Financing

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Financing

  • care financing
  • debt financing
  • external financing
  • health care financing
  • health financing

  • Terms modified by Financing

  • financing constraint
  • financing decision
  • financing scheme
  • financing system

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE PRIVATE FINANCING OF NHS HOSPITALS: POLITICS, POLICY AND PRACTICE

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2009
    Mark Hellowell
    This article outlines and critiques the main fiscal and economic rationales for the Private Finance Initiative and examines the impact of the policy on the long-term financial viability of NHS trusts. It concludes that the PFI funding of capital investment is highly problematic. Its high costs can have a negative impact on the finances of health systems. [source]


    OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE, INTERNAL FINANCING AND INVESTMENT DYNAMICS

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 3 2010
    FRANCESCO CRESPI
    In this paper, using a sample of 1035 Italian manufacturing firms observed in the period 1998,2003, we try to disentangle the different potential determinants underlying the observed positive elasticity between investments and internal resources by accounting for both the ownership structure of the companies and the role played by financial intermediaries as both investors and debt-holders. We found evidence of an inverted U relationship between concentration of ownership and the elasticity of investment to cash flow. Moreover, the analysis shows that the relationship between investment decisions and internal funds is significantly influenced by monitoring efforts played by institutional investors. [source]


    MERGERS UNDER UNCERTAINTY: THE EFFECTS OF DEBT FINANCING,

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 5 2007
    M. PILAR SOCORRO
    In this paper, we consider a Cournot oligopoly with demand uncertainty, fixed costs and constant marginal costs. The demand uncertainty makes some mergers that would be unprofitable in a certain environment profitable in this model. However, socially advantageous mergers may be still unprofitable for the colluding firms, so public intervention may be needed. One possibility consists in subsidizing such mergers. However, the combination of limited liability debt financing and an appropriate antitrust policy leads to higher social welfare than subsidies. The reason is that, given the limited liability effect, merging parties compete more aggressively, so the reduction in market quantity is mitigated. [source]


    AGENCY COSTS OF THIRD-PARTY FINANCING AND THE EFFECTS OF REGULATORY CHANGE ON UTILITY COSTS AND FACTOR CHOICES

    ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 4 2007
    Francis J. CRONIN
    ABSTRACT,:,Beginning in 1999, the Canadian Province of Ontario undertook restructuring and tried to implement performance based regulation for local electricity distribution utilities. Regulatory parameters were based on productivity research covering 1988,1997 that found little productivity difference by size, but wide variations in costs, factor mix, financing, and returns to capital among utilities. While some utilities questioned their ability to improve efficiency, other observers maintained many utilities were over-capitalized, especially from third-party financing paid by customers for connection/development charges; these observers noted that rates, profits, and valuations would be inflated. Despite its pervasive use, we can find no literature dealing with the implications of third-party funding. We assess the effects and adjustment dynamics of regulatory and financing changes on costs, factor mix, and performance. [source]


    Financing Decentralized Development in a Low-Income Country: Raising Revenue for Local Government in Uganda

    DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2001
    Ian Livingstone
    Uganda has been engaged for a number of years in an ambitious programme of political and financial decentralization involving significantly expanded expenditure and service delivery responsibilities for local governments in what are now forty-five districts. Fiscal decentralization has involved allocation of block grants from the centre to complement increased local tax revenue-raising efforts by districts and municipalities. This article is concerned with the financial side of decentralization and in particular with an examination of district government efforts to raise revenue with the tax instruments which have been assigned to them. These are found to be deficient in a number of ways and their tax raising potential not to be commensurate with the responsibilities being devolved. Achievement of the decentralization aims laid down, therefore, must depend either on the identification of new or modified methods of raising revenue locally, or increased commitment to transfer of financial resources from the centre, or both. [source]


    Forging a nation state: The Continental Congress and the Financing of the War of American Independence

    ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 4 2001
    Ben Baack
    First page of article [source]


    Equity-Based, Asset-Based and Asset-Backed Transactional Structures in Shari'a -Compliant Financing: Reflections on the Current Financial Crisis,

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2009
    Razi Pahlavi Abdul Aziz
    F33; G21; P45; P49 This paper presents interest-free equity-based, asset-based and asset-backed transactional structures endorsed by Shari'a -compliant finance. These structures could explain the potential and relative insulation, yet not immunity, of Islamic financial institutions from the financial crisis. Although Shari'a -compliant financing cannot solve the current financial crisis, the recovering market could consider incorporating some of the insulating principles underlying Shari'a -compliant financing and securitization products, as exemplified in the sample of Shari'a -compliant products in this paper, so as to offer better consumer protection. [source]


    Corporate Financing and Governance in Japan: The Road to the Future

    ECONOMICA, Issue 284 2004
    William P. Kennedy
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Financing of Emergency Medicine Graduate Medical Education Programs in an Era of Declining Medicare Reimbursement and Support

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 7 2004
    Michael R. Baumann MD
    Abstract In May 2004, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) National Affairs Committee was tasked with evaluation of graduate medical education (GME) funding in the face of declining Medicare reimbursement and support, and its implications for emergency medicine. This article was developed to educate the SAEM membership on the current status and climate of funding for GME and to serve as the basis of a position statement from SAEM on this topic. The paper presents the history and background on GME financing followed by currently known changes from the recently signed Medicare Act of 2003. [source]


    A Contingent Model of Network Utilization in Early Financing of Technology Ventures

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
    Jing Zhang
    Most of the entrepreneurship literature has addressed the benefits and necessity of using social network ties as opposed to market methods in early venture finance, but it has largely understated the potential limitations and costs of doing so. Specifically, very sparse research has examined the factors that influence entrepreneurs' choice between using networks versus market methods. In this study, we propose a contingent model of network utilization when approaching initial investors, based on the dimensions of human capital of the entrepreneurs. We test this model with primary field survey data from 226 new high-tech ventures in Singapore and Beijing. The results show that high occupational status and relevant industrial work experience are positively associated with the entrepreneurs' propensity to utilize existing networks by enhancing the resourcefulness of their network ties (social capital); however, such influences are alleviated by entrepreneurs' marketing or managerial experience, which increases the entrepreneurs' ability to interact with strangers (an aspect of social competence). [source]


    The Effect of Venture Capital Financing on the Sensitivity to Cash Flow of Firm's Investments

    EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2010
    Fabio Bertoni
    G32; D92; G23 Abstract This work studies the effect of venture capital (VC) financing on firms' investments in a longitudinal sample of 379 Italian unlisted new-technology-based firms (NTBFs) observed over the 10-year period from 1994 to 2003. We distinguish the effects of VC financing according to the type of investor: independent VC (IVC) funds and corporate VC (CVC) investors. Previous studies argue that NTBFs are the firms most likely to be financially constrained. The technology-intensive nature of their activity and their lack of a track record increase adverse selection and moral hazard problems. Moreover, most of their assets are firm-specific or intangible and hence cannot be pledged as collateral. In accordance with this view, we show that the investment rate of NTBFs is strongly positively correlated with their current cash flows. We also find that after receiving VC financing, NTBFs increase their investment rate independently of the type of VC investor. However, the investments of CVC-backed firms remain sensitive to shocks in cash flows, whereas IVC-backed firms exhibit a low and statistically not significant investment,cash flow sensitivity that we interpret as a signal of the removal of financial constraints. [source]


    The Role of Investment, Financing and Dividend Decisions in Explaining Corporate Ownership Structure: Empirical Evidence from Spain

    EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 5 2006
    Julio Pindado
    G31; G32; G35 Abstract This paper analyses the determinants of ownership structure by focusing on the role played by investment, financing and dividend decisions. The use of the Generalised Method of Moments allows us to provide new evidence on this important corporate governance topic, since it controls for the endogeneity problem. Our most relevant findings show that: i) increases in debt lead insiders to limit the risk they bear by reducing their holdings; ii) monitoring by large outside owners substitutes for the disciplinary role of debt; and iii) both inside and outside owners are encouraged to increase their stakes in the firm in view of higher dividends. Our results hold after controlling for equity issues and share repurchases. [source]


    Hedging Affecting Firm Value via Financing and Investment: Evidence from Property Insurance Use

    FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2010
    Hong Zou
    I provide evidence about the value effects of alternative risk management by examining corporate purchase of property insurance, a commonly used pure hedge of asset-loss risks. Using an insurance data set from China, I find that there is an inverted U-shape effect of the extent of property insurance use on firm value measured by several versions of Tobin's Q. Therefore, the use of property insurance, to a certain degree, has a positive effect on firm value; however, over insurance appears detrimental to firm value. Given that the inflection points occur at relatively high levels of the observed insurance spending, insurance use appears beneficial to the majority of my sample firms. The estimated average hedging premium is about 1.5%. I demonstrate that an avenue for insurance to create value in China is that it helps firms secure valuable new debt financing and enhance investment. [source]


    Infrastructure Financing and Operation in the Contemporary City

    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
    PHILLIP M. O'NEILL
    Abstract The provision of large economic infrastructure in Australian cities is widely seen to be in crisis. This paper examines the reasons why crisis has arisen in the urban infrastructure sector and what might be done to redress this. The analysis and the argument are based on a resuscitation of the ideas and ideals of infrastructure provision and how these have been eroded. The paper shows how these ideas/ideals once underpinned the formulation of state role, governance and regulation systems, financial arrangements, and even community need and expectation. Critical to this was an acceptance of the ideals of universality, access, bundling and free positive externalities, and the belief that these should be assembled necessarily as part of any urban infrastructure roll-out. This package became instinctive in post-war economic and urban management. Yet this instinct has been lost as governments shift from models of infrastructure provision to infrastructure procurement where a major role for the private sector is now common. While such an involvement has its benefits, there are concerns for the urban condition when privatisation of infrastructure construction, delivery and operation becomes dominant. Citing Graham and Marvin (2001), the paper argues that, where once infrastructure was the key device for integrating the elements of the city and its people, the way it is now being delivered produces a splintered urbanism. There is an urgent need, then, to re-think what infrastructure means in today's urban context and thereafter to re-assess the criteria for deciding what infrastructure is to be provided, in what form it should be provided, who should provide it, who should pay, and who should operate it. [source]


    Health Financing in Singapore: A Case for Systemic Reforms

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Mukul G. Asher
    This paper assesses Singapore's healthcare financing arrangements in terms of their efficiency, fairness, and adequacy. Singapore represents an interesting case study because it is perhaps the only high-income, rapidly ageing country to rely on mandatory savings to finance healthcare, thus eschewing extensive risk-pooling arrangements, generally regarded as efficient and equitable. The paper argues that parametric reforms, i.e. relatively minor changes in the parameters of current schemes which preserve the existing philosophy and system design, will not be sufficient to meet healthcare financing objectives. Systemic reforms, which will bring Singapore into the mainstream of health financing arrangements found in the OECD countries, are urgently needed. Their design and timing should be based on good quality, timely and relevant data, and an environment conducive to vigorous debate. [source]


    Life Sciences Roundtable: Strategy and Financing

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CORPORATE FINANCE, Issue 2 2009
    Judy Lewent
    In light of the challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry, a distinguished group of pharma executives and strategic and financial advisers discusses the following corporate decisions: Strategy: What business model is most likely to maximize long-term shareholder value? For example, is diversification by big pharma into areas like consumer healthcare and generics a reliable way to create sustainable value? Capital allocation: What are the best methods for evaluating investments in pharma R&D, and for deciding which programs should be terminated and which assets divested? If conventional DCF isn't much help in a world where R&D outcomes are so uncertain, what about proposed models like real options? Corporate governance and incentive systems: Should big pharma continue to outsource ever more of its R&D functions to biotech and venture capital? Or can it overcome the problems associated with size by creating more decentralized business units and trying to replicate the accountability and incentives of smaller biotech firms? Capital structure and payout policy: Are the large cash and equity positions and minimal payouts of big pharma, typically justified as cushioning the uncertainties associated with pharma R&D, likely to be the value-maximizing capital structure in the future? With many biotechs struggling and venture capital scarce, where are the new sources of capital for the industry? And can future deals be structured in ways that help bring about higher returns for big pharma as well as the R&D providers? Disclosure: What should management tell investors to help ensure that their companies' policies and promising investments are reflected in their stock prices? [source]


    Corporate Debt Financing and Earnings Quality

    JOURNAL OF BUSINESS FINANCE & ACCOUNTING, Issue 5-6 2010
    Aloke (Al) Ghosh
    Abstract:, Our study establishes linkages between two extensively researched areas, debt financing and the quality of earnings. Debt can have a ,positive influence'on earnings quality because managers are likely to use their accounting discretion to provide private information about the firms' future prospects to lower financing costs. For high debt, it can also have a ,negative influence' on earnings quality as managers use accruals aggressively to manage earnings to avoid covenant violations. Using accruals quality as a proxy for earnings quality, we document a non-monotonic (curvilinear) relation between debt and earnings quality. The relationship is positive at low levels of debt and negative at high debt levels with an inflection point around 41%. Our results suggest that firms that rely heavily on debt financing might be willing to bear higher costs of borrowing from lower earnings quality because the benefits from avoiding potential debt covenant violations exceed the higher borrowing costs. [source]


    Mezzanine Financing: Is It for You?

    JOURNAL OF CORPORATE ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 2 2008
    LuAnn Bean
    Companies that want to finance a leveraged buyout (LBO) should consider mezzanine financing. This can fill the gap between low-risk collateralized debt, obtained from traditional lenders, and higher-risk equity interests. But what are the pros and cons of this kind of financing? Is it a good option for your company? The author reveals what you should know before committing to this financial arrangement. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Effects of Concentrated Ownership and Owner Management on Small Business Debt Financing,

    JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2007
    Zhenyu Wu
    Using unique data and a new powerful Monte Carlo-based statistical tool, we examine the effects of concentrated ownership and owner,management (CO-OM) on the creditor,shareholder agency conflicts in small firms. A significant CO-OM effect from the small business owner's view, but insignificant from the commercial lenders' perspective, is found. Special features of informational asymmetry problems in small firms with CO-OM are also highlighted. Theoretical and empirical contributions are made to the small business management and corporate governance literature. Findings obtained from this research have important implications for small business practitioners as well as researchers, and this study can serve as a reference for policymakers and institutional lenders to assist small firms in successfully raising money through debt financing. In addition, a new powerful methodology is introduced to deal with various potential statistical biases and can be further applied to this line of research. [source]


    Outcomes of genetics services: Creating an inclusive definition and outcomes menu for public health and clinical genetics services,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2009
    Kerry Silvey
    Abstract Third party payers, funding agencies, and lawmakers often require clinicians and public health agencies to justify programs and services by documenting results. This article describes two assessment tools,"Defining Genetics Services Framework" and "Genetics Services Outcomes Menu," created to assist public health professionals, clinicians, family advocates, and researchers to plan, evaluate, and demonstrate the effectiveness of genetics services. The tools were developed by a work group of the Western States Genetics Services Collaborative (WSGSC) consisting of public health genetics and newborn screening professionals, family representatives, a medical geneticist, and genetic counselors from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The work group created both tools by an iterative process of combining their ideas with findings from a literature and World Wide Web review. The Defining Genetics Services Framework reflects the diversity of work group members. Three over-lapping areas of genetics services from public health core functions to population screening to clinical genetics services are depicted. The Genetics Services Outcomes Menu lists sample long-term outcomes of genetics services. Menu outcomes are classified under impact areas of Knowledge and Information; Financing; Screening and Identification; Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management; and Population Health. The WSGSC incorporated aspects of both tools into their Regional Genetics Plan. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Strategic Positioning and the Financing of Nonprofit Organizations: Is Efficiency Rewarded in the Contributions Marketplace?

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2001
    Peter Frumkin
    This article addresses the question of whether operational efficiency is recognized and rewarded by the private funders that support nonprofit organizations in fields ranging from education to social service to arts and beyond. Looking at the administrative efficiency and fundraising results of a large sample of nonprofit organizations over an 11-year period, we find that nonprofits that position themselves as cost efficient,reporting low administrative to total expense ratios,fared no better over time than less efficient appearing organizations in the market for individual, foundation, and corporate contributions. From this analysis, we suggest that economizing may not always be the best strategy in the nonprofit sector. [source]


    Determinants of Pay-as-You-Go Financing of Capital Projects: Evidence from the States

    PUBLIC BUDGETING AND FINANCE, Issue 4 2007
    WEN WANG
    Although states have long practiced pay-as-you-go in financing their capital projects as a supplement to debt, academia has paid scarce attention to pay-go financing. This study fills in the niche by providing empirical evidence on what determines the use of pay-go in financing capital projects. It develops a model that considers the preferences of both voters and politicians when they make capital financing decisions in a given institutional setting. The empirical results suggest that the use of pay-go is affected by a state's income level, its economic conditions, the presence of a divided government, as well as its budgetary institutions. [source]


    Capital Financing of Schools: A Comparison of Lease Purchase Revenue Bonds and General Obligation Bonds

    PUBLIC BUDGETING AND FINANCE, Issue 2 2002
    Sahma Gamkhar
    School building construction is on the rise nationwide and Texas has led the nation in outlays on school construction. We consider key factors that distinguish lease purchase revenue (LPR) bonds and general obligation (GO) bonds as debt instruments for financing school facilities in Texas. Our research shows that LPR bonds typically have a higher interest cost than GO bonds and they do not have any advantages over GO bonds in circumventing state restrictions on school district tax and debt authority. Voter approval requirements implicit in the state aid formulae supporting school bond repayments and the bond election requirements are however both less stringent in the case of LPR bonds than GO bonds. [source]


    Towards a Unifying Model of Systems of Law, Corporate Financing, Accounting and Corporate Governance

    AUSTRALIAN ACCOUNTING REVIEW, Issue 20 2000
    CHRISTOPHER NOBES
    Several authors have observed a relationship between a country's type of legal system and its style of financial reporting. Generally, the causality is presumed to be from legal system to accounting system. However, one model of accounting differences suggests that the type of accounting is an influence on the regulatory system rather than vice versa. This helps to explain why the Netherlands has Roman law but approximately Anglo-Saxon accounting. It also allows for the extensive use by European companies of US or international rules. This paper expands on these themes, and extends the model to include corporate governance. [source]


    Credit Ratings and Taxes: The Effect of Book,Tax Differences on Ratings Changes

    CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    BENJAMIN C. AYERS
    G29; H25; H32; M41 This paper examines whether credit analysts utilize the information contained in the difference between book and taxable income in analyzing a firm's credit risk. Increased book,tax differences may be informative for credit rating agencies as they may signal decreased earnings quality or changes in the firm's off,balance sheet financing. Results suggest a significant negative association between positive changes in book,tax differences and ratings changes. This evidence is consistent with large positive changes in book,tax differences signaling decreased earnings quality and/or increased off,balance sheet financing. We also find that large negative changes in book,tax differences result in less favorable rating changes, consistent with these changes signaling decreased earnings quality. In additional analyses, we find that the association between changes in book,tax differences and rating changes is attenuated for high,tax-planning firms (e.g., where book,tax differences more likely reflect tax planning than decreased earnings quality). [source]


    Financing Constraints, Ownership Control, and Cross-Border M&As: Evidence from Nine East Asian Economies

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2009
    Yenn-Ru Chen
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study distinguishes between the effects of financial constraint determinants on cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and domestic M&As for all takeover bids announced in nine East Asian economies from 1998 to 2005. Research Findings/Insights: The results of logistic regressions verify that the extent of stock market and governance developments improves corporate financing conditions and subsequently encourages cross-border M&As in East Asia. The results also indicate that, except for ownership control variables, the firm-specific factors of financing constraints reduce the occurrence of cross-border M&As relative to domestic M&As. Although family- and state-controlled firms have better access to external financing, they are reluctant to risk diluting their management control and thus prefer domestic M&As to cross-border deals. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study enhances the empirical studies of the relation between financing constraints and corporate investments based on the market imperfection hypothesis of corporate finance theories. In addition, this study also addresses the interaction between the market imperfection hypothesis and agency theory in explaining the effects of special ownership control on cross-border M&As relative to domestic deals. Furthermore, by examining the research questions across nine East Asian economies, this study provides an understanding of how such a relation applies to firms in countries where information asymmetry is high. Practitioner/Policy Implications: The findings indicate the importance of corporate governance and verify the effects of unique organizational structures on major corporate decisions. Specifically, family-controlled firms are often free of the financing constraints inherent in investment decisions. Thus, it is necessary to consider such organizational uniqueness when explaining the financing behavior of cross-border M&As conducted by Asian firms. [source]


    Capital Investment and Earnings: International Evidence

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 5 2009
    Ahmet Can Inci
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: We examine the nature of the dynamic linkage (causality) between earnings and capital investment using firm-level data from around the world to see whether the legal environment, including corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms, and financial development are important in the profitability of capital investment. Research Findings/Insights: Using firms in 40 countries over the period 1988,2004, we find that the causality from earnings to capital investment is positive and strong in almost all countries, irrespective of the type of legal system and the degree of financial development. However, the causality from capital investment to earnings is generally negative for firms in civil law and financially undeveloped countries, while the causality is generally positive in common law and financially developed countries. Therefore, our international cross-country study enables us to find that the legal system and financial development are factors in the determination of the profitability of capital investment. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our findings imply that internal financing is a significant constraint for capital investment, which provides support for the pecking order theory even for financially developed markets and for the free cash flow theory. Common law and financially developed countries tend to provide better shareholder protection with more efficient corporate governance and better investment decisions. Practitioner/Policy Implications: To encourage managers to make capital investments in value-increasing projects, it is important to further improve a legal environment that includes corporate governance, monitoring, and incentive mechanisms. Financial development that includes effective financial regulatory agencies should be sought. [source]


    TRIPs and Public Health: The Doha Declaration and Africa

    DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 1 2007
    Stine Jessen Haakonsson
    The Doha Declaration on the TRIPs Agreement and Public Health (2001), aimed at improving access to medicines, especially for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in developing and least developed countries, has not yet been used for compulsory licences to import generic medicines or for expanding production for export to poor countries. By analysing HIV/AIDS treatment in Uganda, this article discusses the variety of TRIPs-related channels for ensuring drugs for domestic treatment, and argues that emphasising the restrictive nature of TRIPs provisions fails to grasp the scale of the obstacles involved. Lack of domestic resources leaves African countries dependent on donor financing, which in turn constrains their ability to exploit international trade provisions. [source]


    Issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders,

    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Paul T. Shattuck
    Abstract This paper explores issues and implications for diagnosis and treatment, stemming from the growing number of children identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent developments and innovations in special education and Medicaid programs are emphasized. Eligibility determination policies, innovations in diagnostic practices, the cost and financing of assessment, variability among programs in diagnostic criteria, and racial/ethnic disparities in the timing of diagnosis all influence the capacity of service systems to provide diagnoses in a timely, coordinated, accurate, economical, and equitable manner. There are several barriers to the more widespread provision of intensive intervention for children with ASDs, including lack of strong evidence of effectiveness in scaled-up public programs, uncertainty about the extent of obligations to provide services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, high cost of intervention, and variability among states in their willingness to fund intensive intervention via Medicaid. Innovative policy experiments with respect to financing intensive intervention through schools and Medicaid are being conducted in a number of states. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2007;13:129,135. [source]


    Equity-Based, Asset-Based and Asset-Backed Transactional Structures in Shari'a -Compliant Financing: Reflections on the Current Financial Crisis,

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2009
    Razi Pahlavi Abdul Aziz
    F33; G21; P45; P49 This paper presents interest-free equity-based, asset-based and asset-backed transactional structures endorsed by Shari'a -compliant finance. These structures could explain the potential and relative insulation, yet not immunity, of Islamic financial institutions from the financial crisis. Although Shari'a -compliant financing cannot solve the current financial crisis, the recovering market could consider incorporating some of the insulating principles underlying Shari'a -compliant financing and securitization products, as exemplified in the sample of Shari'a -compliant products in this paper, so as to offer better consumer protection. [source]