Flow Instabilities (flow + instability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

In situ Pressure Fluctuations of Polymer Melt Flow Instabilities: Experimental Evidence about their Origin and Dynamics

Humberto Palza
Abstract Despite the practical importance of polymer melt instabilities, there is still a lack of experiments able to characterize in situ the origin and behavior of these phenomena. In this context, a new set-up consisting of high sensitive pressure transducers located inside a slit-die and an advanced mathematical framework to process in situ measurements of polymer melt instabilities, are developed and applied. Our results show for the first time that pressure oscillations can actually be detected inside the die under sharkskin conditions. This originates from a factor of 103 and 102 improvement in terms of time and pressure resolution. Furthermore, new evidence towards the propagation of the slip phenomena along the die in spurt instabilities are found. [source]

Finite element and sensitivity analysis of thermally induced flow instabilities

Jean-Serge Gigučre
Abstract This paper presents a finite element algorithm for the simulation of thermo-hydrodynamic instabilities causing manufacturing defects in injection molding of plastic and metal powder. Mold-filling parameters determine the flow pattern during filling, which in turn influences the quality of the final part. Insufficiently, well-controlled operating conditions may generate inhomogeneities, empty spaces or unusable parts. An understanding of the flow behavior will enable manufacturers to reduce or even eliminate defects and improve their competitiveness. This work presents a rigorous study using numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis. The problem is modeled by the Navier,Stokes equations, the energy equation and a generalized Newtonian viscosity model. The solution algorithm is applied to a simple flow in a symmetrical gate geometry. This problem exhibits both symmetrical and non-symmetrical solutions depending on the values taken by flow parameters. Under particular combinations of operating conditions, the flow was stable and symmetric, while some other combinations leading to large thermally induced viscosity gradients produce unstable and asymmetric flow. Based on the numerical results, a stability chart of the flow was established, identifying the boundaries between regions of stable and unstable flow in terms of the Graetz number (ratio of thermal conduction time to the convection time scale) and B, a dimensionless ratio indicating the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature changes. Sensitivities with respect to flow parameters are then computed using the continuous sensitivity equations method. We demonstrate that sensitivities are able to detect the transition between the stable and unstable flow regimes and correctly indicate how parameters should change in order to increase the stability of the flow. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Buffeting in transonic flow prediction using time-dependent turbulence model

A. Kourta
Abstract In transonic flow conditions, the shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction and flow separations on wing upper surface induce flow instabilities, ,buffet', and then the buffeting (structure vibrations). This phenomenon can greatly influence the aerodynamic performance. These flow excitations are self-sustained and lead to a surface effort due to pressure fluctuations. They can produce enough energy to excite the structure. The objective of the present work is to predict this unsteady phenomenon correctly by using unsteady Navier,Stokes-averaged equations with a time-dependent turbulence model based on the suitable (k,,) turbulent eddy viscosity model. The model used is based on the turbulent viscosity concept where the turbulent viscosity coefficient (C,) is related to local deformation and rotation rates. To validate this model, flow over a flat plate at Mach number of 0.6 is first computed, then the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil. The comparison with the analytical and experimental results shows a good agreement. The ONERA OAT15A transonic airfoil was chosen to describe buffeting phenomena. Numerical simulations are done by using a Navier,Stokes SUPG (streamline upwind Petrov,Galerkin) finite-element solver. Computational results show the ability of the present model to predict physical phenomena of the flow oscillations. The unsteady shock wave/boundary layer interaction is described. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Numerical investigation of the first instabilities in the differentially heated 8:1 cavity

F. Auteri
Abstract We present a new Galerkin,Legendre spectral projection solver for the simulation of natural convection in a differentially heated cavity. The projection method is applied to the study of the first non-stationary instabilities of the flow in a 8:1 cavity. Statistics of the periodic solution are reported for a Rayleigh number of 3.4×105. Moreover, we investigate the location and properties of the first Hopf bifurcation and of the three successive bifurcations. The results confirm the previous finding in the range of Rayleigh numbers investigated that the flow instabilities originate in the boundary layer on the vertical walls. A peculiar phenomenon of symmetry breaking and symmetry restoring is observed portraying the first steps of the transition to chaos for this flow. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A general methodology for investigating flow instabilities in complex geometries: application to natural convection in enclosures

E. Gadoin
Abstract This paper presents a general methodology for studying instabilities of natural convection flows enclosed in cavities of complex geometry. Different tools have been developed, consisting of time integration of the unsteady equations, steady state solving, and computation of the most unstable eigenmodes of the Jacobian and its adjoint. The methodology is validated in the classical differentially heated cavity, where the steady solution branch is followed for vary large values of the Rayleigh number and most unstable eigenmodes are computed at selected Rayleigh values. Its effectiveness for complex geometries is illustrated on a configuration consisting of a cavity with internal heated partitions. We finally propose to reduce the Navier,Stokes equations to a differential system by expanding the unsteady solution as the sum of the steady state solution and of a linear combination of the leading eigenmodes. The principle of the method is exposed and preliminary results are presented. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effect of inlet subcooling on two-phase flow instabilities in a horizontal pipe system with augmented surfaces

Abstract This research has been conducted to investigate the effect of inlet subcooling on two-phase flow instabilities in a horizontal pipe system with augmented surfaces. Five different inlet temperatures are used to study the effect of inlet subcooling for five different heat transfer surface configurations. All experiments are carried out at constant heat input, system pressure and exit restriction. The effect of inlet subcooling on the steady-state characteristics and two-phase flow instabilities are studied for each configuration. The bound aries for the appearance of pressure-drop-type and density-wave-type instabilities are found and the effect of the inlet subcooling on these oscillations is studied for each configuration. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Role of processing aids in the extrusion of molten polymers,

E. C. Achilleos
Product quality and, in general, processing windows and rates of production in the extrusion of molten polymers are limited by various flow instabilities (mainly melt fracture) that are observed at high production rates. While there still are unresolved issues in comprehending these phenomena, industry demands for process optimization dictate the employment of processing aids (PAs) for product quality improvement and energy requirement reduction. In this review paper, most commercially used processing aids (PAs) are discussed, namely, fluoroelastomers, stearates, small amounts of polymers blended with the process polymer, and the newly discovered boron nitride as pure and in combination with other fluoroelastomers. This paper focuses on the appropriate and optimum usage of the various PAs as well as on the mechanism that underlies their action for flow enhancement and instability elimination. Finally, numerous experimental observations are discussed, and several examples are illustrated. [source]

Relative viscosity models and their application to capillary flow data of highly filled hard-metal carbide powder compounds

Tomas Honek
The rheological behavior of highly filled polymer systems used in powder injection molding (PIM) technology strongly influences the final properties of the products. In this study, the capillary flow data of multi-component polymer binders,based on polyethylene, paraffin, ethylene-based copolymers, and polyethylene glycol,compounded with three various hard-metal carbide powders were employed. The rheology of such highly filled (up to 50 vol%) multiphase systems is necessarily a complex phenomenon characterized by strain dependent, non-Newtonian properties complicated by flow instabilities and yield. Over 15 mathematical models proposed for highly filled systems were tested, some of them calculating the maximum filler loading. Due to the complex structure of the filler (irregular shape, particle size distribution) and a multi-component character of the binder, the applicability of these models varied with the powder-binder systems studied. However, the particular values of maximum loadings are in good accordance with the predictions based on powder characteristics. Simple modification of Frankel-Acrivos model to the systems containing unimodal hard-metal carbide powders with particles of an irregular shape and broad particle size distribution gave precise agreement between experimental data and model prediction. POLYM. COMPOS., 26:29,36, 2005. © 2004 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source]

Global flow instability in a lid-driven cavity

V. B. L. Boppana
Abstract The stability of flow in a lid-driven cavity is investigated using an accurate numerical technique based on a hybrid scheme with spectral collocation and high-order finite differences. A global stability analysis is carried out and critical parameters are identified for various aspect ratios. It is found that while there is reasonable agreement with the literature for the critical parameters leading to loss of stability for the square cavity, there are significant discrepancies for cavities of aspect ratios 1.5 and 2. Simulations of the linearized unsteady equations confirm the results from the global stability analysis for aspect ratios A = 1, 1.5 and A = 2. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of stereoregularity of polypropylene on flow instability in capillary extrusion

Makoto Suzuki
Abstract Rheological responses in capillary flow extrusion for syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) are studied along with the linear viscoelastic properties. It is found that sPP produced by a metallocene catalyst shows a high level of the onset shear stress for flow instability as compared with conventional isotactic polypropylene. This should enable operation of extrusion processing at high output rates. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:185,191, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20159 [source]

Performance enhancement of a chemical reactor utilizing flow instability,

Mohammad F Kabir
Abstract A detailed analysis has been performed for a heterogeneous photocatalytic Taylor vortex reactor that uses flow instability to recirculate fluid continually from the vicinity of the rotating inner cylindrical surface to the stationary outer cylindrical surface of an annulus. A comprehensive time accurate computation shows the different stages of flow evolution and the effects of finite length of the reactor in creating eddies, the overall effects of which shows very high efficiency of photocatalytic conversion. The physical arrangement considered is such that pollutant degradation is maximized by a combination of the Controlled Periodic Illumination (CPI) effect and the motion of fluid particles in a specific regime of centrifugal instability. © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effect of diatomite/polyethylene glycol binary processing aid on the melt fracture and the rheology of polyethylenes

Xiaolong Liu
The influence of polyethylene (PE) glycol (PEG), diatomite, and diatomite/PEG binary processing aid (BPA) on the rheological properties and the sharkskin melt fracture of three PEs was studied using a capillary rheometer. When diatomite or PEG is added to the PE matrix, they have little effect on the viscosity reduction of PEs, while the diatomite/PEG BPA shows a synergetic effect on the viscosity reduction of PEs. The incorporation of small amount of BPA was found to increase the shear-thinning behavior and decrease the melt viscosity significantly. Meanwhile, the critical apparent shear rate for the onset of sharkskin melt fracture of PEs is increased. The mechanism for BPA to improve the rheological properties and the melt flow instability of PEs was discussed. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 45:898,903, 2005. © 2005 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Slot die coating of dilute suspensions

Yi-Tsun Lin
Abstract An experimental study was carried out to investigate slot die coating of dilute suspensions. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles of different sizes were added to glycerol solutions as test fluids. The coating flow experiment was performed on a lab coater. The operating window, which is a domain in which only a stable and uniform coating solution is possible, was determined experimentally. It was found that adding particles has little effect on the physical properties of glycerol solutions, as only the fluid viscosity increases slightly. Two coating defects are commonly observed; ribbing which is caused by flow instability refers to lateral waves on the coated surface, and air entrainment which implies that air bubbles are trapped in the coating solution. Adding particles has little effect on the operating window if the coating defect is ribbing. However, the operating window can be expanded substantially if the coating defect is air entrainment. Higher the particle concentration, or the smaller the particle size, more significant is the expansion of the operating window. The maximum coating speed may increase to 80% for high suspension particle density number. A previous study reported that there exists an optimal particle size which has the largest operating window for a given pure solution; this was not found in the present work. Copyright © 2008 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]