Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Fentanyl

  • epidural fentanyl
  • i.v. fentanyl
  • intravenous fentanyl
  • transdermal fentanyl

  • Terms modified by Fentanyl

  • fentanyl consumption
  • fentanyl dose
  • fentanyl group
  • fentanyl patch

  • Selected Abstracts

    Eine erweiterte Evaluation der Neurolept-Anästhesie für Meerschweinchen mit einer Analyse gemischt-exspiratorischer Gase während Spontanatmung.

    Wirkung des Fastens auf das kardiorespiratorische System und den Metabolismus
    Zusammenfassung Das beatmete Meerschweinchen wurde oft für neurophysiologische und respiratorische Studien eingesetzt. Diese Spezies ist auch für eine Evaluation künstlicher Sauerstoffträger, entwickelt aus Hämoglobin, geeignet, weil seine Sauerstoff-Hämoglobin-Bindung der des Menschen sehr ähnlich ist. Andererseits ist eine Narkose dieser Tiere wegen kardio-respiratorischer Depression mit herkömmlichen Verfahren schwierig. Bewährt hat sich die folgende intraperitoneal zu verabreichende Neurolept-Anästhesie: 0,2 mg Fentanyl (Janssen/D), 10 mg Droperidol (Janssen/D) sowie 400 mg Urethan in 10 ml isotonischer Natriumchlorid-Lösung pro kg Körpergewicht. Unser neues Tier-Modell ermöglicht, mit einem speziellen Ventilsystem den Gasaustausch unter Spontanatmung, kardiovaskuläre wie auch Blutgaswerte und damit den Säure-Basen-Status zu messen. Die vitalen Parameter der Tiere, blieben über mehr als 6 Stunden stabil und nahe bei Werten wacher Tiere, insbesondere der mittlere arterielle Blutdruck. Deswegen ist diese etablierte Neurolept-Anästhesie des Meerschweinchens für Forschungszweck zu bevorzugen. Nüchterne Tiere zeigten signifikant erniedrigte Blut-pH- (7,345 bzw. 7,401) sowie Herzfrequenz- (244 bzw. 277 min,1) und Ventilationswerte (167 bzw. 205 ml/min) im Vergleich zu nicht nüchternen Tieren. Summary An Extended Evaluation of a Neuroleptanesthesia for the Guinea Pig with Analysis of Mixed Expiratory Gases during Spontaneous Breathing. Effects of Fasting on the Cardiorespiratory System and Metabolism The artificially ventilated guinea pig was frequently used for neurophysiological and respiratory studies. This species is also preferable for an evaluation of hemoglobin based artificial oxygen carriers, because its oxygen hemoglobin binding is very similar to that of man. But the narcosis of this animal-species is very difficult, because of cardiorespiratory depression induced by conventional procedures. The following intraperitoneal administered neuroleptanesthesia was proved in guinea pigs: 0,2 mg Fentanyl (Janssen/D), 10 mg Droperidol (Janssen/D) and 400 mg Urethan in 10 ml isotonic sodium chloride solution per kg body weight. Our new animal model with a special valve system enables to assess the gas exchange under spontaneous breathing, cardiovascular and the acid-base parameters. The vital parameters of animals were stable over 6 hours and very close to those of awake animals, especially the arterial average blood pressure. For that reason, this established neuroleptanesthesia of guinea pigs is preferable for research purpose. The fasted animals show significantly decreased values of arterial blood pH (7,345 vs. 7,401), of heart frequency (244 vs. 277 min,1), and of ventilation value (167 vs. 205 ml/min) compared to non-fasted animals. [source]

    Concurrent Detection of Heroin, Fentanyl, and Xylazine in Seven Drug-related Deaths Reported from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office

    Stella C. Wong D.O.
    Abstract:, Recreational drugs, such as cocaine and heroin, are often adulterated with other pharmacological agents to either enhance or diminish the drug effects. Between April 21, 2006 and August 8, 2006, the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office detected xylazine (a veterinary sedative) and fentanyl (a synthetic opioid) in specimens taken from seven cases. Initial immunoassay screening was performed on urine and blood for fentanyl, opiate, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and benzodiazepines. All tests reported positive were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All seven xylazine positive cases tested positive for fentanyl and six cases tested positive for 6-acetylmorphine (a metabolite and definitive marker for heroin). The seventh case was positive for morphine and had a history of heroin abuse. Xylazine was present in urine in all seven cases and blood levels were detected in three cases. The blood concentrations ranged from trace to 130 ng/mL. Fentanyl was present in the blood and urine in each case and blood concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 47 ng/mL. Adulteration of illicit drugs has become an epidemic health concern for drug users. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of this issue, so the patients can be treated in an effective, timely manner. [source]

    Conscious Sedation with Intermittent Midazolam and Fentanyl in Electrophysiology Procedures

    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation for electrophysiology procedures (EP). Background: Intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation was administered in 700 consecutive cases (175 radiofrequency ablations, 163 EP studies, 261 pacemakers, and 101 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators) for 471 patients (239 males, 51%) mean age 65 ± 15 years. The mean dose of midazolam was 0.063 mg/kg/hr and fentanyl was 0.591,g/kg/hr. Methods: Cardiac rate and rhythm were monitored continuously, while blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were noninvasively assessed evevy 5 minutes. Drugs were administered in aliquots of 0.5 to 2.0 mg of midazolam and 6.25 to 25 ,g of fentanyl as determined by clinical condition every 15 to 30 minutes. Results: There were no deaths. In no case was endotracheal intubation required. Mild hypoxemia (SaO2 > 80%, but < 90%) occurred in 17 cases (2.4%) and was easily reversed with verbal stimulation and oropharyngeal repositioning (12 cases, 1.7%), increased F1O2 (3 cases, 0.4%), or intravenous naloxone (2 cases, 0.3%). Reversible hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90, but > 60 mmHg) occurred in 14 patients (2.0%) and was corrected with intravenous crystalloid bolus or flumazenil (10 cases, 1.4%) or inotrope infusion (4 cases, 0.6%). No patient stay was prolonged due to sedation. Only five patients (0.7%) had any recollection of the procedure, while two (0.3%) were aware of pain. All hypoxemic episodes occurred during the first hour, whereas 43% (6/14) of hypotensive episodes occurred after the first hour. Conclusion: Conscious sedation with intermittent midazolam and fentanyl is safe and eficacious for a broad range of EP procedures. (J Interven Cardiol 2001; 14:143,146) [source]

    Analgesic and antiemetic effect of ketorolac vs. betamethasone or dexamethasone after ambulatory surgery

    K. S. Thagaard
    Background:, Glucocorticoids are known to provide slower onset and more prolonged duration of analgesic effect than ketorolac. In the present study, we wanted to evaluate the effect over time from a single dose of either intravenous (i.v.) dexamethasone or an intramuscular (i.m.) depot formulation of betamethasone compared with i.v. ketorolac. Materials and methods:, One hundred and seventy-nine patients admitted for mixed ambulatory surgery were included in the study. After induction of general i.v. anaesthesia, the patients were randomized to receive double-blindly either dexamethasone 4 mg i.v. (Group D) or betamethasone depot formulation 12 mg i.m. (Group B) or ketorolac 30 mg i.v. (Group K). Fentanyl was used for rescue analgesic medication in the post-operative care unit (PACU) and codeine with paracetamol after discharge, for a study period of 3 days. Results:, There was significantly less post-operative pain in the ketorolac group during the stay in the unit (88% with minor or less pain in Group K vs. 74% and 67% in Groups D and B, respectively, P < 0.05), significantly less need for rescue medication (P < 0.05) and significantly less nausea or vomiting (12% in Group K vs. 30% in the other groups pooled, P < 0.05). The ketorolac patients were significantly faster for ready discharge, median 165 min vs. 192 min and 203 min in Groups D and B, respectively (P < 0.01). There were no differences between the groups in perceived pain, nausea, vomiting or rescue analgesic consumption in the 4- to 72-h period. Conclusion:, Dexamethasone 4 mg or bethamethasone 12 mg did not provide prolonged post-operative analgesic effect compared with ketorolac 30 mg, which was superior for analgesia and antiemesis in the PACU. [source]

    Fentanyl reduces desflurane-induced airway irritability following thiopental administration in children

    J. Lee
    Background:, Airway irritation is a major drawback of desflurane anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of intravenous fentanyl given before thiopental induction on airway irritation caused by a stepwise increase in desflurane in children. Methods:, Eighty children (2,8 years) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind study. Forty received saline and 40 received 2 ,g/kg of fentanyl intravenously; this was followed by thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg in both groups. Patients were assistant-ventilated with desflurane 1%, which was then increased by 1% every six breaths up to 10%. During this period, cough, secretion, excitation and apnea were graded and the desflurane concentration at which airway irritation symptoms first occurred was recorded. The results were analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results:, The incidence of typical airway irritation events was lower with fentanyl than with saline (cough, 2.5% vs. 42.5%; secretion, 27.5% vs. 82.5%; excitation, 10% vs. 82.5%; apnea, 20% vs. 65%; P < 0.05). The mean expired desflurane concentration at which the first airway irritation symptom occurred was greater with fentanyl than with saline (7.3% vs. 5.5%, P < 0.05). Conclusions:, Intravenous fentanyl in children reduces airway complications caused by desflurane. [source]

    Clinical trial: a randomized, study comparing meperidine (pethidine) and fentanyl in adult gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Summary Background, There is little evidence to guide choice between meperidine (pethidine) and fentanyl for sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Aim, To compare meperidine with fentanyl in terms of procedure time and analgesia. Methods, Single centre randomized controlled trial. Patients received narcotic doses and midazolam at the discretion of the attending endoscopist who was unaware of narcotic assignment. Endoscopy and recovery times were then recorded. The main outcome was total procedure time, defined as endoscopy time plus recovery time. Patient discomfort was assessed prior to discharge via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results, In total, 55 patients were randomized to meperidine [44 colonoscopy and 11 esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)] and 56 to fentanyl (45 colonoscopy and 11 EGD). Total procedure time was shorter for those receiving fentanyl (mean = 87.7 min) than for those receiving meperidine (mean = 102.9 min) (P = 0.05). The difference between the groups was explained by a shorter mean recovery time in the fentanyl group (63.0 min) than in the meperidine group (76.2 min) (P = 0.07). Based on post procedure pain scores, examinations with meperidine (mean = 1.99) were less painful when compared with those receiving fentanyl (mean = 2.86, P = 0.03). Conclusions, Fentanyl shortened total procedure time by reducing recovery time. A simple change in narcotic choice could increase endoscopy unit efficiency. [source]

    Relationship between plasma concentrations and analgesia after intravenous fentanyl and disposition after other routes of administration in cats,

    Data allowing rational use of analgesics in cats are limited. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl were studied in cats. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay in a crossover study in six cats after 10 ,g/kg (i.v.) or by application of fentanyl in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) to the inner ear pinna. On a separate occasion thermal thresholds were measured after i.v. fentanyl (10 ,g/kg) or saline. Plasma fentanyl concentrations reached 4.7,8.31 ng/mL 2 min after i.v. administration and were undetectable after 95 min. Fentanyl was not detected in plasma at any time after PLO use. Thermal thresholds did not change following saline administration but were increased above baseline from 5 to 110 min after i.v. fentanyl. In this model a plasma concentration of >1.07 ng/mL was required to provide analgesia. Plasma concentrations were measured in additional cats after intranasal or oral dosing (2 ,g/kg) and after 30 ,g/kg in PLO gel. After oral and nasal dosing, Cmax values were 0.96 and 1.48 ng/mL at 5 and 2 min, respectively. Plasma fentanyl was not detected after application of the higher dose of fentanyl in PLO. [source]

    Toward Evidence-Based Prescribing at End of Life: A Comparative Analysis of Sustained-Release Morphine, Oxycodone, and Transdermal Fentanyl, with Pain, Constipation, and Caregiver Interaction Outcomes in Hospice Patients

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 4 2006
    BCPS, Douglas J. Weschules PharmD
    ABSTRACT Objective., The primary goal of this investigation was to examine selected outcomes in hospice patients who are prescribed one of three sustained-release opioid preparations. The outcomes examined include: pain score, constipation severity, and ability of the patient to communicate with caregivers. Patients and Settings., This study included 12,000 terminally ill patients consecutively admitted to hospices and receiving pharmaceutical care services between the period of July 1 and December 31, 2002. Design., We retrospectively examined prescribing patterns of sustained-release morphine, oxycodone, and transdermal fentanyl. We compared individual opioids on the aforementioned outcome markers, as well as patient gender, terminal diagnosis, and median length of stay. Results., Patients prescribed a sustained-release opioid had similar average ratings of pain and constipation severity, regardless of the agent chosen. Patients prescribed transdermal fentanyl were reported to have more difficulty communicating with friends and family when compared with patients prescribed either morphine or oxycodone. On average, patients prescribed transdermal fentanyl had a shorter length of stay on hospice as compared with those receiving morphine or oxycodone. Conclusion., There was no difference in observed pain or constipation severity among patients prescribed sustained-release opioid preparations. Patients receiving fentanyl were likely to have been prescribed the medication due to advanced illness and associated dysphagia. Diminished ability to communicate with caregivers and a shorter hospice course would be consistent with this profile. Further investigation is warranted to examine the correlation between a patient's ability to interact with caregivers and pain control achieved. [source]

    Transdermal Fentanyl: Little Absorption in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis?

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
    Matthias Karst MD
    Two patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with the 25 ,/hr transdermal fentanyl patch for pain from either deltoid muscle tendinitis of the left arm or from ischemia of the left-hand thumb. When the medication was changed to either oral morphine or oral methadone, the effects did not correspond to the drug conversion table. These findings suggest that patients with SSc and other systemic skin diseases may be at risk for limited absorption of transdermal fentanyl. In contrast, no restriction of the absorption of transdermal testosterone was observed. [source]

    (231) Use of Transmucosal Fentanyl in Non-Malignant, Chronic Pain

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
    Forest Tennant
    Transmucosal fentanyl (TF) has recently become available for treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients who are already tolerant to opioids. In addition to cancer patients, there is a growing number of chronic pain patients who regularly use and are tolerant to opioids and require a breakthrough opioid for adequate pain control. This pilot study was done to determine if TF is effective and acceptable to non-malignant, chronic pain patients who are opioid tolerant and require a breakthrough opioid(s) for pain control. Sixty patients with chronic, non-malignant pain who were maintained on a long-acting opioid and who required breakthrough pain control were given TF in an initial dose of 400 or 600 mcg per single, transmuscosal administration. Among the study group 35 (58.3%) experienced chronic pain due to injuries to the spine and 25 (41.7%) were due to medical conditions other than cancer. After at least three months of usage, patients were asked if they desired to continue TF and the reason(s) why they believed it to be effective. Fifty-eight (96.7%) of these subjects perceived that TF was an effective breakthrough opioid and desired to continue it. The single, effective dosage ranged from 800 to 1600 mcg per administration, and the number of separate monthly dosages ranged from 2 to 360. The majority of patients used TF only for emergency, pain purposes but others preferred TF as their major breakthrough opioid and ceased use of other short-acting opioids including injectable meperidine. Reported reasons for widespread patient acceptance included TF's fast action, fewer bed-bound days, increased energy, decreased use of other opioids, less depression, and fewer emergency room visits. This pilot study indicates that TF is effective and desired as a preferential opioid for breakthrough pain by a high percentage of chronic, non-malignant pain patients. [source]

    (647) Evaluation of the Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Fentanyl in the Treatment of Noncancer Pain: The Interim Analysis

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2000
    Article first published online: 25 DEC 200
    Authors: K Milligan, South Cleveland Hospital, L Haazen and L Bijnens, Janssen Research Foundation Aim of Investigation: To document long-term efficacy and safety of transdermal (TTS) fentanyl for the management of noncancer pain. Methods: The study was an open-label, international, multi-center, phase III trial in 532 patients (mean age 51.5 years) with a median pain duration of 6 years. Two hundred sixty-two patients (50%) had neuropathic pain and 367 (70%) had predominantly somatic, nociceptive pain. TTS-fentanyl was started at an equi-analgesic dose to the pretrial opioid, and given for 12 months. Main outcome measures were weekly assessment of pain control, global treatment satisfaction and quality of life scores. Results: At interim analysis, 120 patients had completed the trial, 211 were continuing treatment, and 201 patients had discontinued. The mean dose of TTS-fentanyl increased from 48 ,g/h to 105 ,g/h over 12 months, with most increases occurring in the first months. During treatment the number of subjects reporting very good, good, or moderate pain control remained stable at 65% (range 61% to 75%). Global satisfaction (very good or good) was also stable at 42% (range 38% to 46%). Eighty-six percent of patients reported preference for TTS-fentanyl over their previous treatment, stating the main reason as better pain relief. SF-36 scores improved from baseline for physical pain and physical summary measurements. The most frequently occurring adverse events were nausea (28%), sonmolence (17%), constipation (15%), vomiting (15%), and increased sweating (14%). Conclusions: Long-term treatment with TTS-fentanyl provides a stable degree of pain control in the majority of patients with moderate-to-severe noncancer pain. It was preferred by the majority of subjects to their previous medication and favorably improved their quality of life. Acknowledgments: Supported by the Janssen Research Foundation. [source]

    Opioids and the Management of Chronic Severe Pain in the Elderly: Consensus Statement of an International Expert Panel with Focus on the Six Clinically Most Often Used World Health Organization step III Opioids (Buprenorphine, Fentanyl, Hydromorphone, Methadone, Morphine, Oxycodone)

    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
    Joseph Pergolizzi MD
    ,,Abstract Summary of consensus: 1.,The use of opioids in cancer pain:, The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.). At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change. This consensus is based on evidence-based literature (extended data are not included and chronic, extended-release opioids are not covered). There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor. The transdermal formulation of buprenorphine is available in most European countries, particularly those with high opioid usage, with the exception of France; however, the availability of the sublingual formulation of buprenorphine in Europe is limited, as it is marketed in only a few countries, including Germany and Belgium. The opioid patch is experimental at present in U.S.A. and the sublingual formulation has dispensing restrictions, therefore, its use is limited. It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned. Globally, there is going to be an older population that needs to be cared for in the future. This older population has expectations in life, in that a retiree is no longer an individual who decreases their lifestyle activities. The "baby-boomers" in their 60s and 70s are "baby zoomers"; they want to have a functional active lifestyle. They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality. Therefore, comorbidities,including cancer and noncancer pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and postherpetic neuralgia,and patient functional status need to be taken carefully into account when addressing pain in the elderly. World Health Organization step III opioids are the mainstay of pain treatment for cancer patients and morphine has been the most commonly used for decades. In general, high level evidence data (Ib or IIb) exist, although many studies have included only few patients. Based on these studies, all opioids are considered effective in cancer pain management (although parts of cancer pain are not or only partially opioid sensitive), but no well-designed specific studies in the elderly cancer patient are available. Of the 2 opioids that are available in transdermal formulation,fentanyl and buprenorphine,fentanyl is the most investigated, but based on the published data both seem to be effective, with low toxicity and good tolerability profiles, especially at low doses. 2.,The use of opioids in noncancer-related pain:, Evidence is growing that opioids are efficacious in noncancer pain (treatment data mostly level Ib or IIb), but need individual dose titration and consideration of the respective tolerability profiles. Again no specific studies in the elderly have been performed, but it can be concluded that opioids have shown efficacy in noncancer pain, which is often due to diseases typical for an elderly population. When it is not clear which drugs and which regimes are superior in terms of maintaining analgesic efficacy, the appropriate drug should be chosen based on safety and tolerability considerations. Evidence-based medicine, which has been incorporated into best clinical practice guidelines, should serve as a foundation for the decision-making processes in patient care; however, in practice, the art of medicine is realized when we individualize care to the patient. This strikes a balance between the evidence-based medicine and anecdotal experience. Factual recommendations and expert opinion both have a value when applying guidelines in clinical practice. 3.,The use of opioids in neuropathic pain:, The role of opioids in neuropathic pain has been under debate in the past but is nowadays more and more accepted; however, higher opioid doses are often needed for neuropathic pain than for nociceptive pain. Most of the treatment data are level II or III, and suggest that incorporation of opioids earlier on might be beneficial. Buprenorphine shows a distinct benefit in improving neuropathic pain symptoms, which is considered a result of its specific pharmacological profile. 4.,The use of opioids in elderly patients with impaired hepatic and renal function:, Functional impairment of excretory organs is common in the elderly, especially with respect to renal function. For all opioids except buprenorphine, half-life of the active drug and metabolites is increased in the elderly and in patients with renal dysfunction. It is, therefore, recommended that,except for buprenorphine,doses be reduced, a longer time interval be used between doses, and creatinine clearance be monitored. Thus, buprenorphine appears to be the top-line choice for opioid treatment in the elderly. 5.,Opioids and respiratory depression:, Respiratory depression is a significant threat for opioid-treated patients with underlying pulmonary condition or receiving concomitant central nervous system (CNS) drugs associated with hypoventilation. Not all opioids show equal effects on respiratory depression: buprenorphine is the only opioid demonstrating a ceiling for respiratory depression when used without other CNS depressants. The different features of opioids regarding respiratory effects should be considered when treating patients at risk for respiratory problems, therefore careful dosing must be maintained. 6.,Opioids and immunosuppression:, Age is related to a gradual decline in the immune system: immunosenescence, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and decreased efficacy of immunotherapy, such as vaccination. The clinical relevance of the immunosuppressant effects of opioids in the elderly is not fully understood, and pain itself may also cause immunosuppression. Providing adequate analgesia can be achieved without significant adverse events, opioids with minimal immunosuppressive characteristics should be used in the elderly. The immunosuppressive effects of most opioids are poorly described and this is one of the problems in assessing true effect of the opioid spectrum, but there is some indication that higher doses of opioids correlate with increased immunosuppressant effects. Taking into consideration all the very limited available evidence from preclinical and clinical work, buprenorphine can be recommended, while morphine and fentanyl cannot. 7.,Safety and tolerability profile of opioids:, The adverse event profile varies greatly between opioids. As the consequences of adverse events in the elderly can be serious, agents should be used that have a good tolerability profile (especially regarding CNS and gastrointestinal effects) and that are as safe as possible in overdose especially regarding effects on respiration. Slow dose titration helps to reduce the incidence of typical initial adverse events such as nausea and vomiting. Sustained release preparations, including transdermal formulations, increase patient compliance.,, [source]

    The effect of dilution and prolonged injection time on fentanyl-induced coughing,

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 9 2007
    H. Yu
    Summary This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diluting fentanyl 50 ,g.ml,1 to 25 or 10 ,g.ml,1 with 0.9% saline and prolonged injection time on fentanyl-induced cough. Two hundred patients requiring general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into four groups: 50 ,g.ml,1 (Group I), 25 ,g.ml,1 (Group II), 10 ,g.ml,1 (Group III) or 10 ,g.ml,1 combined with prolonged injection (Group IV). Fentanyl 3 ,g.kg,1 was administered within 5 s in Groups I, II, and III, or over 30 s in Group IV. Occurrence of cough was significantly reduced in Group IV (2% vs 32%, 16% and 12% in Groups I, II and III, respectively, p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the severity of coughing between the four groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that dilution of fentanyl to 10 ,g.ml,1 with 0.9% saline combined with a prolonged injection time eliminates fentanyl-induced cough. [source]

    Fentanyl is not a beneficial addition to volatile induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with sevoflurane

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2007
    I. Smith
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Subdissociative-dose Ketamine versus Fentanyl for Analgesia during Propofol Procedural Sedation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    David W. Messenger MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The authors sought to compare the safety and efficacy of subdissociative-dose ketamine versus fentanyl as adjunct analgesics for emergency department (ED) procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) with propofol. Methods:, This double-blind, randomized trial enrolled American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I or II ED patients, aged 14,65 years, requiring PSA for orthopedic reduction or abscess drainage. Subjects received 0.3 mg/kg ketamine or 1.5 ,g/kg fentanyl intravenously (IV), followed by IV propofol titrated to deep sedation. Supplemental oxygen was not routinely administered. The primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of cardiorespiratory events and interventions, rated using a composite intrasedation event rating scale. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of specific scale component events, propofol doses required to achieve and maintain sedation, times to sedation and recovery, and physician and patient satisfaction. Results:, Sixty-three patients were enrolled. Of patients who received fentanyl, 26/31 (83.9%) had an intrasedation event versus 15/32 (46.9%) of those who received ketamine. Events prospectively rated as moderate or severe were seen in 16/31 (51.6%) of fentanyl subjects versus 7/32 (21.9%) of ketamine subjects. Patients receiving fentanyl had 5.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9 to 13.6; p < 0.001) times the odds of having a more serious intrasedation event rating than patients receiving ketamine. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes, apart from higher propofol doses in the ketamine arm. Conclusions:, Subdissociative-dose ketamine is safer than fentanyl for ED PSA with propofol and appears to have similar efficacy. [source]

    The use of in vitro technologies coupled with high resolution accurate mass LC-MS for studying drug metabolism in equine drug surveillance

    James P. Scarth
    Abstract The detection of drug abuse in horseracing often requires knowledge of drug metabolism, especially if urine is the matrix of choice. In this study, equine liver/lung microsomes/S9 tissue fractions were used to study the phase I metabolism of eight drugs of relevance to equine drug surveillance (acepromazine, azaperone, celecoxib, fentanyl, fluphenazine, mepivacaine, methylphenidate and tripelennamine). In vitro samples were analyzed qualitatively alongside samples originating from in vivo administrations using LC-MS on a high resolution accurate mass Thermo Orbitrap Discovery instrument and by LC-MS/MS on an Applied Biosystems Sciex 5500 Q Trap. Using high resolution accurate mass full-scan analysis on the Orbitrap, the in vitro systems were found to generate at least the two most abundant phase I metabolites observed in vitro for all eight drugs studied. In the majority of cases, in vitro experiments were also able to generate the minor in vivo metabolites and sometimes metabolites that were only observed in vitro. More detailed analyses of fentanyl incubates using LC-MS/MS showed that it was possible to generate good quality spectra from the metabolites generated in vitro. These data support the suggestion of using in vitro incubates as metabolite reference material in place of in vivo post-administration samples in accordance with new qualitative identification guidelines in the 2009 International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation-G7 (ILAC-G7) document. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo phase I metabolism results reported herein compare well and demonstrate the potential of in vitro studies to compliment, refine and reduce the existing equine in vivo paradigm. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Does the standard intravenous solution of fentanyl (50 µg/mL) administered intranasally have analgesic efficacy?

    Dianne Crellin
    Abstract Background: Intranasal (IN) fentanyl provides rapid and powerful non-parenteral analgesia in the ED. A concentrated solution of fentanyl (300 µg/mL) has been used in prior trials, yet many ED use the standard solution at a concentration of 50 µg/mL, which is widely available and of low cost. We set out to determine if this lower concentration of fentanyl is also efficacious. Methods: Prospective audit in children aged 5,18 years presenting with upper limb injuries. Patients received IN fentanyl (50 µg/mL) at 1.5 µg/kg. Patient assessed pain scores were collected 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following IN fentanyl administration using a visual analogue scale or Bieri Faces , Revised scale. Parental scores were used if patients were unable to provide a score. Results: Of the 59 eligible patients, 36 were enrolled; median age was 6.8 years (range 5,15 years), and 89% (32/36) ultimately required fracture reduction. Median first dose of IN fentanyl was 1.4 µg/kg. Median pain scores dropped from 7 (interquartile range 5,10) pre-fentanyl to 5 (interquartile range 4,8) at 5 min and 2 (interquartile range 1,4) at 30 and 60 min. A total of 21 (58%) children did not require further analgesia in the ED. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: Standard i.v. concentration IN fentanyl (50 µg/mL) appears to have analgesic efficacy in children with upper limb injuries. [source]

    Intranasal fentanyl in 1,3-year-olds: A prospective study of the effectiveness of intranasal fentanyl as acute analgesia

    Joanne Cole
    Abstract The primary objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of intranasal fentanyl analgesia in children aged 1,3 years with acute moderate to severe pain presenting to the ED. We also aimed to gather information on the safety and acceptability of intranasal fentanyl in this age group. Two paediatric ED enrolled children aged 1,3 years, with acute moderate or severe pain. Intranasal fentanyl was administered (1.5 µg/kg) via a mucosal atomiser device using a 50 µg/mL solution of fentanyl. Physiological parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and level of consciousness) were measured at regular intervals. Objective pain assessment was completed using the Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) score. Forty-six children presenting with acute moderate to severe pain were included. The median FLACC score before intranasal fentanyl administration was 8 (interquartile range [IQR] 5,10), decreasing to 2 (IQR 0,4) 10 min post fentanyl (P < 0.0001) and 0 (IQR 0,2) 30 min post fentanyl (P < 0.0001). A clinically significant decrease in FLACC scores was seen in 93% of children 10 min post fentanyl administration and 98% of children 30 min post fentanyl. Intranasal fentanyl delivery using a mucosal atomiser was well tolerated by all children. There were no adverse drug reactions or adverse events detected. Intranasal fentanyl is an effective, safe and well-tolerated mode of analgesia for children aged 1,3 years with moderate to severe pain. [source]

    Procedural sedation in children in the emergency department: A PREDICT study

    Meredith Borland
    Abstract Objective: To investigate current procedural sedation practice and compare clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for procedural sedation at Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) sites. This will determine areas for improvement and provide baseline data for future multicentre studies. Methods: A questionnaire of specialist emergency physicians regarding demographics, general procedural sedation practice and specific sedation agents given to children. CPG for general sedation and sedation agents were obtained for each site. Results: Seventy-five (71%) useable surveys returned from 105 potential respondents. Most commonly used agents were nitrous oxide (N2O) (75, 100%), ketamine (total 72, 96%; i.v. 59, 83% and i.m. 22, 31%) and midazolam (total 68, 91%; i.v. 52, 81%, oral 47, 73%, intranasal 26, 41% and i.m. 6, 9%). Sedation was used for therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. Forty-three (57%) used formal sedation records and sedation checklists and thirty-one (41%) respondents reported auditing sedations. Four sites ran staff education and competency programmes. Nine sites had general sedation CPG, eight for ketamine, nine for N2O, eight for midazolam (four parenteral, five oral and six intranasal) and three for fentanyl. No site had a guideline for propofol administration. Conclusion: Procedural sedation in this research network commonly uses N2O, ketamine and midazolam for a wide range of procedures. Areas of improvement are the lack of guidelines for certain agents, documentation, staff competency training and auditing processes. Multicentre research could close gaps in terms of age cut-offs, fasting times and optimal indications for various agents. [source]

    Bispectral Electroencephalographic Analysis of Patients Undergoing Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department

    James R. Miner MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine whether there is a correlation between the level of sedation achieved during procedural sedation (PS) in the emergency department as determined by bispectral electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis (BIS) and the rate of respiratory depression (RD), the patient's perception of pain, recall of the procedure, and satisfaction. Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in an urban county hospital of adult patients undergoing PS using propofol, methohexital, etomidate, and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. Consenting patients were monitored by vital signs, pulse oximetry, nasal-sample end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), and BIS monitors during PS. Respiratory depression (RD) was defined as an oxygen saturation <90%, a change from baseline ETCO2 of >10 mm Hg, or an absent ETCO2 waveform at any time during the procedure. After the procedure, patients were asked to complete three 100-mm visual analog scales (VASs) concerning their perception of pain, recall of the procedure, and satisfaction with the procedure. Patients were divided into four groups based on the lowest BIS score recorded during the procedure, group 1, >85; group 2, 70,85; group 3, 60,69; group 4, <60. Rates of RD and VAS outcomes were compared between groups using chi-square statistics. Results: One hundred eight patients were enrolled in the study. No serious adverse events were noted. RD was seen in three of 14 (21.4%) of the patients in group 1, seven of 34 (20.6%) in group 2, 16 of 26 (61.5%) in group 3, and 18 of 34 (52.9%) in group 4. The rate of RD in patients in group 2 was not significantly different from that in group 1 (p = 0.46). The rate of RD in group 2 was significantly lower than that in groups 3 (p = 0.0003) and 4 (p = 0.006). For the VAS data, when group 1 was compared with the combined groups 2, 3, and 4, it had significantly higher rates of pain (p = 0.003) and recall (p = 0.001), and a dissatisfaction rate (p = 0.085) that approached significance. When groups 2, 3, and 4 were compared with chi-square test, there was not a significant difference in pain (p = 0.151), recall (p = 0.27), or satisfaction (p = 0.25). Conclusions: Patients with a lowest recorded BIS score between 70 and 85 had the same VAS outcomes as more deeply sedated patients and the same rate of RD as less deeply sedated patients. This range of scores represented the optimally sedated patients in this study. [source]

    Influence of general anaesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous fentanyl and its primary metabolite in horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: In order to evaluate its potential as an adjunct to inhalant anaesthesia in horses, the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl must first be determined. Objectives: To describe the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and its metabolite, N-[1-(2-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)maloanilinic acid (PMA), after i.v. administration of a single dose to horses that were awake in Treatment 1 and anaesthetised with isoflurane in Treatment 2. Methods: A balanced crossover design was used (n = 4/group). During Treatment 1, horses received a single dose of fentanyl (4 ,g/kg bwt, i.v.) and during Treatment 2, they were anaesthetised with isoflurane and maintained at 1.2 × minimum alveolar anaesthetic concentration. After a 30 min equilibration period, a single dose of fentanyl (4 ,g/kg bwt, i.v.) was administered to each horse. Plasma fentanyl and PMA concentrations were measured at various time points using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Anaesthesia with isoflurane significantly decreased mean fentanyl clearance (P < 0.05). The fentanyl elimination half-life, in awake and anaesthetised horses, was 1 h and volume of distribution at steady state was 0.37 and 0.26 l/kg bwt, respectively. Anaesthesia with isoflurane also significantly decreased PMA apparent clearance and volume of distribution. The elimination half-life of PMA was 2 and 1.5 h in awake and anaesthetised horses, respectively. Conclusions and potential relevance: Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and PMA in horses were substantially altered in horses anaesthetised with isoflurane. These pharmacokinetic parameters provide information necessary for determination of suitable fentanyl loading and infusion doses in awake and isoflurane-anaesthetised horses. [source]

    Safety and efficacy of transdermal fentanyl in patients with cancer pain: phase IV, Turkish oncology group trial

    . KÖMÜRCÜ md
    We have performed a prospective evaluation of the efficacy, safety and convenience of the transdermal therapeutic system , fentanyl (TTS-F) in Turkish cancer patients when it was newly available in Turkey. Ninety-nine patients with historically confirmed malignancy and pain entered the study; the mean age was 55.1 (16,58) years. The study duration was 28 days. Transdermal therapeutic system , fentanyl was used in opioid-naïve or pre-treated patients. Most patients reported a decrease in pain severity. Use of rescue medication decreased from day 4 to day 28. The majority of patients rated patch convenience of use as excellent. A total of 22.2% of patients experienced adverse events that were either probably related or very likely to be related to the study drug. The majority of the adverse events mentioned were related to the digestive system. Eighteen serious adverse events were reported by 13 patients. Six events were doubtfully related, and 12 events were not related to the study drug. Four patients died during the trial. None of these deaths was attributed to the study drug. In conclusion, the trial showed that TTS-F is easily managed, effective and will help to enable the appropriate opioid administration to patients who are suffering from cancer pain in Turkey. [source]

    Effect of epidural dexmedetomidine on intraoperative awareness and post-operative pain after one-lung ventilation

    Background: During combined general and regional anaesthesia, it is difficult to use autonomic signs to assess whether wakefulness is suppressed adequately. We compared the effects of a dexmedetomidine,bupivacaine mixture with plain bupivacaine for thoracic epidural anaesthesia on intraoperative awareness and analgesic benefits, when combined with superficial isoflurane anaesthesia (<0.05 maximum alveolar concentration) in patients undergoing thoracic surgery with one-lung ventilation (OLV). Methods: Fifty adult male patients were randomly assigned to receive either epidural dexmedetomidine 1 ,g/kg with bupivacaine 0.5% (group D) or bupivacaine 0.5% alone (group B) after induction of general anaesthesia. Gasometric, haemodynamic and bispectral index values were recorded. Post-operative verbal rating score for pain and observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale were determined by a blinded observer. Results: Dexmedetomidine reduced the use of supplementary fentanyl during surgery. Patients in group B consumed more analgesics and had higher pain scores after operation than patients of group D. The level of sedation was similar between the two groups in the ICU. Two patients (8%) in group B reported possible intraoperative awareness. There was a limited decrease in PaO2 at OLV in group D compared with group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: In thoracic surgery with OLV, the use of epidural dexmedetomidine decreases the anaesthetic requirements significantly, prevents awareness during anaesthesia and improves intraoperative oxygenation and post-operative analgesia. [source]

    Caudal analgesia for prostate biopsy

    M. CESUR
    Background: Although various local anesthesia techniques have been suggested to decrease pain and discomfort during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy, the best method has not yet been defined. The present prospective, double-blind, randomized study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of ,walking' caudal block compared with an intrarectal lidocaine gel for this procedure. Methods: One hundred patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the lidocaine gel group, 10 ml of gel containing 2% lidocaine was given intrarectally. In the caudal group, 20 ml 0.1% bupivacaine with 75 ,g fentanyl was injected. Pain scores, anal sphincter tone and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results: The pain scores were significantly lower in the caudal group at all stages. Verbal rating scores (scale 1,4) during probe insertion, probe maneuver and biopsies were 1 (0,2), 1 (0,2) and 1 (0,2) vs. 3 (0,5), 2 (1,3) and 4 (2,6), respectively (P value <0.0001 at all stages). The anal sphincter was more relaxed in the caudal group than in the gel group (P value <0.0001 in all categories). Highly satisfied patients were more frequently encountered in the caudal group, 34 (68%) vs. 8 (16%), P<0.0001, and unsatisfied patients were more frequently found in the gel group 1 (2%) vs. 12 (24%); P<0.001. All patients were able to walk without any assistance immediately after the procedures. Conclusion: ,Walking' caudal analgesia is an efficacious method for relieving the pain during TRUS-guided prostate biopsies in ambulatory practice. [source]

    Pleth variability index predicts hypotension during anesthesia induction

    Background: The pleth variability index (PVI) is a new algorithm used for automatic estimation of respiratory variations in pulse oximeter waveform amplitude, which might predict fluid responsiveness. Because anesthesia-induced hypotension may be partly related to patient volume status, we speculated that pre-anesthesia PVI would be able to identify high-risk patients for significant blood pressure decrease during anesthesia induction. Methods: We measured the PVI, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in 76 adult healthy patients under light sedation with fentanyl to obtain pre-anesthesia control values. Anesthesia was induced with bolus administrations of 1.8 mg/kg propofol and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium. During the 3-min period from the start of propofol administration, HR, SBP, DBP, and MAP were measured at 30-s intervals. Results: HR, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly decreased after propofol administration by 8.5%, 33%, 23%, and 26%, respectively, as compared with the pre-anesthesia control values. Linear regression analysis that compared pre-anesthesia PVI with the decrease in MAP yielded an r value of ,0.73. Decreases in SBP and DBP were moderately correlated with pre-anesthesia PVI, while HR was not. By classifying PVI >15 as positive, a MAP decrease >25 mmHg could be predicted, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values of 0.79, 0.71, 0.73, and 0.77, respectively. Conclusion: Pre-anesthesia PVI can predict a decrease in MAP during anesthesia induction with propofol. Its measurement may be useful to identify high-risk patients for developing severe hypotension during anesthesia induction. [source]

    Neuroprotective effects of a combination of dexmedetomidine and hypothermia after incomplete cerebral ischemia in rats

    K. SATO
    Background: Dexmedetomidine and hypothermia are known to reduce neuronal injury following cerebral ischemia. We examined whether a combination of dexmedetomidine and hypothermia reduces brain injury after transient forebrain ischemia in rats to a greater extent than either treatment alone. Methods: Thirty-eight male Sprague,Dawley rats were anesthetized with fentanyl and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Four groups were tested: group C (saline 1 ml/kg, temporal muscle temperature 37.5 °C); group H (saline 1 ml/kg, 35.0 °C); group D (dexmedetomidine 100 ,g/kg, 37.5 °C); and group DH (dexmedetomidine 100 ,g/kg, 35.0 °C). Dexmedetomidine or saline was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was produced by right carotid artery ligation with hemorrhagic hypotension (mean arterial pressure 40 mmHg) for 20 min. Neurologic outcome was evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after ischemia. Histopathology was evaluated in the caudate and hippocampus at 72 h after ischemia. Results: Neurologic outcome was significantly better in the group DH than the group C (P<0.05), whereas it was similar between the group DH and the groups D or H. Survival rate of the hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly greater in groups D, H, and DH than group C (P<0.05). Histopathologic injury in the caudate section was significantly less in groups H and DH than group C (P<0.05). Conclusion: The combination of dexmedetomidine and hypothermia improved short-term neurologic outcome compared with the control group, whereas the combination therapy provided comparable neuroprotection with either of the two therapies alone. [source]

    The potential for ,-opioid receptor agonists to be anti-emetic in humans: a review of clinical data

    In animal models of vomiting, ,-opioid (MOP, OP3) receptors mediate both emesis and anti-emesis. ,-receptors within the blood,brain barrier, mediating anti-emesis, are more rapidly accessible to lipid-soluble ,-opioid receptor agonists such as fentanyl than to morphine, and fentanyl has broad-spectrum anti-emetic effects in a number of species. Whether a similar situation exists in humans is not known. A search was performed for clinical studies comparing the emetic side effects of opioids administered peri-operatively in an attempt to identify differences between morphine and more lipid-soluble ,-receptor-selective agonists such as fentanyl. Overall, the evidence appears to suggest that fentanyl and other phenylpiperidines are associated with less nausea and vomiting than morphine, but not all studies support this, and fentanyl-like drugs are associated with nausea and vomiting per se. Good evidence, however, exists to show that fentanyl and alfentanil do not cause more nausea and vomiting than the ultra fast-acting remifentanil. Because remifentanil is cleared rapidly post-operatively, such trials suggest that the emetic side effects of fentanyl and alfentanil are minimal. The clinical evidence, although limited, is at least consistent with the possibility that central ,-opioid receptors may mediate anti-emesis in humans. It is possible that the role of ,-opioid agonists in anti-emesis may become clearer in the future as a result of the use of peripheral ,-opioid receptor antagonists. [source]

    Adding Gabapentin to a multimodal regimen does not reduce acute pain, opioid consumption or chronic pain after total hip arthroplasty

    Background: Gabapentin (GPN) is effective in reducing post-operative pain and opioid consumption, but its effects with regional anesthesia for total hip arthroplasty (THA) are not known. We designed this study to determine whether (1) gabapentin administration reduces pain and opioid use after THA using a multimodal analgesic regimen including spinal anesthesia; (2) pre-operative administration of gabapentin is more effective than post-operative administration. Methods: After REB approval and informed consent, 126 patients were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized-controlled study. Patients received acetaminophen 1 g per os (p.o.), celecoxib 400 mg p.o. and dexamethasone 8 mg intravenously, 1,2 h pre-operatively. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (G1: Placebo/Placebo; G2: GPN/Placebo; G3: Placebo/GPN). Patients received gabapentin 600 mg (G2) or placebo (G1 and G3) 2 h before surgery. All patients had spinal anesthesia [15 mg (3cc) of 0.5% hypobaric bupivacaine with 10 ,g of fentanyl]. In the post-anesthetic care unit, patients received gabapentin 600 mg (G3) or placebo (G1 and G2). On the ward, patients received acetaminophen 1000 mg p.o. q6h, celecoxib 200 mg p.o. q12h and a morphine PCA device. Patients were interviewed 6 months post-surgery to determine the incidence and severity of chronic post-surgical pain. Results: Mean±SD cumulative morphine (mg) consumption (G1=49.4±24.8, G2=47.2±30.1 and G3=56.1±38.2) at 48 h and pain scores at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-surgery were not significantly different among the groups [G1 (n=38), G2 (n=38) and G3 (n=38)]. Side effect profiles were similar across groups. Six months after surgery, the number of patients who reported chronic post-surgical pain (G1=10, G2=12 and G3=9) and the severity of the pain (G1=4.2±2.9, G2=4.1±2.2 and G3=4.9±2.2) did not differ significantly among the groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: A single 600 mg dose of gabapentin given pre-operatively or post-operatively does not reduce morphine consumption or pain scores in hospital or at 6 months after hip arthroplasty within the context of spinal anesthesia and a robust multimodal analgesia regimen. [source]

    The addition of fentanyl to 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine has no advantage for paediatric epidural analgesia

    J. E. CHO
    Background: Epidural opioids are frequently combined with local anaesthetics for an additive antinociceptive effect. We investigated the efficacy of epidural fentanyl to 1.25 or 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine for post-operative epidural analgesia in children. Methods: One hundred and eight children undergoing hypospadias repair were randomized to receive 1.25 mg/ml ropivacaine (R1.25 group), 1.25 mg/ml ropivacaine with 0.2 mcg/kg/h of fentanyl (R1.25F group), 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine (R1.5 group) or 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine with 0.2 mcg/kg/h of fentanyl (R1.5F group) for post-operative epidural analgesia. The epidural catheter was threaded caudally through the L4-5 interspace. The face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) score was assessed at every hour and at FLACC score >4, an epidural bolus of 0.5 ml/kg of ropivacaine 1.5 mg/ml was given as the rescue analgesia. The incidence of side effects such as hypoxia, sedation, pruritus, nausea and/or vomiting was recorded. Results: The need for rescue analgesia was higher in the R1.25 group compared with that in the other three groups (all P<0.05). The incidence of side effects was higher in the R1.5F group compared with that in the R1.25 and R1.5 groups (both P=0.010). Conclusion: The addition of 0.2 mcg/kg/h fentanyl to 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine increased the incidence of side effects without improvement of analgesia in infants and children undergoing hypospadias repair. The use of plain 1.25 mg/ml ropivacaine increased the need for rescue analgesia and this could be compensated by addition of fentanyl. [source]

    An anaphylactic reaction to transdermal delivered fentanyl

    Immediate allergic hypersensitivity reactions with fentanyl are rarely reported. We diagnosed a presumably IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity reaction comprising generalized erythema and bronchospasm 4 h after the first-time application of transdermal fentanyl. Prick test remained negative with fentanyl whereas an intradermal test (IDT) with fentanyl was positive (dilution 10,2). Cross-reactivity was found with sufentanil but not with remifentanil. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical history and a positive IDT with fentanyl. This case report confirms the need for a systematic allergological investigation in case of immediate hypersensitivity reactions for all drugs and all modes of administration. [source]