Alkyl Radical (alkyl + radical)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry


Selected Abstracts


ChemInform Abstract: Intermolecular Addition of Alkyl Radicals to Imines in the Absence and in the Presence of a Lewis Acid.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 43 2001
Nis Halland
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


Rate constant estimation for C1 to C4 alkyl and alkoxyl radical decomposition

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL KINETICS, Issue 4 2006
H. J. Curran
Rate coefficients for alkyl and alkoxy radical decomposition are important in combustion, biological, and atmospheric processes. In this paper, rate constant expressions for C1C4 alkyl and alkoxy radicals decomposition via ,-scission are recommended based on the reverse, exothermic reaction, the addition of a hydrogen atom or an alkyl radical to an olefin or carbonyl species with the decomposition reaction calculated using microscopic reversibility. The rate expressions have been estimated based on a wide-range study of available experimental data. Rate coefficients for hydrogen atom and alkyl radical addition to an olefin show a strong temperature curvature. In addition, it is found that there is a correlation between the activation energy for addition and (i) the type of atom undergoing addition and (ii) whether this radical adds to the internal or terminal carbon atom of the olefin. Rate coefficients for alkoxy radical decomposition show a strong correlation to the ionization potential of the alkyl radical leaving group and on the enthalpy of reaction. It is shown that the activation energy for alkyl radical addition to a carbonyl species can be estimated as a function of the alkyl radical ionization potential and enthalpy of reaction. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 38: 250,275, 2006 [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 13 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 11-12 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 10 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 9 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 8 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 7 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 6 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 5 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 4 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 2-3 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 1 2010
Catal.
The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


Alkyl halides reactions with cathodes or with magnesium.

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2006
Grignard reagent studied with radical clocks.
Abstract In the mechanism of reaction of Grignard reagent formation for alkyl halides (RX), it is generally assumed that the alkyl radical, formed by the electron transfer from the metal to this halide, reacts rapidly with the paramagnetic MgX, species. The previous comparisons of aryl halides reactivity toward magnesium and their reactivity toward a cathode strongly suggested that MgX, species are not, for the aryl halides, compulsory to rationalise the observed facts. The aryl radicals formed by electron transfer from the metal to the aryl halide would undergo a rapid second electron transfer to yield carbanions transformed into RMgX by reaction with MgX2. In contrast, for the alkyl halides, the reduction of the rapidly formed alkyl radicals into carbanions has seldom been discussed as a possible fate for these radicals, the main discussed fates being dimerisation, disproportionation, hydrogen abstraction from the solvent, rearrangement or coupling with MgX, radicals. Two main differences distinguish the reactivity of alkyl halides from their aryl halides counterpart. First, the radical anions of aryl halides may have a given lifetime whereas electron transfer to alkyl halides is concerted with the cleavage of the molecule. Second, the aryl radicals display far stronger oxidising properties than the alkyl radicals. The counterpart of this property is that aryl carbanions display weaker reducing properties than the alkyl ones. In this report, putting in perspective Grignard reaction and the experimental results obtained with identical radical clocks in electrochemistry, we tentatively provide an answer to the question raised in the title. The comparison of electrochemical patterns of reactivity of selected alkyl halides and the evolutions of yields in the preparation of Grignard reagent suggest a new explanation for the lower yields generally observed when alkyl iodides are the starting substrates. It involves an autocatalytic reaction where carbanionic species formed from the alkyl radicals and diffusing away from the metal surface, transfer one electron to the alkyl halide; the result would be the creation of two radicals leading to an increased amount of by-products. If the carbanionic mechanism were to be retained for the formation of alkyl Grignard reagent one would have to admit that the magnesium surface behaves as a cathode displaying high current densities reminiscent of microelectrodes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Electron ionization mass spectra of phosphorus-containing heterocycles.

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, Issue 3 2006

The electron ionization mass spectra of 27 cis - and trans -annelated 1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2H -3,1,2-benzoxazaphosphinine 2-oxides were recorded to clarify the effects of the ring heteroatom (O or N), ring annelation, the P configuration and the substituents attached to the ring or to the N and P atoms. For compounds 1,12 different alkyl radical and alkene losses and the cleavage of the P,heteroatom bonds, instead of the P,C bonds, were representative and dependent mainly on the substitution on the N and P atoms. The replacement of Ph and OPh by N(CH2CH2Cl)2 on the P atom had a dramatic influence on the fragmentation process: new fragment ions were obtained and very little M+. (1,3%) was formed. Only slight differences were found between some of the corresponding isomers, but interestingly the compounds formed clear groups on the basis of the differences in their fragmentation, depending on the ring-N and ring-P substituents. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations

THE CHEMICAL RECORD, Issue 1 2006
Hiroyuki Ishibashi
Abstract This review describes the results of our recent studies on the control of the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations. N-vinylic ,-chloroacetamides generally cyclized in a 5- endo-trig manner to give five-membered lactams, whereas 4- exo-trig cyclization occurred when the cyclized radical intermediates were highly stabilized by an adjacent phenyl or phenylthio group to afford ,-lactams. The 5- exo or 6- exo cyclization of aryl radicals onto the alkenic bond of enamides could be shifted to the corresponding 6- endo or 7- endo mode of cyclization by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6- endo - and 7- endo -selective aryl radical cyclizations were applied to radical cascades for the synthesis of alkaloids such as phenanthroindolizidine, cephalotaxine skeleton, and lennoxamine. The 5- exo-trig cyclization of an alkyl radical onto the alkenyl bond of enamides could also be shifted to the 6- endo mode by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6- endo - selective cyclization was applied to the radical cascade to afford a cylindricine skeleton. Other examples of controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations and their applications to the synthesis of natural products are also discussed. © 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 6: 23,31; 2006: Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/tcr.20069 [source]


FREE RADICAL-SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHITIN OLIGOSACCHARIDES LEAD TO ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT IN LIVE CELLS

JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
DAI-NGHIEP NGO
ABSTRACT Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) with low molecular weight distribution of 229.21,593.12 Da were produced from crab chitin by acid hydrolysis. They showed reducing power and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO), hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. It was observed that the radical-scavenging activity of NA-COS increased in a dose-dependent manner. Their IC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals were 0.8, 1.75 and 1.14 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, NA-COS exhibited the inhibitory effect on the oxidative damage of DNA from human lymphoma U937 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) and the direct radical-scavenging effect in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) (American Type Culture Collection) in 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay (Molecular Probes Inc., Eugene, OR). The results suggest that NA-COS can exert antioxidant effect in live cells and have the potential to be applied to food supplements or nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) are the hydrolyzed products of chitin (KEUMHO chemical products Co. Ltd., Gyeongbuk, Korea) of which derivatives have shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects. According to previous studies, NA-COS have beneficial biological activities similar to those of chitin. Furthermore, they are easily soluble in water because of their shorter chain length. Therefore, NA-COS are potentially applicable to improve food quality and human health. [source]


Reactions of BBrn+ (n = 0,2) at fluorinated and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer surfaces: observations of chemical selectivity in ion,surface scattering

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 7 2001
Nathan Wade
Abstract Ion,surface reactions involving BBrn+ (n = 0,2) with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surface were investigated using a multi-sector scattering mass spectrometer. Collisions of the B+ ion yield BF2+ at threshold energy with the simpler product ion BF+· appearing at higher collision energies and remaining of lower abundance than BF2+ at all energies examined. In addition, the reactively sputtered ion CF+ accompanies the formation of BF2+ at low collision energies. These results stand in contrast with previous data on the ion,surface reactions of atomic ions with the F-SAM surface in that the threshold and most abundant reaction products in those cases involved the abstraction of a single fluorine atom. Gas-phase enthalpy data are consistent with BF2+ being the thermodynamically favored product. The fact that the abundance of BF2+ is relatively low and relatively insensitive to changes in collision energy suggests that this reaction proceeds through an entropically demanding intermediate at the vacuum,surface interface, one which involves interaction of the B+ ion simultaneously with two fluorine atoms. By contrast with the reaction of B+, the odd-electron species BBr+· reacts with the F-SAM surface to yield an abundant single-fluorine abstraction product, BBrF+. Corresponding gas-phase ion,molecule experiments involving B+ and BBr+· with C6F14 also yield the products BF+· and BF2+, but only in extremely low abundances and with no preference for double fluorine abstraction. Ion,surface reactions were also investigated for BBrn+ (n = 0,2) with a hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer (H-SAM) surface. Reaction of the B+ ion and dissociative reactions of BBr+· result in the formation of BH2+, while the thermodynamically less favorable product BH+· is not observed. Collisions of BBr2+ with the H-SAM surface yield the dissociative ion,surface reaction products, BBrH+ and BBrCH3+. Substitution of bromine atoms on the projectile by hydrogen or alkyl radicals suggests that Br atoms may be transferred to the surface in a Br-for-H or Br-for-CH3 transfer reaction in an analogous fashion to known transhalogenation reactions at the F-SAM surface. The results for the H-SAM surface stand in contrast to those for the F-SAM surface in that enhanced neutralization of the primary ions gives secondary ion signals one to two orders of magnitude smaller than those obtained when using the F-SAM surface, consistent with the relative ionization energies of the two materials. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Alkyl halides reactions with cathodes or with magnesium.

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2006
Grignard reagent studied with radical clocks.
Abstract In the mechanism of reaction of Grignard reagent formation for alkyl halides (RX), it is generally assumed that the alkyl radical, formed by the electron transfer from the metal to this halide, reacts rapidly with the paramagnetic MgX, species. The previous comparisons of aryl halides reactivity toward magnesium and their reactivity toward a cathode strongly suggested that MgX, species are not, for the aryl halides, compulsory to rationalise the observed facts. The aryl radicals formed by electron transfer from the metal to the aryl halide would undergo a rapid second electron transfer to yield carbanions transformed into RMgX by reaction with MgX2. In contrast, for the alkyl halides, the reduction of the rapidly formed alkyl radicals into carbanions has seldom been discussed as a possible fate for these radicals, the main discussed fates being dimerisation, disproportionation, hydrogen abstraction from the solvent, rearrangement or coupling with MgX, radicals. Two main differences distinguish the reactivity of alkyl halides from their aryl halides counterpart. First, the radical anions of aryl halides may have a given lifetime whereas electron transfer to alkyl halides is concerted with the cleavage of the molecule. Second, the aryl radicals display far stronger oxidising properties than the alkyl radicals. The counterpart of this property is that aryl carbanions display weaker reducing properties than the alkyl ones. In this report, putting in perspective Grignard reaction and the experimental results obtained with identical radical clocks in electrochemistry, we tentatively provide an answer to the question raised in the title. The comparison of electrochemical patterns of reactivity of selected alkyl halides and the evolutions of yields in the preparation of Grignard reagent suggest a new explanation for the lower yields generally observed when alkyl iodides are the starting substrates. It involves an autocatalytic reaction where carbanionic species formed from the alkyl radicals and diffusing away from the metal surface, transfer one electron to the alkyl halide; the result would be the creation of two radicals leading to an increased amount of by-products. If the carbanionic mechanism were to be retained for the formation of alkyl Grignard reagent one would have to admit that the magnesium surface behaves as a cathode displaying high current densities reminiscent of microelectrodes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Kinetic analysis of the cross reaction between dithioester and alkoxyamine by a Monte Carlo simulation,

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 3 2007
Yong Ao
Abstract A model reaction of dithioester and alkoxyamine is proposed to probe the reversible addition,fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process. The kinetics of the model reaction is analyzed and compared with that of pure alkoxyamine homolysis with a Monte Carlo simulation. Although the pure alkoxyamine obeys the law of persistent radical effect, the model reaction results in higher concentration of the persistent radical during the main period of the reaction. However, for a very fast RAFT process or a very low addition rate constant, the time dependence of the persistent radical concentration is quite close to that of pure alkoxyamine. Furthermore, the cross termination between the intermediate and alkyl radicals causes a retardation effect for the model reaction when the intermediate is relatively long-lived. The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that it is feasible to measure the individual rate constants of the RAFT process, such as the rate constant of addition, with a large excess of alkoxyamine. In addition, the special feature of the system with different leaving groups in the alkoxyamine and dithioester is also discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 374,387, 2007 [source]


Exploitation of the complex chemistry of hindered amine stabilizers in effective plastics stabilization,

JOURNAL OF VINYL & ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
J. Pospí
Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS) remain a prominent class of stabilizers having a fortunate development with continuous interest in shaping the future properties of plastics: increase in polymer durability, application extension, reaching new effects. Commercial tests provided much information. Insufficient mechanistic interpretations of the complex effects of environmental factors (harshness of testing, penetration of radiation and oxygen, superposition of temperature, atmospheric impurities) and those of the microenvironment (morphology of the polymer matrix, physical relations of HAS,polymer, interference between HAS and other additives) are a drawback. Model experiments complement commercial studies and explain some phenomena. A careful transfer of information from model experiments must be done to avoid misinterpretation of mechanisms, particularly of the HAS regenerative cycle. A critical analysis of primary steps of the HAS activity mechanism in the polymer matrix based on HAS-related primary nitroxides, formation of their stationary concentration and concentration gradients influenced by polymer morphology, spatial competition between autoreactions, and oxidation of polymer-developed alkyl radicals and their scavenging by nitroxides (the key process of HAS efficiency) is outlined. Cyclic regeneration of nitroxides affected by the structure of the amino moiety in the HAS molecule, influence of acid environment, atmospheric ozone or singlet oxygen, cooperative mixtures of HAS with UV absorbers, combinations with additives increasing the thermal stabilization effect and improving color retention, assessment of the heat stabilization performance of HAS by proper testing, and influence of the molecular weight of HAS are mentioned together with examples of the chemical consumption of HAS in the final phases of their lifetime. lifetime. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 13:119,132, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


Electron ionization mass spectra of phosphorus-containing heterocycles.

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, Issue 11 2006

The electron ionization mass spectra of cis - and trans -fused 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-decahydro-1,3,2-benzodiazaphosphinine 2-oxides (1,17) were recorded, and the fragmentation pathways were established and compared with those of 1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2H -3,1,2-benzoxazaphosphinine 2-oxides. In general, the mass spectral behaviors of the isomeric compounds were very similar and it was mostly impossible to differentiate them from each other on the basis of the relative abundances of their characteristic fragment ions. The compounds in which R2,=,Ph or OPh exhibited a series of common fragments, e.g. [R2H]+, R2PONHR1(3)+, [M,C3H7]+ and [M,C4H9]+, the latter two ions being present in the spectra of only two of the derivatives with an N(CH2CH2Cl)2 substituent on the P atom. When R2,=,Ph, numerous other alkyl radicals, alkenes and a cycloalkane were also ejected and these compounds also lost NH2, NH3, CH3N, CH4N or CH3NH2. The compounds with an N(CH2CH2Cl)2 substituent on the P atom most closely resembled their 3,1,2-O,N,P analogs in respect of the dominant role of this substituent. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric study of non-commercial C-4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and their oxidized derivatives

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, Issue 24 2002
C. López-Alarcón
A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the calcium-channel antagonists C-4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines, and their corresponding N-ethyl derivatives, is presented. Also, the electrochemical oxidation and the reactivity of the compounds with alkyl radicals derived from 2,2,-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) were monitored by GC/MS. Mass spectral fragmentation patterns for the C-4-substituted 1,4-dihydropy-ridine parent drugs were significantly different from those of their oxidation products, generated either by electrochemical oxidation or by reaction with alkyl radicals. However, for N -ethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine compounds it was not possible to detect the final products (pyridinium salts) using these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The Role of One-Electron Reduction of Lipid Hydroperoxides in Causing DNA Damage

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 40 2009
Conor Crean Dr.
Abstract The in vivo metabolism of plasma lipids generates lipid hydroperoxides that, upon one-electron reduction, give rise to a wide spectrum of genotoxic unsaturated aldehydes and epoxides. These metabolites react with cellular DNA to form a variety of pre-mutagenic DNA lesions. The mechanisms of action of the radical precursors of these genotoxic electrophiles are poorly understood. In this work we investigated the nature of DNA products formed by a one-electron reduction of (13S)-hydroperoxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoic acid (13S -HPODE), a typical lipid molecule, and the reactions of the free radicals thus generated with neutral guanine radicals, G(,H).. A novel approach was devised to generate these intermediates in solution. The two-photon-induced ionization of 2-aminopurine (2AP) within the 2,-deoxyoligonucleotide 5,-d(CC[2AP]TCGCTACC) by intense nanosecond 308,nm excimer laser pulses was employed to simultaneously generate hydrated electrons and radical cations 2AP.+. The latter radicals either in cationic or neutral forms, rapidly oxidize the nearby G base to form G(,H).. In deoxygenated buffer solutions (pH,7.5), the hydrated electrons rapidly reduce 13S -HPODE and the highly unstable alkoxyl radicals formed undergo a prompt ,-scission to pentyl radicals that readily combine with G(,H).. Two novel guanine products in these oligonucleotides, 8-pentyl- and N2 -pentylguanine, were identified. It is shown that the DNA secondary structure significantly affects the ratio of 8-pentyl- and N2 -pentylguanine lesions that changes from 0.9:1 in single-stranded, to 1:0.2 in double-stranded oligonucleotides. The alkylation of guanine by alkyl radicals derived from lipid hydroperoxides might contribute to the genotoxic modification of cellular DNA under hypoxic conditions. Thus, further research is warranted on the detection of pentylguanine lesions and other alkylguanines in vivo. [source]