently available methods for measurement of MBF. [source]