Field Campaigns (field + campaign)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Spatiotemporal characterization of interswarm period seismicity in the focal area Nový Kostel (West Bohemia/Vogtland) by a short-term microseismic study

Martin Häge
SUMMARY The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is one of the seismically most interesting areas in Europe because of its swarm-like occurrence of seismicity. The installation of the local West Bohemian seismological network (WEBNET) has made the recording of small magnitude seismicity (detection threshold ML,,0.5) possible. We investigated if microseismicity exists below the detection threshold of WEBNET. A microseismic field campaign was carried out in the focal area Nový Kostel. The measurement was performed with three small arrays lasting for 6 d in a seismically quiet, interswarm period. We were able to detect and locate 13 microearthquakes in the magnitude range ,1.5 ,ML,,0.1 and achieved a detection threshold about one magnitude lower than the local network. A relative location suggests that the recorded seismicity is rather related to a specific fault segment than randomly distributed. The determined fault zone is aligned NW,SW and confirms the viability of mapping active faults with short-term measurements. The results demonstrate that a linear extrapolation of the b -value, determined by the network bulletin, down to ML=,0.5 fits well with the amount of our recorded events. [source]

Geology, Materials, and the Design of the Roman Harbour of Soli-Pompeiopolis, Turkey: the ROMACONS field campaign of August 2009

Christopher Brandon
First page of article [source]

Flow and pollution transport during Wagerup 2006: a case study

Charles Retallack
Abstract As part of a broader field campaign dubbed Wagerup 2006, a case study was carried out to determine the overnight pollution transport mechanisms and flow characteristics near Wagerup, Western Australia. The ambient conditions were characterized by stable stratification with little synoptic influence in the lower boundary layer. An elevated jet intrusion originating on a nearby escarpment slope was found to induce sufficient mixing causing elevated pollution plumes to reach ground level. Onset of mixing was accurately predicted by non-linear critical Richardson number estimates obtained in previous laboratory work. The increase in ground level temperatures brought about by shear induced mixing later prompted a sea-breeze like gravity current that was completely blocked by the escarpment and as a result pollutants were trapped against the escarpment slope. A notable side effect of the topographic blocking was the subsequent steady 360° rotation of ground level winds within an area of influence described by the Rossby deformation radius. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Secondary initiation of multiple bands of cumulonimbus over southern Britain.

I: An observational case-study
Abstract Special observing facilities have been assembled in southern England as part of the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) to study the mesoscale and convective-scale processes that determine precisely where warm-season convective showers will break out. This paper reports the results of a case-study during the pilot field campaign of CSIP in July 2004. One purpose of the pilot project was to demonstrate the value of various observational facilities and to evaluate the usefulness of a variety of analysis and synthesis techniques. Amongst other things, the case-study demonstrates the utility of high-resolution imagery from the Meteosat Second Generation satellite for tracking the early stages of the convective clouds, and of a new clear-air scanning radar at Chilbolton for mapping both the top of the boundary layer and the initial growth of the convective cells that penetrate it. The particular event studied involved the triggering of convection that developed into three parallel arcs of showers and thunderstorms. The first arc was triggered along the leading edge of the outflow (density current) from an earlier cluster of showers, but the convection in the second and third arcs was triggered by a different mechanism. The paper describes in detail the way in which this convection broke through the stable layer, or lid, at the top of a boundary layer of variable depth. The strength of the lid decreased and the depth of the boundary layer increased with time as a result of diurnal heating, but the precise locations where convection finally broke through were determined by the spatial variability in boundary-layer depth. The analysis suggests that a wave-like modulation of the boundary-layer depth of amplitude 150 m, perhaps due to a gravity-wave disturbance from the earlier cluster of showers, had a greater influence on where the convection was triggered than the modest hills (typically 200 m high) in southern England. © Royal Meteorological Society, 2006. Contributions by P. A. Clark and M. E. B. Gray are Crown Copyright. [source]

Observations of downslope winds and rotors in the Falkland Islands

S. D. Mobbs
Abstract A field campaign aimed at observing the near-surface flow field across and downwind of a mountain range on the Falkland Islands, South Atlantic, is described. The objective was to understand and eventually predict orographically generated turbulence. The instrumentation was based primarily on an array of automatic weather stations (AWSs), which recorded 30 s mean surface pressure, wind speed and direction (at 2 m), temperature and relative humidity for approximately one year. These measurements were supported by twice-daily radiosonde releases. The densest part of the AWS array was located to the south of the Wickham mountain range, across Mount Pleasant Airfield (MPA). In northerly flow the array provides a detailed study of the flow downwind of the mountain range. The dataset contains several episodes in which the flow downwind of the mountains is accelerated relative to the upwind flow. During some of these episodes short-lived (typically ,1 hour) periods of unsteady flow separation are observed and these are associated with the formation of rotors aloft. Such events present a significant hazard to aviation at MPA. Examination of radiosonde profiles suggests that the presence of a strong temperature inversion at a height similar to the mountain height is a necessary condition for both downwind acceleration and the formation of rotors. The data are used to show that the downwind fractional speed-up is proportional to the non-dimensional mountain height (based on upstream near-surface winds and a depth-averaged Brunt,Väisälä frequency diagnosed from radiosonde data). Similarly, a relationship is established between a quantity that describes the spatial variability of the flow downwind of the mountains and the upstream wind and depth-averaged Brunt,Väisälä frequency. The dependence of the flow behaviour on the Froude number (defined in the usual way for two-layer shallow-water flow) and ratio of mountain height to inversion height is presented in terms of a flow regime diagram. © Royal Meteorological Society, 2005. S. B. Vosper's and P. F. Sheridan's contributions are Crown copyright [source]

Introduction to the AMMA Special Issue on ,Advances in understanding atmospheric processes over West Africa through the AMMA field campaign'

J.-P. Lafore
First page of article [source]

Wind erosion characteristics of Sahelian surface types

Thomas Maurer
Abstract The assessment of wind erosion magnitudes for a given area requires knowledge of wind erosion susceptibilities of the dominant local surface types. Relative wind erosion potentials of surfaces can hardly be compared under field conditions, as each erosion event is unique in terms of duration, intensity and extent. The objective of this study was to determine and compare relative wind erosion potentials of the most representative surface types over a transect comprising most parts of southwestern Niger. For this purpose, mobile wind tunnel experiments were run on 26 dominant surface types. The effects of surface disturbance were additionally determined for 13 of these surfaces. The results, namely measurements of wind fields and mass fluxes, can be classified according to specific surface characteristics. Three basic surface groups with similar emission behaviour and aerodynamic characteristics were identified: (1) sand surfaces, (2) rough stone surfaces and (3) flat crusted surfaces. Sand surfaces feature a turbulent zone close to the surface due to the development of a saltation layer. Their surface roughness is medium to high, as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy of the wind field to saltating particles. Sand surfaces show the highest mass fluxes due to the abundance of loose particles, but also fairly high PM10 fluxes, as potential dust particles are not contained in stable crusts or aggregates. Rough stone surfaces, due to their fragmented and irregular surface, feature the highest surface roughness and the most intense turbulence. They are among the weakest emitters but, due to their relatively high share of potential dust particles, PM10 emissions are still average. Flat crusted surfaces, in contrast, show low turbulence and the lowest surface roughness. This group of surfaces shows rather heterogeneous mass fluxes, which range from moderate to almost zero, although the share of PM10 particles is always relatively high. Topsoil disturbance always results in higher total and PM10 emissions on sand surfaces and also on flat crusted surfaces. Stone surfaces regularly exhibit a decrease in emission after disturbance, which can possibly be attributed to a reorganization which protects finer particles from entrainment. The results are comparable with field studies of natural erosion events and similar wind tunnel field campaigns. The broad range of tested surfaces and the standardized methodology are a precondition for the future regionalization of the experimental point data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Detection of a low-relief 18th-century British siege trench using LiDAR vegetation penetration capabilities at Fort Beauséjour,Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada

Koreen Millard
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), a remote sensing data collection technique, has many applications in the field of archaeology, including aiding in the planning of field campaigns, mapping features beneath forest canopy, and providing an overview of broad, continuous features that may be indistinguishable on the ground. LiDAR was used to create a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) in a heavily vegetated area at Fort Beauséjour,Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada. Previously undiscovered archaeological features were mapped that were related to the siege of the fort in 1755. Features that could not be distinguished on the ground or through aerial photography were identified by overlaying hillshades of the DEM created with artificial illumination from various angles. LiDAR provides accurate digital topographic models with the additional benefit of mapping vertical surfaces in accurate detail below the forest canopy. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

High rates of net ecosystem carbon assimilation by Brachiara pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado

Alexandre J.B. Santos
Abstract To investigate the consequences of land use on carbon and energy exchanges between the ecosystem and atmosphere, we measured CO2 and water vapour fluxes over an introduced Brachiara brizantha pasture located in the Cerrado region of Central Brazil. Measurements using eddy covariance technique were carried out in field campaigns during the wet and dry seasons. Midday CO2 net ecosystem exchange rates during the wet season were ,40 ,mol m,2 s,1, which is more than twice the rate found in the dry season (,15 ,mol m,2 s,1). This was observed despite similar magnitudes of irradiance, air and soil temperatures. During the wet season, inferred rates of canopy photosynthesis did not show any tendency to saturate at high solar radiation levels, with rates of around 50 ,mol m,2 s,1 being observed at the maximum incoming photon flux densities of 2200 ,mol m,2 s,1. This contrasted strongly to the dry period when light saturation occurred with 1500 ,mol m,2 s,1 and with maximum canopy photosynthetic rates of only 20 ,mol m,2 s,1. Both canopy photosynthetic rates and night-time ecosystem CO2 efflux rates were much greater than has been observed for cerrado native vegetation in both the wet and dry seasons. Indeed, observed CO2 exchange rates were also much greater than has previously been reported for C4 pastures in the tropics. The high rates in the wet season may have been attributable, at least in part, to the pasture not being grazed. Higher than expected net rates of carbon acquisition during the dry season may also have been attributable to some early rain events. Nevertheless, the present study demonstrates that well-managed, productive tropical pastures can attain ecosystem gas exchange rates equivalent to fertilized C4 crops growing in the temperate zone. [source]

A Modular Injection System, Multilevel Sampler, and Manifold for Tracer Tests

GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2003
Brian J. Mailloux
Ground water injection and sampling systems were developed for bacterial transport experiments in both homogenous and heterogeneous unconsolidated, surficial aquifers. Two types of injection systems, a large single tank and a dynamic mixing tank, were designed to deliver more than 800 L of amended ground water to the aquifer over 12 hours, without altering the ground water temperature, pH, Eh, or dissolved gas composition. Two types of multilevel samplers (MLSs) were designed and installed. Permanent MLSs performed well for the homogenous surficial aquifer, but their installation procedure promoted vertical mixing, which could obfuscate experimental data obtained from vertically stratified, heterogeneous aquifers. A novel, removable MLS was designed to fit in 2- and 4-inch wells. Expandable O-rings between each sampling port hydraulically isolated each port for sample collection when a nut was tightened at the land surface. A low-cost vacuum manifold system designed to work with both MLS designs used 50 mL centrifuge tubes to efficiently sample 12 MLS ports with one peristaltic pump head. The integrated system was developed and used during four field campaigns over a period of three years. During each campaign, more than 3000 ground water samples were collected in less than one week. This system should prove particularly useful for ground water tracer, injection, and push-pull experiments that require high-frequency and/or high-density sampling. [source]

A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming

Xiping Zeng
Abstract Ice nuclei (IN) significantly affect clouds via supercooled droplets, that in turn modulate atmospheric radiation and thus climate change. Since the IN effect is relatively strong in stratiform clouds but weak in convective ones, the overall effect depends on the ratio of stratiform to convective cloud amount. In this paper, ten years of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data are analyzed to confirm that stratiform precipitation fraction increases with increasing latitude, which implies that the IN effect is stronger at higher latitudes. To quantitatively evaluate the IN effect versus latitude, large-scale forcing data from ten field campaigns are used to drive a cloud-resolving model to generate long-term cloud simulations. As revealed in the simulations, the increase in the net downward radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere from doubling the current IN concentrations is larger at higher latitude, which is attributed to the meridional tendency in the stratiform precipitation fraction. Surface warming from doubling the IN concentrations, based on the radiative balance of the globe, is compared with that from anthropogenic CO2. It is found that the former effect is stronger than the latter in middle and high latitudes but not in the Tropics. With regard to the impact of IN on global warming, there are two factors to consider: the radiative effect from increasing the IN concentration and the increase in IN concentration itself. The former relies on cloud ensembles and thus varies mainly with latitude. In contrast, the latter relies on IN sources (e.g. the land surface distribution) and thus varies not only with latitude but also longitude. Global desertification and industrialization provide clues on the geographic variation of the increase in IN concentration since pre-industrial times. Thus, their effect on global warming can be inferred and can then be compared with observations. A general match in geographic and seasonal variations between the inferred and observed warming suggests that IN may have contributed positively to global warming over the past decades, especially in middle and high latitudes. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

A review of the initiation of precipitating convection in the United Kingdom

Lindsay J. Bennett
Abstract Recent severe weather events have prompted the European scientific community to assess the current understanding of convective processes with a view to more detailed and accurate forecasting. The initial development of convective cells remains one of the least understood aspects and one in which limited research has taken place. The important processes can be split into three main areas: boundary-layer forcing, upper-level forcing and secondary generation. This paper is a review of the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of precipitating convection in the United Kingdom; i.e. why convective clouds form and develop into precipitating clouds in a particular location. The topography of the United Kingdom has a large influence on the initiation of convection. Boundary-layer forcings determine the specific location where convection is triggered within larger regions of potential instability. These latter regions are created by mesoscale or synoptic-scale features at a higher level such as dry intrusions and mesoscale vortices. Second-generation cells are those formed by the interaction of outflow from convective clouds with the surrounding environmental air. Large, long-lived thunderstorm complexes can develop when new cells are repeatedly triggered on one side of the system. Current and future field campaigns along with the development of high-resolution modelling will enable these processes to be investigated in more detail than has previously been achieved. © Royal Meteorological Society, 2006. Contributions by P. A. Clark and M. E. B. Gray are Crown Copyright. [source]