Flow Estimates (flow + estimate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Composite adaptive and input observer-based approaches to the cylinder flow estimation in spark ignition automotive engines

A. Stotsky
Abstract The performance of air charge estimation algorithms in spark ignition automotive engines can be enhanced using advanced estimation techniques available in the controls literature. This paper illustrates two approaches of this kind that can improve the cylinder flow estimation for gasoline engines without external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first approach is based on an input observer, while the second approach relies on an adaptive estimator. Assuming that the cylinder flow is nominally estimated via a speed-density calculation, and that the uncertainty is additive to the volumetric efficiency, the straightforward application of an input observer provides an easy to implement algorithm that corrects the nominal air flow estimate. The experimental results that we report in the paper point to a sufficiently good transient behaviour of the estimator. The signal quality may deteriorate, however, for extremely fast transients. This motivates the development of an adaptive estimator that relies mostly on the feedforward speed-density calculation during transients, while during engine operation close to steady-state conditions, it relies mostly on the adaptation. In our derivation of the adaptive estimator, the uncertainty is modelled as an unknown parameter multiplying the intake manifold temperature. We use the tracking error between the measured and modelled intake manifold pressure together with an appropriately defined prediction error estimate to develop an adaptation algorithm with improved identifiability and convergence rate. A robustness enhancement, via a ,-modification with the ,-factor depending on the prediction error estimate, ensures that in transients the parameter estimate converges to a pre-determined a priori value. In close to steady-state conditions, the ,-modification is rendered inactive and the evolution of the parameter estimate is determined by both tracking error and prediction error estimate. Further enhancements are made by incorporating a functional dependence of the a priori value on the engine operating conditions such as the intake manifold pressure. The coefficients of this function can be learned during engine operation from the values to which the parameter estimate converges in close to steady-state conditions. This feedforward learning functionality improves transient estimation accuracy and reduces the convergence time of the parameter estimate. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Influence of the Orifice Inlet Angle on the Velocity Profile Across a Flow Convergence Region by Color Doppler In Vitro

Martin Giesler M.D.
The converging flow field proximal to a leaking valve is determined among other things by the orifice inlet angle formed by the leaflets. Thus, the inlet angle affects the determination of regurgitant flow rate by the flow convergence method. Based on the hypothesis of spheric isovelocity surfaces, others had postulated that a local velocity within the flow convergence should change inversely proportional to changes in the three-dimensional inlet angle. This concept would allow correction of the determination of regurgitant flow for nonplanar orifice inlet angles. We tested this concept in vitro. In a flow model, the flow convergence region proximal to different orifice plates was imaged by color Doppler: funnel-shaped, planar and tip-shaped (inverted funnels) orifice plates, with circular orifices of 2- and 7-mm diameter. Velocity profiles across the flow convergence along the flow centerline were read from the color maps. As predicted, the local velocities were inversely related to the inlet angle, but only at the 2-mm funnel orifices, this effect was inversely proportional to the three-dimensional inlet angle (i.e., in agreement with the mentioned concept). However, for any 7-mm orifice and/or inlet angle of > 180, the effect of the inlet angle was considerably less than predicted by the aforementioned concept. With increasing orifice diameter and with decreasing distance to the orifice, the effect of the orifice inlet angle was reduced. The effect of the orifice inlet angle on the flow convergence region is modulated by orifice size and the distance to the orifice. Therefore, correction of flow estimates in proportion to the three-dimensional inlet angle will lead to considerable errors in most situations of clinical relevance, namely to massive overcorrection when analyzing velocities located close to wide orifices. [source]

Optimizing dispersal and corridor models using landscape genetics

Summary 1Better tools are needed to predict population connectivity in complex landscapes. ,Least-cost modelling' is one commonly employed approach in which dispersal costs are assigned to distinct habitat types and the least-costly dispersal paths among habitat patches are calculated using a geographical information system (GIS). Because adequate data on dispersal are usually lacking, dispersal costs are often assigned solely from expert opinion. Spatially explicit, high-resolution genetic data may be used to infer variation in animal movements. We employ such an approach to estimate habitat-specific migration rates and to develop least-cost connectivity models for desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis nelsoni. 2Bighorn sheep dispersal is thought to be affected by distance and topography. We incorporated both factors into least-cost GIS models with different parameter values and estimated effective geographical distances among 26 populations. We assessed which model was correlated most strongly with gene flow estimates among those populations, while controlling for the effect of anthropogenic barriers. We used the best-fitting model to (i) determine whether migration rates are higher over sloped terrain than flat terrain; (ii) predict probable movement corridors; (iii) predict which populations are connected by migration; and (iv) investigate how anthropogenic barriers and translocated populations have affected landscape connectivity. 3Migration models were correlated most strongly with migration when areas of at least 10% slope had 1/10th the cost of areas of lower slope; thus, gene flow occurred over longer distances when ,escape terrain' was available. Optimal parameter values were consistent across two measures of gene flow and three methods for defining population polygons. 4Anthropogenic barriers disrupted numerous corridors predicted to be high-use dispersal routes, indicating priority areas for mitigation. However, population translocations have restored high-use dispersal routes in several other areas. Known intermountain movements of bighorn sheep were largely consistent with predicted corridors. 5Synthesis and applications. Population genetic data provided sufficient resolution to infer how landscape features influenced the behaviour of dispersing desert bighorn sheep. Anthropogenic barriers that block high-use dispersal corridors should be mitigated, but population translocations may help maintain connectivity. We conclude that developing least-cost models from similar empirical data could significantly improve the utility of these tools. [source]

Population genetics of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

C. Grunwald
Abstract Shortnose sturgeon is an anadromous North American acipenserid that since 1973 has been designated as federally endangered in US waters. Historically, shortnose sturgeon occurred in as many as 19 rivers from the St. John River, NB, to the St. Johns River, FL, and these populations ranged in census size from 101 to 104, but little is known of their population structure or levels of gene flow. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequence analysis of a 440 bp portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region to address these issues and to compare haplotype diversity with population size. Twenty-nine mtDNA nucleotide-substitution haplotypes were revealed among 275 specimens from 11 rivers and estuaries. Additionally, mtDNA length variation (6 haplotypes) and heteroplasmy (2,5 haplotypes for some individuals) were found. Significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.05) of mtDNA nucleotide-substitution haplotypes and length-variant haplotypes was observed among populations from all rivers and estuaries surveyed with the exception of the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay collections. Significant haplotype differentiation was even observed between samples from two rivers (Kennebec and Androscoggin) within the Kennebec River drainage. The absence of haplotype frequency differences between samples from the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay reflects a probable current absence of spawning within the Chesapeake Bay system and immigration of fish from the adjoining Delaware River. Haplotypic diversity indices ranged between 0.817 and 0.641; no relationship (P > 0.05) was found between haplotype diversity and census size. Gene flow estimates among populations were often low (< 2.0), but were generally higher at the latitudinal extremes of their distribution. A moderate level of haplotype diversity and a high percentage (37.9%) of haplotypes unique to the northern, once-glaciated region suggests that northern populations survived the Pleistocene in a northern refugium. Analysis of molecular variance best supported a five-region hierarchical grouping of populations, but our results indicate that in almost all cases populations of shortnose sturgeon should be managed as separate units. [source]

Patterns of population subdivision, gene flow and genetic variability in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)

D. J. Girman
Abstract African wild dogs are large, highly mobile carnivores that are known to disperse over considerable distances and are rare throughout much of their geographical range. Consequently, genetic variation within and differentiation between geographically separated populations is predicted to be minimal. We determined the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and microsatellite loci in seven populations of African wild dogs. Analysis of mtDNA nucleotide diversity suggests that, historically, wild dog populations have been small relative to other large carnivores. However, population declines due to recent habitat loss have not caused a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity. We found one historical and eight recent mtDNA genotypes in 280 individuals that defined two highly divergent clades. In contrast to a previous, more limited, mtDNA analysis, sequences from these clades are not geographically restricted to eastern or southern African populations. Rather, we found a large admixture zone spanning populations from Botswana, Zimbabwe and south-eastern Tanzania. Mitochondrial and microsatellite differentiation between populations was significant and unique mtDNA genotypes and alleles characterized the populations. However, gene flow estimates (Nm) based on microsatellite data were generally greater than one migrant per generation. In contrast, gene flow estimates based on the mtDNA control region were lower than expected given differences in the mode of inheritance of mitochondrial and nuclear markers which suggests a male bias in long-distance dispersal. [source]