Flow Injection (flow + injection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Flow Injection

  • flow injection analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Routine Analyses of Trace Elements in Geological Samples using Flow Injection and Low Pressure On-Line Liquid Chromatography Coupled to ICP-MS: A Study of Geochemical Reference Materials BR, DR-N, UB-N, AN-G and GH

    Jean Carignan
    géostandards; éléments traces; flow injection; chromatographie liquide; ICP-MS We describe analytical procedures for trace element determinations developed at the CNRS Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) and report results obtained for five geochemical reference materials: basalt BR, diorite DR-N, serpentinite UB-N, anorthosite AN-G and granite GH. Results for rare earth elements, U and Th are also reported for other reference materials including dunite DTS-1, peridotite PCC-1 and basalt BIR-1. All rocks were decomposed using alkali fusion. Analyses were done by flow injection ICP-MS and by on-line low pressure liquid chromatography (LC)-ICP-MS for samples containing very low REE, U and Th concentrations. This latter method yielded limits of determination much lower than data by direct introduction and eliminated possible isobaric interference on these elements. Although results agree with most of the working values, when available, results for some elements differed slightly from the recommended concentrations. In these cases, we propose new values for Co, Y and Zn in basalt BR, Zr in diorite DR-N, Sr and U in granite GH, and Ga and Y in anorthosite AN-G. Furthermore, although the Sb concentration measured in AN-G was very close to our limit of determination, our value (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) is much lower than the reported working value of 1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1. These new values would need to be confirmed by a new inter-laboratory programme to further characterise these reference materials. Results obtained for REE, Th and U concentrations using the on-line low pressure LC-ICP-MS yielded good limits of determination (ng g,1to sub-ng g,1for rocks and ng l,1to sub-ng l,1for natural waters) and accurate results. The efficiency of the matrix separation allowed accurate measurements of Eu without the need to correct the BaO isobaric interference for samples having Ba/Eu ratios as high as 27700. For REE concentrations in PCC-1 and DTS-1, differences with values reported in the literature are interpreted as resulting from possible heterogeneity of the reference materials. Thorium and U values are proposed for these two samples, as well as for AN-G and UB-N. Nous rapportons les procédures d'analyse pour les éléments traces développées au Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) du CNRS et les résultats obtenus pour 5 géostandards: le basalte BR, la diorite DR-N, la serpentinite UB-N, l'anorthosite AN-G et le granite GH. Des résultats obtenus pour les Terres Rares (REE), l'uranium et le thorium sont aussi rapportés pour d'autres matériaux de référence tels que la dunite DTS-1, la péridotite PCC-1 et le basalte BIR-1. Les roches ont été décomposées par fusion alcaline. Les analyses ont été faites par Flow Injection ICP-MS et par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS pour les très faibles teneurs en REE, U et Th. Cette dernière méthode permet d'avoir une meilleure limite de détermination que celle par introduction directe et d'éliminer certaines interférences isobariques sur ces éléments. Bien que, dans la majorité des cas, nous ayons mesuré les valeurs de référence telles que rapportées dans la littérature, certaines concentrations mesurées diffèrent légèrement des valeurs recommandées. Ainsi, nous proposons de nouvelles valeurs de Co, Y et Zn pour le basalte BR, de Zr pour la diorite DR-N, de Sr et U pour le granite GH et de Ga et Y pour l'anorthosite AN-G. De plus, bien que la concentration en Sb mesurée pour AN-G soit très proche de notre limite de détermination, notre valeur (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) est bien inférieure à celle rapportée dans la littérature (1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1). Ces nouvelles valeurs devraient être confirmées par une nouvelle campagne de caractérisation inter laboratoire pour ces géostandards. Les résultats obtenus pour les REE, U et Th par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS sont justes et livrent des limites de détermination faibles au niveau du ng g,1à sub-ng g,1pour les roches et ng l,1à sub-ng l,1pour les eaux naturelles. La séparation de la matrice est efficace et permet une mesure juste de Eu sans correction d'interférence générée par l'oxyde de Ba, et ce même pour des échantillons possédant des rapports Ba/Eu très élevés, de l'ordre de 27700. Les concentrations en REE mesurées pour les échantillons PCC-1 et DTS-1 peuvent être significativement différentes de celle rapportées dans la littérature, probablement à cause d'une hétérogénéité de ces échantillons. Des valeurs de concentrations en U et Th sont proposées pour ces deux échantillons ainsi que pour AN-G et UB-N. [source]

    Pulsed Amperometric Detection of Histamine at Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Gold Nanoparticles

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 4 2005
    V. Carralero
    Abstract Gold nanocrystal-modified glassy carbon electrodes (nAu-GCE) were prepared and used for the determination of histamine by flow injection and high performance liquid chromatography using pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) as the detection mode. Experimental variables involved in the electrodeposition process of gold from a HAuCl4 solution were optimized. A catalytic enhancement of the histamine voltammetric response was observed at the nAu-GCE when compared with that obtained at a conventional Au disk electrode, as a consequence of the microdispersion of gold nanocrystals on the GC substrate. The morphological and electrochemical characteristics of the nAu-GCE were evaluated by SEM and cyclic voltammetry. PAD using a very simple potential waveform consisting of an anodic potential (+700,mV for 500,ms) and a cathodic potential (,300,mV for 30,ms), was used to avoid the electrode surface fouling when histamine was detected under flowing conditions. Flow injection amperometric responses showed much higher Ip values and signal-to-noise ratios at the nAu-GCE than at a conventional gold disk electrode. A limit of detection of 6×10,7,mol L,1 histamine was obtained. HPLC-PAD at the nAu-GCE was used for the determination of histamine in the presence of other biogenic amines and indole. Histamine was determined in sardine samples spiked at a 50,,g g,1 concentration level, with good results. Furthermore, the chromatographic PAD method was also used for monitoring the formation of histamine during the decomposition process of sardine samples. [source]

    The combination of flow injection with electrophoresis using capillaries and chips

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 1 2009
    Wen-juan Lü
    Abstract The technique of combined flow injection CE (FI-CE) integrates the essential favorable merits of FI and CE. It utilizes the various excellent on-line sample pretreatments and preconcentration (such as cloud point extraction, SPE, ion-exchange, dynamic pH junction and head-column field-amplified sample stacking technique) of FI, which has the advantages of high speed, accuracy, precision and avoiding manual handling of sample and reagents. Therefore, the coupling of FI-CE is an attractive technique; it can significantly expand the application of CE and has achieved many publications since its first appearance. The basic principles, instrumental developments and applications of FI-CE system from 2006 to 2008 are reviewed. [source]

    Arbutin determination in medicinal plants and creams

    W. Thongchai
    Synopsis A simple flow injection (FI) manifold with spectrophotometric detection was fabricated and tested for arbutin determination. It is based on the measurement of a red-coloured product at 514 nm formed by the complexation reaction between arbutin and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP) in the presence of hexacyanoferrate (III) in an alkaline medium. On injecting 300 ,L standard solutions at various concentrations of arbutin into the FI system under optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph over the range of 1.0,30.0 ,g mL,1 arbutin was established. It is expressed by the regression equation y = 0.2188 ± 0.0036x + 0.1019 ± 0.0366 (r2 = 0.9990, n = 5). The detection limit (3,) and the limit of quantitation (10,) were 0.04 ,g mL,1 and 0.13 ,g mL,1, respectively. The RSD of intraday and interday precisions were found to be 1.2,1.4% and 1.7,2.7%, respectively. The method was successfully applied in the determination of arbutin in four selected fruits and three commercial whitening cream extracts with the mean recoveries of the added arbutin over the range of 96.2,99.0%. No interference effects from some common excipients used in commercial whitening creams were observed. The method is simple, rapid, selective, accurate, reproducible and relatively inexpensive. Résumé Un collecteur simple pour injection en flux (FI) avec détection spectrométrique a été fabriqué et testé pour le dosage de l'arbutine. Son principe repose sur la mesure à 514 nm du produit rouge formé par la réaction de complexation entre l'arbutine et le 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP) en présence d'hexacyanoferrate (III) en milieu alcalin. On procède à une injection de 300 ,L des solutions standards à diverses concentrations d'arbutine dans le système FI aux conditions optimales, puis on réalise un graphe de calibration linéaire dans l'intervalle de 1,0 à 30,0 ,g mL,1 d'arbutine. Le graphe correspond à l'équation de régression y = 0.2188 ± 0.0036x + 0.1019 ± 0.0366 (r2 = 0.9990, n = 5). La limite de détection (3,) et la limite de quantification (10,) sont respectivement de 0.04 ,g mL,1 et 0.13 ,g mL,1. La RSD des précisions intra et inter jours sont respectivement de 1.2,1.4% et 1.7,2.7%. La méthode a été appliquée avec succès à la mesure de l'arbutine dans 4 fruits sélectionnés et 3 extraits de crèmes de blanchiment commercialisées avec une recouvrance moyenne de l'arbutine ajoutée de 96.2 à 99%. Aucune interférence avec les excipients communément utilisés dans les crèmes de blanchiment commerciales n'a été observée. La méthode est simple, rapide, sélective, précise, reproductible et relativement bon marché. [source]

    Synthesis and stability study of dental monomers containing methacrylamidoethyl phosphonic acids

    Xiaoming Xu
    Abstract Three new dental monomers containing methacrylamidoethyl phosphonic acids were synthesized. The structures of the synthesized monomers were determined with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS), Fourier transform infrared, and NMR. The hydrolytic stabilities of the synthesized monomers and a commercial monomer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphoric acid (MEP; used as a control), were studied with flow injection (FI)/ESMS, 1H NMR, and 31P NMR analysis of a CD3OD/D2O (4:1 v/v) solution of each monomer before and after storage at 60 °C for 2 months. The 1H NMR and 31P NMR chemical shifts of the monomers 2-methacrylamidoethylphosphonic acid (I) and N,N,-[4,4,-(propane-2,2-diyl)-bis(phenoxy-2-hydroxypropyl)]-bis(2-methacrylamidoethylphosphonic acid) (II) showed little change after storage at 60 °C for 2 months, but those of MEP changed significantly. FI/ESMS also showed that MEP was nearly completely decomposed, whereas monomers I and II remained largely intact. MEP could react with H2ZrF6 to form ternary zirconium fluoride complexes that were partially soluble in methanol, but all the monomers containing phosphonic acids formed precipitates. This study demonstrates that ESMS is a more sensitive and effective method than NMR for studying the hydrolytic stability or degradation of dental monomers. The new monomers containing methacrylamidoethyl phosphonic acids have higher hydrolytic stability than methacrylate phosphate monomers and may be used in dental bonding agents and other dental materials. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 99,110, 2007 [source]

    Ultrasensitive assay of clindamycin in medicine and bio-fluids with chemiluminescence detection

    Gaili Wei
    Abstract A simple chemiluminescence (CL) method using flow injection has been developed for the determination of clindamycin, based on the inhibitory effect of clindamycin on the CL generated from the luminol,K3Fe(CN)6 system in alkaline medium. It was found that the decrement of CL intensity was linear with the logarithm of clindamycin concentration over the range 0.7,1000 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.2 ng/mL with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <5.0% (n = 7). At a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min, a complete analytical process could be performed within 0.5 min, including sampling and washing. The proposed procedure was applied successfully to the determination of clindamycin in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine without pretreatment. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Determination of iodide using flow injection with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

    Mohammad Yaqoob
    Abstract A simple and rapid flow-injection method is described for the determination of iodide, based on potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection via oxidation of formaldehyde in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The calibration graph was linear over the range 1.0,12 × 10,6 mol/L (r2 = 0.9955) with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0,3.5%. The detection limit (3,) was 1.0 × 10,7 mol/L, with sample throughput of 120/h. The effect of interfering cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II)] and anions (Cl,, SO42,, PO43,, NO3,, NO2,, F, and SO32,) were studied. The method was applied to iodized salt samples and the results obtained in the range 0.03 ± 0.005,0.10 ± 0.006 mg I/g were in reasonable agreement with the amount labelled. The method was statistically compared with the results obtained by titration; no significant disagreement at 95% confidence was observed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Flow injection analysis of tetracyclines using inhibited Ru(bpy)32+/tripropylamine electrochemiluminescence system

    Yong-Qiang Pang
    Abstract Tetracyclines (TCs) were found to strongly inhibit the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) from the Ru(bpy)32+,tripropylamine system when a working Pt electrode was maintained at 1.05 V (vs. Ag[sol ]AgCl) in pH 8.0 carbonate buffer solution. On this basis, a flow injection (FI) procedure with inhibited electrochemiluminescence detection has been developed for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). Under the optimized condition, the linear ranges of 2.0 × 10,8,1.0 × 10,5 and 1.0 × 10,8,1.0 × 10,5 g[sol ]mL and the detection limits of 4.0 × 10,9 and 3.8 × 10,9 g[sol ]mL were obtained for TC and OTC, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were 0.68% and 1.18% for 5.0 × 10,7 g[sol ]mL TC and OTC (n = 13), respectively. The method showed higher sensitivity than most of the reported methods. It was successfully applied to the determination of tetracycline in a Chinese proprietary medicine, Tetracyclini and Cortisone Eye Ointment, and the residues of tetracycline in honey products. The inhibition mechanism has been proposed due to an energy transfer between electrogenerated Ru(bpy)32+* and benzoquinone derivatives at the electrode surface. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Electrospray ionisation with selected reaction monitoring for the determination of Mn-citrate, Fe-citrate, Cu-citrate and Zn-citrate

    Volker Nischwitz
    Citrate complexes of Mn and Fe, and potentially those of Cu and Zn, are considered as important low molecular mass species in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). For example, Mn is supposed to enter the brain under excess exposure as Mn-citrate leading to neurotoxic effects. Mn-citrate has been characterised in human CSF using chromatography and electrophoresis online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, but not yet with molecular mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study explores the potential of electrospray ionisation (ESI) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for the detection of metal-citrate complexes, in particular Mn-citrate. The collision-induced dissociation of precursor ions with various metal:citrate stoichiometries was studied for Mn-citrate, Fe-citrate, Cu-citrate and Zn-citrate. High selectivity was achieved for Mn(II)-citrate even in respect to Fe(III)-citrate which forms isobaric precursor ions. The limit of detection for Mn-citrate was estimated to be around 250,µg,L,1 (referring to the total Mn content in the standard) using flow injection. The sensitivity was sufficient for the determination of Mn-citrate in standard solutions and in an extract of an Mn-citrate-containing supplement. An improved ESI source design is expected to reduce the limits of detection significantly. The developed ESI-SRM method has the potential to provide complementary data for the quality control of current separation methods for metal citrates using element-selective detection, with application to biomedical samples and further matrices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]