Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Alone

  • acid alone
  • administered alone
  • administration alone
  • age alone
  • agent alone
  • amlodipine alone
  • analysis alone
  • antagonist alone
  • antibiotics alone
  • antibody alone
  • antigen alone
  • aspirin alone
  • assessment alone
  • asthma alone
  • biopsy alone
  • body size alone
  • bortezomib alone
  • bupivacaine alone
  • c alone
  • care alone
  • ccl4 alone
  • cell alone
  • chance alone
  • chemical alone
  • chemotherapy alone
  • component alone
  • condition alone
  • control alone
  • corticosteroid alone
  • criterioN alone
  • culture alone
  • d alone
  • data alone
  • depression alone
  • dexamethasone alone
  • diet alone
  • disease alone
  • disorder alone
  • domain alone
  • drainage alone
  • drug alone
  • dye alone
  • effect alone
  • effects alone
  • ethanol alone
  • evidence alone
  • examination alone
  • excimer laser alone
  • excision alone
  • exercise alone
  • exposure alone
  • expression alone
  • extract alone
  • factor alone
  • feature alone
  • flap alone
  • frequency alone
  • g-csf alone
  • gene alone
  • glucose alone
  • group alone
  • groups alone
  • h2o2 alone
  • home alone
  • ibuprofen alone
  • ii alone
  • imaging alone
  • infection alone
  • information alone
  • inhibitor alone
  • injection alone
  • injury alone
  • insulin alone
  • interferon alone
  • intervention alone
  • irradiation alone
  • laser alone
  • let alone
  • level alone
  • light alone
  • management alone
  • marker alone
  • mass alone
  • measure alone
  • measurement alone
  • medical therapy alone
  • medium alone
  • melatonin alone
  • method alone
  • morphology alone
  • mri alone
  • mtx alone
  • mutation alone
  • observation alone
  • odour alone
  • oil alone
  • oxytocin alone
  • pancreas transplant alone
  • parameter alone
  • particle alone
  • pattern alone
  • peptide alone
  • polymorphism alone
  • procedure alone
  • protein alone
  • radiation alone
  • radiotherapy alone
  • resection alone
  • rhinitis alone
  • rt alone
  • saline alone
  • score alone
  • sequence alone
  • sign alone
  • size alone
  • solution alone
  • species alone
  • steroid alone
  • stimulation alone
  • stimulus alone
  • structure alone
  • supplementation alone
  • surgery alone
  • tamoxifen alone
  • tau alone
  • technique alone
  • temperature alone
  • test alone
  • thalidomide alone
  • therapy alone
  • time alone
  • transplant alone
  • transplantation alone
  • trauma alone
  • treatment alone
  • ultrasound alone
  • usa alone
  • use alone
  • used alone
  • vaccine alone
  • value alone
  • variable alone
  • vector alone
  • vehicle alone
  • water alone
  • weight alone

  • Terms modified by Alone

  • alone group
  • alone result

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 476 2002
    Branko Milanovic
    The paper derives world income or expenditure distribution of individuals for 1988 and 1993. It is the first paper to calculate world distribution for individuals based entirely on household surveys from 91 countries, and adjusted for differences in purchasing power parity between countries. Measured by the Gini index, inequality increased from 63 in 1988 to 66 in 1993. The increase was driven more by differences in mean incomes between countries than by inequalities within countries. The most important contributors were rising urban-rural differences in China, and slow growth of rural incomes in South Asia compared to several large developed economies. [source]

    "I Am Not Alone": The Feasibility and Acceptability of Interactive Voice Response-Facilitated Telephone Peer Support Among Older Adults With Heart Failure

    Michele Heisler MD
    Patient self-management is a critical determinant of heart failure (HF) outcomes, yet patients with HF are often frail and socially isolated, factors that may limit their ability to manage self-care and access clinic-based services. Mobilizing peer support among HF patients is a promising strategy to improve self-management support. In this pilot, the authors evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive voice response (IVR)-based platform to facilitate telephone peer support among older adults with HF. Participants completed a baseline survey, were offered a 3-hour training session in peer communication skills, and were paired with another patient who had HF. Participants were asked to contact their partner weekly using a toll-free IVR phone system that protected their anonymity and provided automated reminders if contacts were not made. Times and duration of participants' telephone contacts were monitored and recorded. After the 7-week intervention, participants completed surveys and brief face-to-face interviews. The authors found high levels of use and satisfaction and improvements in depressive symptoms among the 20 pilot study participants. An IVR peer-support intervention is feasible, is acceptable to patients, and may have positive effects on patients' HF social support and health outcomes, in conjunction with structured health system support, that warrant more rigorous evaluation in a randomized trial. [source]

    Effects of buspirone and alprazolam treatment on the startle-potentiated startle response

    Randall L. Commissaris Ph.D.
    Abstract The startle potentiated startle (SPS) paradigm has been reported to be an effective procedure for studying the conditioned enhancement of acoustic startle in the absence of electric shocks or extinction. This study examines the effects of two anxiolytic treatments, buspirone and alprazolam, on this SPS effect. Subjects were tested in the SPS paradigm 2 days a week (Monday and Thursday) for 10 weeks. Each startle test session consisted of 10 Noise Alone trials (115 dB acoustic noise burst presented for 40 ms) and 10 Light+Noise trials (115 dB acoustic stimuli presented during the latter 40 ms of a 3,540 ms period in which a 15-watt light was illuminated). Although there was no difference in startle amplitude on Noise Alone trials when compared to Light+Noise trials initially, by the end of the first test session and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment, startle amplitude on Light+Noise trials was significantly (approximately 50,75%) greater than on Noise Alone trials. After five control (i.e., no injection) SPS test sessions, once-weekly drug challenges were conducted over the course of 7 weeks. In these weekly drug challenges, subjects received acute treatment with various doses of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic alprazolam (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) or the novel anxiolytic buspirone (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg); subjects also received vehicle treatment (0.5% methylcellulose) on one treatment day. All treatments were administered intraperitoneally (IP), 15 min before the start of startle testing. Consistent with previous reports, buspirone increased and alprazolam decreased startle amplitude on the Noise Alone trials; these effects were dose-related. Both agents reduced the magnitude of the SPS effect when it was expressed as the Light+Noise startle amplitude minus the Noise Alone startle amplitude. These findings are similar to the effects of these treatments in the traditional shock-based fear-potentiated startle paradigm. Depression and Anxiety 19:146,151, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Effect of Full-Face Broadband Light Treatments Alone and in Combination With Bilateral Crow's Feet Botulinum Toxin Type A Chemodenervation

    Jean Carruthers MD
    Background. Broadband light (BBL; Intense Pulsed Light; Lumenis Ltd., Yokneam, Israel) is a powerful, nonablative, light-based technology that targets melanin and hemoglobin and stimulates the formation of collagen and elastin. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A; BOTOX; Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) treatment of the lateral periocular region relaxes the vertical fibers of the orbicularis oculi and results in softening of the lateral orbital crow's feet rhytides and widening of the palpebral aperture. Objective. To compare the effects of full-face BBL in combination with BTX-A and BBL alone in female subjects with Fitzpatrick I,III skin types, Glogau II,III rhytides, and significant associated facial lentigines and telangiectasia. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized study of 30 women with moderate to severe crow's feet rhytides. Half of the subjects were treated with BTX-A and BBL and the other half with BBL alone. Their response was assessed clinically and photographically. Skin biopsies of the temporal skin were taken from two subjects in each group and were stained with Masson trichrome. Results. Patients treated with a combination of BTX-A and BBL experienced a better response to treatment, both at rest and on maximum smile, as well as a slightly improved response in associated lentigines, telangiectasia, pore size, and facial skin texture compared with patients who received BBL treatment alone. Skin biopsies showed an increase in dermal collagen in each group. Conclusions. The patients in this study benefited from both treatments. Although BBL led to a remarkable improvement in full-face telangiectasias, lentigines, and skin texture, the improvement increased in all categories with combination therapy. In addition, an added improvement in the full-face aesthetic with both BTX-A and BBL therapy combined was obvious. These results suggest that both treatments,although evidently complementary,may also act synergistically to produce optimal clinical effects, revolutionizing the treatment of facial aging. [source]

    Combined Ultrapulse CO2 Laser and Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser Compared with Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser Alone for Refractory Melasma: Split-Face Design

    Suhattaya Angsuwarangsee MD
    Background. Melasma is common and can cause major psychological impact. To date, the mainstay of treatment, including various hypopigmenting agents and chemical peels, is ineffective and can cause adverse effects. Laser is a new approach and is yet to be explored for its efficacy and safety. Objective. To compare combined Ultrapulse CO2 laser and Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL) with QSAL alone in the treatment of refractory melasma. Methods. Six Thai females were treated with combined Ultrapulse CO2 laser and QSAL on one side of the face and QSAL alone on the other side. The outcome was evaluated periodically for up to 6 months using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index score and the modified Melasma Area and Melanin Index score. Results. The side with combination treatment had a statistically significant reduction of both scores. On the QSAL side, the score reduction was not significant. Two cases developed severe postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and were effectively treated with bleaching agents. Transient hypopigmentation and contact dermatitis were observed with the combination treatment side. Conclusions. Combined Ultrapulse CO2 laser and QSAL showed a better result than QSAL alone but was associated with more frequent adverse effects. Long-term follow-up and a larger number of cases are required to determine its efficacy and safety for refractory melasma. [source]

    Not by Rent Alone: Analysing the Pro-Poor Functions of Small-Scale Fisheries in Developing Countries

    Christophe Béné
    The dominant view in academic and policy arenas is increasingly one in which the major contribution of capture fisheries to development should be derived from the capacity of society to maximise the economic rent of fishery resources. Drawing upon empirical experience from the South, this article highlights the potentially disastrous consequences that a universal implementation of the rent-maximisation model would have in developing countries, and argues that a more gradual approach would be preferable. The welfare function of small-scale fisheries, namely, their capacities to provide labour and cash income to resource-poor households, should be preserved until the appropriate macroeconomic conditions for rent-maximisation and redistribution are fulfilled. [source]

    Bowling Alone but Working and Worshiping Together

    DIALOG, Issue 4 2008
    Carol Schersten LaHurd
    Abstract:, The following article reviews both the strengths and weaknesses of the ELCA on the anniversary of 20 years of existence. The article emphasizes the increased diversity in the denomination, particularly the increased participation of women both in scholarship and leadership in the church. It also lifts up the importance of the strong ecumenical work that continues to take place, both nationally and internationally, which is evidenced in the ELCA's full communion agreements. Commitments to social justice, global connectedness and economic stewardship are also discussed. [source]

    Assessment of the toxicity of mixtures of nickel or cadmium with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone to Daphnia magna: Impact of a reactive oxygen-mediated mechanism with different redox-active metals

    Fangli Xie
    Abstract Recently, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was involved in the toxicity of the redox-active metal Cu and mixtures of Cu plus a photomodified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrenequinone (PHQ), to Daphnia magna. It is unknown, however, if similar results can be observed for metals with lower or no redox activity and their mixtures with PHQ. In the present study using D. magna, the toxicity of Ni, a weakly redox-active metal, and of Cd, a non-redox active metal, was examined with or without PHQ. The abilities of Ni, Cd, PHQ, and binary mixtures of metal plus PHQ to generate ROS were measured using a 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence assay. The results were compared with the results of Cu and mixtures of Cu plus PHQ from a recent study by our group. The order of metal toxicity to D. magna was found to be Cd , Cu > Ni. As with Cu/PHQ mixtures, synergistic toxicity was observed for mixtures of Ni and PHQ, whereas additive toxicity was observed for mixtures of Cd and PHQ. Alone, PHQ had no impact on ROS levels in D. magna. Nickel alone caused elevated ROS, which was further enhanced in the presence of PHQ. Neither Cd nor Cd/PHQ mixtures increased ROS production. Attenuation of toxicity and ROS production was observed in response to treatment with low concentrations of L -ascorbic acid. These results indicate potential toxic interactions between metals and modified PAHs. With redox-active metals, such as Cu and Ni, and modified PAHs, such as PHQ, these interactions can involve ROS formation. [source]

    Twelve immunotherapy drugs that could cure cancers

    Mac' Cheever, Martin A.
    Summary: Immune T cells can kill cancer cells. Cancer vaccines function by increasing the number of immune T cells. There are exceedingly strict biologic limits imposed on the immune system to prevent excessive T-cell activation and expansion. The same biological restrictions limit cancer vaccines. Immunotherapeutic agents that circumvent the biological restrictions have been invented and formulated, including (i) dendritic cell activators and growth factors, (ii) vaccine adjuvants, (iii) T-cell stimulators and growth factors, (iv) immune checkpoint inhibitors, and (v) agents to neutralize or inhibit suppressive cells, cytokines, and enzymes. Few of these agents are broadly available for the development of effective multiple component regimens. The major problem facing immunotherapy today is a lack of broad availability of agents already in existence. The National Cancer Institute has developed a well-vetted ranked list of agents with high potential to serve as immunotherapeutic drugs. This review focuses on 12 of the agents, all with proven ability to augment T-cell responses. Alone, each has little chance of making substantial inroads into cancer therapy. In combinations dictated by biology, the agents are overwhelmingly likely to have an impact. Future availability of these agents for development of innovative combination cancer therapy regimens will provide a benchmark for the resolve of the national cancer therapy translational research enterprise. [source]

    Cutting through the statistical fog: understanding and evaluating non-inferiority trials

    W. S. Weintraub
    Summary Every year, results from many important randomised, controlled trials are published. Knowing the elements of trial design and having the skills to critically read and incorporate results are important to medical practitioners. The goal of this article is to help physicians determine the validity of trial conclusions to improve patient care through more informed medical decision making. This article includes a review of 162 randomised, controlled non-inferiority (n = 116) and equivalence (n = 46) hypothesis studies as well as the larger Stroke Prevention using Oral Thrombin Inhibitor in atrial Fibrillation V study and the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial. Evaluation of data from small and large trials uncovers significant flaws in design and models employed and uncertainty about calculations of statistical measures. As one example of questionable study design, discussion includes a large (n = 3922), double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial comparing the efficacy of ximelagatran with warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and additional stroke risk factors. Investigators concluded that ximelagatran was effective compared with well-controlled warfarin for prevention of thromboembolism. However, deficiencies in design, as well as concerns about liver toxicity, resulted in the rejection of the drug by the US Food and Drug Administration. Many trials fail to follow good design principles, resulting in conclusions of questionable validity. Well-designed non-inferiority trials can provide valuable data and demonstrate efficacy for beneficial new therapies. Objectives and primary end-points must be clearly stated and rigorous standards met for sample size, establishing the margin, patient characteristics and adherence to protocol. [source]

    I'm not Alone: A Teen's Guide to Living with a Parent Who Has a Mental Illness

    Article first published online: 28 FEB 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Solitude: An Exploration of Benefits of Being Alone

    Christopher R. Long
    Christopher R. Long and James R. Averill, Solitude: An Exploration of Benefits of Being Alone, pp. 21,44. Historically, philosophers, artists, and spiritual leaders have extolled the benefits of solitude; currently, advice on how to achieve solitude is the subject of many popular books and articles. Seldom, however, has solitude been studied by psychologists, who have focused instead on the negative experiences associated with being alone, particularly loneliness. Solitude, in contrast to loneliness, is often a positive state,one that may be sought rather than avoided. In this article, we examine some of the benefits that have been attributed to solitude,namely, freedom, creativity, intimacy, and spirituality. In subsequent sections, we consider the environmental settings and personality characteristics conducive to solitude, how time spent alone is experienced differently across the life span, and the potential dangers related to the attractiveness of solitude. We conclude with a brief discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of solitude. [source]

    Effects of Valsartan or Amlodipine Alone or in Combination on Plasma Catecholamine Levels at Rest and During Standing in Hypertensive Patients

    FRCPC, Jacques de Champlain MD
    To compare the effects of valsartan and amlodipine alone or in combination on plasma norepinephrine (NE) at rest and standing for 10 minutes in patients with hypertension, 47 patients with a sitting diastolic blood pressure (BP) (DBP) >95 mm Hg and <110 mm Hg were randomized in a double-blind fashion to either valsartan or amlodipine. During the first 4 weeks of treatment, patients received a low dose of either valsartan (80 mg) or amlodipine (5 mg). The patients were force-titrated to the high dose of either drug (160 or 10 mg) for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of therapy, those who still had a DBP >90 mm Hg (nonresponders) received combination therapy with the other drug, whereas patients with a DBP <90 mm Hg (responders) continued on monotherapy. Decreases in ambulatory BP and clinic systolic BP and DBP were significant (P<.05) after 8 weeks' therapy with no difference between the 2 groups. Amlodipine but not valsartan as monotherapy consistently increased NE levels at rest and enhanced NE levels during standing. Valsartan decreased basal NE in responders. Combination therapy with valsartan and amlodipine did not attenuate the rise in NE levels induced by amlodipine. This study indicates that therapy with amlodipine increases peripheral sympathetic basal tone and reactivity to standing in patients with hypertension, whereas valsartan does not. Combined therapy with amlodipine/valsartan did not attenuate the sympathetic activation induced by amlodipine. The hypotensive action of valsartan may be mediated in part by an inhibition of the sympathetic baroreflex in patients with hypertension. [source]

    Obesity and Hypertension in Children; Caffeine, Stress, and Elevated Blood Pressure; Resistant Hypertension; and Is It Lowering of Blood Pressure Alone That Accounts for Reduction in Cardiovascular Events?

    Comments on the JCH Contents
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Dental Enamel Surface Exposed to 35% Hydrogen Peroxide: Alone, With Saliva, and With 10% Carbamide Peroxide

    ABSTRACT Several vital bleaching systems have been introduced in response to the demand in esthetic dentistry. The active agents are commonly hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide used in at-home or in-office techniques. Although generally positive results have been reported concerning the whitening ability of these agents, concerns still remain as to their effects on dental tissues. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of these bleaching agents on the enamel surface morphology. Twelve extracted teeth were used according to three experimental protocols. In experimental protocol 1, specimens were treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide. In experimental protocol 2, after treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide the specimens were immersed in natural saliva for 1 week. In experimental protocol 3, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied once and 10% carbamide peroxide was applied for 1 week (12 h of 10% carbamide peroxide alternating with 12 h saliva). Scanning electron microscopy evaluation revealed that regional variation in tooth morphology surface sometimes exceeded the effects of the peroxide used according to experimental protocols. Thirty-five percent hydrogen peroxide had a tendency to promote an increase in density of pits. Precipitates were observed on specimen surfaces immersed in natural saliva according to protocol 2. A smooth and shiny surface was observed in specimens treated according to protocol 3. The potential relationship between surface alterations and differences in enamel permeability is currently under investigation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The differences in various articles written on the subject cannot be reconciled because of the lack of standardization of baseline data regarding factors such as location on the tooth, type of tooth, eruption or noneruption, and age in the oral cavity. This article demonstrates that, despite changes observed in the enamel surface after bleaching, normal variation in tooth morphology may exceed the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide on the teeth. Hence, considering the morphologic features of the tooth surface, bleaching, as described in this study, can be considered safe for enamel. [source]

    Potential Application of Hot Rehydration Alone or in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide to Control Pectin Methylesterase Activity and Microbial Load in Cold-stored Intermediate-moisture Sun-dried Figs

    ABSTRACT: Sun-dried figs contain a considerable amount of pectin methylesterase (PME) activity (22 JAM COOH/ min/g). The enzyme causes softening and loss of desired gummy texture in cold-stored intermediate-moisture (IM) sun-dried figs brought to a 28% to 29% moisture range. Partial reduction of PME activity (28%) delayed undesirable textural changes in IM figs rehydrated at 80 °C for 16 min. The heat treatment did not cause a considerable reduction in microbial load. However, the addition of 2.5% H2O2 to the rehydration medium at 80 °C reduced the initial total mesophilic aerobic count of figs by at least 90% and turned the figs from a brown color to a desirable and stable yellow-light brown. The in situ fig catalase remains after rehydration at 80 °C. Thus, by reducing the contact period of figs with H2O2 or by pureeing figs, it is possible to eliminate residual H2O2 and to obtain safe and SO2-free light-colored fig products. [source]

    Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community

    William A. GalstonArticle first published online: 28 SEP 200

    G. Stanley Hall: Neither Psychology Alone Nor Basic Research is Sufficient

    James Youniss
    In his monumental work, Adolescence, G. Stanley Hall showed the value of interdisciplinary scholarship and respect for research, which had a policy orientation. Over the course of the 20th century these two characteristics faded in adolescent studies as psychology took dominance and basic research was given priority over policy considerations. An argument is made that there is value in revisiting Hall's approach as studies of adolescence can be enriched through interdisciplinary efforts and research which brings policy to the forefront. [source]

    Enhancing institutional assessment efforts through qualitative methods

    Nancy Van Note Chism
    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the "why" behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. [source]

    Man Does Not Live by Reason Alone

    Leszek Kolakowski
    Leszek Kolakowski, who died in 2009, was professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago and a fellow of All Souls College at Oxford University. His critical, magisterial study of the history of Marxism and his perpetual doubt and self-questioning, which led to a preoccupation with "the revenge of the sacred" in secular life, earned him a reputation as modern Europe's Erasmus. Just after he published Modernity on Endless Trial in 1991, Kolakowski sat down with me in his study at All Souls College. The following conversation was also published in Kolakowski's last book, My Correct Views on Everything. [source]

    Evaluation of allergic sensitization and gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with recurrent croup

    Zafer Arslan
    Abstract Background:, Croup, which is seen commonly in childhood, is a disorder that can be recurrent and progress to bronchial asthma. In the present study the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and atopy and the response to therapy were investigated in children with recurrent croup. Methods:, Between October 2003 and June 2004, 57 patients with acute stridor were admitted to the emergency room. The patients who had at least three croup episodes and patients with first croup episode were compared. Results:, Thirty-two children had recurrent croup history, GER was found in of 62.5%, and atopy in 17.2%. Atopy was not found in any children with first croup episode. The difference was significant. In addition it was found that atopic dermatitis, previous history of wheezing and established atopy increased the risk of croup recurrence. Alone or combined inhaled corticosteroids and GER therapy were administered, and 77.7% of the patients responded very well. Conclusion:, GER and atopy should be investigated in patients with recurrent spasmodic croup. Recurrent croup is a non-specific manifestation of atopy. Patients with atopy should be followed closely for developing bronchial asthma. [source]

    Income Transfers Alone Won't Eradicate Poverty

    Douglas J. Besharov
    Even in the current economic situation, in developed countries, rhetoric about cutting "poverty" is misleadingly outmoded,because it implicitly suggests that government income transfers can be the vehicle for achieving substantial reductions in poverty. Almost all Americans already live far above subsistence poverty: most because of their earnings, and the rest because of government transfer programs. This decline in material poverty is obscured by weaknesses in how the official U.S. poverty measure counts income. What is now called poverty is really "income inequality." Reducing income inequality is also a vitally important social goal, but it cannot be accomplished through income transfers alone. The authors argue that, although income transfers have a role to play in lessening the impact of material deprivation, real progress in raising incomes will require building the human capital of the economically disadvantaged. This means both increasing the earnings capacity of lower-income workers and reducing the number of female-headed families. [source]

    Alone in the World: The Existential Socrates in the Apology and Crito

    POLITICAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2007
    Emanuele Saccarelli
    The story of Socrates' life, and in particular the circumstances of his death, has been a nearly obligatory referent for the development of Western political thought. Contemporary political theorists such as Hannah Arendt and, more recently, Gerald Mara and Dana Villa have presented Socrates as a model of political engagement for our times. Against the background of these accounts, I develop an existential interpretation of Socrates as he appears in the Apology and Crito, focusing on the singular, private, experiential and incommunicable character of Socrates' truth. In doing so, I discuss some important and contentious issues in Socratic studies, such as his disavowal of knowledge, his allegiance to the Athenian polis and the apparent tension between his defiance during the trial and his willingness to submit to the resulting death sentence. My interpretation reveals a Socrates that we should not strive to understand, let alone emulate politically, particularly if we wish to respect his own sensibilities. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 7 2008
    Article first published online: 28 APR 200
    Referrals from Boots The majority of people requesting Boots' erectile dysfunction or weight management programmes are referred to their GP(Pharm J 2008;280:297). The programmes are run under patient group directions and exclude people with elevated blood pressure, blood glucose or cholesterol. Over 80 per cent of customers screened for the erectile dysfunction programme in Manchester and two-thirds of those screened for the national obesity programme were referred. Vildagliptin: new DPP-4 inhibitor for diabetes Novartis has introduced the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two formulations are available: Galvus (vildagliptin 50mg) is licensed for use with metformin, a sulphonylurea or a thiazolidinedione when these agents do not achieve glycaemic control alone, and Eucreas (vildagliptin 50mg plus metformin 850 or 1000mg) is licensed for patients requiring combined therapy with vildagliptin and metformin. Inhibition of DPP-4 blocks the breakdown of the incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1, reducing fasting plasma glucose and postprandial hyperglycaemia. Vildagliptin is the second DPP-4 inhibitor to be introduced; the first was sitagliptin (Januvia), which has similar licensed indications. The third available drug acting on the incretin system is the incretinmimetic exenatide (Byetta); administered by injection, this is licensed for use with metformin and/or a sulphonylurea and is the only agent in this class to be approved for triple therapy. No comparative trials of these agents have been published. A month's treatment with twice-daily vildagliptin 50mg or either strength of vildagliptin plus metformin costs £31.76. Sitagliptin 100mg once daily costs £33.26. Sinusitis symptoms don't guide treatment The severity and duration of symptoms do not help to identify which patients with sinusitis will be helped by antibiotics, a new meta-analysis suggests (Lancet 2008;371: 908-14). The analysis of patient-level data from nine trials involving a total of 2547 adults showed that the number needed to treat (NNT) to cure one patient with rhinosinusitis was 15. Cure took longer to achieve in older patients and in those reporting symptoms for longer or with more severe symptoms. The authors comment that treatment is not justified given the risk of resistance and adverse effects and cost of antibiotics. Draft guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) on the management of respiratory infections states that no antibiotic therapy or a delayed antibiotic prescribing strategy should be negotiated for patients with acute sinusitis. Taking cod liver oil leads to fewer NSAIDs Cod liver oil could help some patients with rheumatoid arthritis to reduce their NSAID consumption, according to a study from Dundee (Rheumatology online: 24 March 2008; doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ ken024). A total of 97 patients were randomised to nine months' treatment with cod liver oil 10g per day or placebo. After 12 weeks, patients attempted to reduce or stop their use of NSAIDs. Significantly more of those taking cod liver oil achieved at least a 30 per cent reduction in NSAID use compared with placebo (39 vs 10 per cent). There were no differences in adverse effects or disease activity. Welsh prescriptions up The reduction in the prescription charge in Wales in 2004 was followed by an increase in prescribing of nonsedating antihistamines in wealthier areas, a study suggests (Health Policy online: 5 March 2008; doi:10.1016/j. healthpol.2008.01.006). In the two years preceding the cut, prescriptions for nonsedating antihistamines increased by about 7 per cent; in the two years after the cut, the increase was nearly 14 per cent. By contrast, there was no change in the rate of increase in the south-east of England (4,5 per cent in both periods). The increased growth in prescribing was statistically significant in the five least deprived but not in the five most deprived health boards in Wales. Aspirin linked with reduced asthma risk Low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced risk of developing asthma, a new analysis of the Women's Health Study has shown (Thorax online: 13 March 2008; doi:10.1136/ thx.2007.091447). The analysis included 37 270 women with no asthma at baseline who were randomised to take placebo or aspirin 100mg every other day. After 10 years, 872 cases of asthma occurred in women taking aspirin and 963 with placebo, a 10 per cent reduction in risk. However, risk was not reduced in obese women. The mechanism by which aspirin may affect the risk of asthma is unknown. The latest evidence is consistent with findings published by the same investigators after analysis of two other large observational studies, the Physicians' Health Study and the Nurses Health Study. Anastrozole bone loss Long-term follow-up of the ATAC (Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial has confirmed that adjuvant therapy with anastrozole (Arimidex) is associated with greater loss of bone mineral density (BMD) than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with invasive primary breast cancer (J Clin Oncol 2008;26: 1051,7). After five years, median BMD was reduced by 6 and 7 per cent in the lumbar spine and hip with anastrozole compared with approximately 3 and 1 per cent respectively for tamoxifen, though no patients developed osteoporosis. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Not by Paul Alone: the Formation of the Catholic Epistle Collection and the Christian Canon , By David R. Nienhuis

    Michael W. Holmes
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Not by Twins Alone: Using the Extended Family Design to Investigate Genetic Influence on Political Beliefs

    Peter K. Hatemi
    Variance components estimates of political and social attitudes suggest a substantial level of genetic influence, but the results have been challenged because they rely on data from twins only. In this analysis, we include responses from parents and nontwin full siblings of twins, account for measurement error by using a panel design, and estimate genetic and environmental variance by maximum-likelihood structural equation modeling. By doing so, we address the central concerns of critics, including that the twin-only design offers no verification of either the equal environments or random mating assumptions. Moving beyond the twin-only design leads to the conclusion that for most political and social attitudes, genetic influences account for an even greater proportion of individual differences than reported by studies using more limited data and more elementary estimation techniques. These findings make it increasingly difficult to deny that,however indirectly,genetics plays a role in the formation of political and social attitudes. [source]

    Not for Ourselves Alone

    Human Rights in the Perspective of Two Swedish Free Churches, Their International Families
    First page of article [source]

    Extreme Subcutaneous, Intramuscular and Inhaled Insulin Resistance Treated by Pancreas Transplantation Alone

    J. R. Sa
    Diabetes mellitus with resistance to insulin administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly (DRIASM) is a rare syndrome and is usually treated with continuous intravenous insulin infusion. We present here two cases of DRIASM in 16 and 18 years female patients that were submitted to pancreas transplantation alone (PTA). Both were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as young children and had labile glycemic control with recurrent episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. They had prolonged periods of hospitalization and complications related to their central venous access. Exocrine and endocrine drainages were in the bladder and systemic, respectively. Both presented immediate graft function. In patient 1, enteric conversion was necessary due to reflux pancreatitis. Patient 2 developed mild postoperative hyperglycemia in spite of having normal pancreas allograft biopsy and that was attributed to her immunosuppressive regimen. Patient 1 died 9 months after PTA from septic shock related to pneumonia. In 8 months of follow-up, Patient 2 presented optimal glycemic control without the use of antidiabetic agents. In conclusion, PTA may be an alternative treatment for DRIASM patients. [source]

    The ATAC adjuvant breast cancer trial in postmenopausal women: baseline endometrial subprotocol data

    S. Duffy
    Objective The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial is a randomised, double-blind trial comparing ,Arimidex' (anastrozole), alone or in combination with tamoxifen, relative to tamoxifen alone as a five year adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Because tamoxifen is associated with endometrial pathology, the ATAC endometrial subprotocol was initiated to establish the background prevalence of pathology, and to assess prospectively the incidence and nature of intrauterine changes before and following endocrine therapy. Setting International. Population and Study Design Two hundred and eighty-five women entered the subprotocol: the mean age was 60 years (range 44,80 years); 113 women (40%) had taken hormone replacement therapy prior to randomisation, and 238 women were parous (84%). The age at onset of the menopause was 32,58 years, with the majority becoming menopausal between 46 and 55 years of age. Two hundred and seventy-two women had a hysteroscopy before they commenced trial medication. Hysteroscopy was performed successfully in 265 women. In six women, failure of hysteroscopy at baseline led to withdrawal from the study. Three of the women who withdrew had a pipelle biopsy taken. Therefore, the total number of endometrial biopsies at baseline was 268. Main outcome measures To assess the demographic characteristics of women entering the endometrial subprotocol and their hysteroscopic and histological findings before commencing trial medication. Results At hysteroscopy, there was a diagnosis of endometrial polyps in 34 women (13%), fibroids in 16 women (6%) and one case of suspicious endometrium, which was confirmed as a polyp on histology. Only 21 of the 34 polyps seen hysteroscopically were proven histologically (62% accuracy of hysteroscopy). Final histology found the prevalence of endometrial diagnostic categories as follows: 123 inactive endometrium (46%), 20 benign polyps (7%), 17 secretory endometrium (6%), 7 proliferative endometrium (3%), 3 atypical hyperplasia (2 in a polyp), 1 simple hyperplasia (in a polyp) and 1 fibroid. The remaining women had pipelle samples with insufficient tissue obtained, indicating a normal endometrial cavity. Conclusion This is the first study of such size in gynaecologically asymptomatic breast cancer patients. This paper describes the findings in individual patients before any trial treatment was given. In this baseline group, 82% (219/268) of women had a normal endometrial cavity; 18% (49/268) had endometrial activity (proliferative or secretory endometrium in 9%) or an intracavity abnormality (hyperplasia, polyps and a fibroid in 9%). In total, 36% of biopsies had insufficient tissue for diagnosis, which in combination with a normal hysteroscopy was classed as normal. The appearance of a polyp hysteroscopically in this group was not proven histologically in approximately 40% of cases. The development of uterine pathology over time in the ATAC study will subsequently be assessed against the findings of this baseline paper. [source]

    Tomatoes Beat Lycopene Alone for Prostate Cancer Protection

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]