Female Respondents (female + respondent)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Plasma lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2001
M. B. Mattock
SUMMARY Aims To examine the relationship between increased urinary albumin excretion rate and fasting plasma lipids among male and female respondents to the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study, and attempt to explain inconsistencies in previous reports. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3250 randomly selected Type 1 diabetic patients from 31 diabetes clinics in 16 European countries was carried out between 1989 and 1990. Plasma lipids and urinary albumin were measured centrally. The present analysis was confined to the subgroup of 2205 patients attending after a 10,12 h overnight fast. Mean age was 33 years (sd 10) and mean duration of Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 15 years (sd 9). Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria (24-h urinary albumin excretion rate 20,200 ,g/min) was 21.7% (95% confidence interval 19.9,23.5) and macroalbuminuria (24-h urinary albumin excretion rate >,200 ,g/min) 7.8% (6.6,9.0). In comparison to patients with normal urinary albumin excretion rate (< 20 ,g/min), and after controlling for age, sex, glycaemic control, duration of diabetes and current smoking, macroalbuminuria was associated with significantly (P < 0.01) increased fasting plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio and, in women, reduced HDL-cholesterol. In men and women with microalbuminuria, the only significant association was with increased plasma triglycerides. Conclusions These data confirm that there is an association between fasting plasma lipids and increasing urinary albumin excretion rate in European Type 1 diabetic patients. In microalbuminuric patients, however, the association was weaker than previously reported and partly explained by confounding factors. [source]


Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective

HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 6 2005
Linda I. Reutter RN PhD
Abstract Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n = 1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty,health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions predicted less recognition. Older and female respondents were more likely to acknowledge the effects of poverty. Income was positively associated with recognition of the poverty,health link, negatively associated with understanding the challenges of low-income people, and unrelated to perceptions of the negative effect of poverty on participation in community life. [source]


Gender and Computer Games: Exploring Females' Dislikes

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2006
Tilo Hartmann
On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female respondents' (N= 317) ratings of fictional video games and demonstrated that lack of meaningful social interaction, followed by violent content and sexual gender role stereotyping of game characters, were the most important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N= 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences. These findings are discussed with respect to communication theory on interactive entertainment and their implications for applied video game design. [source]


Gender-Related Influences of Parental Alcoholism on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
Peter T. Morgan
Background:, Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. Method:, We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. Results:, Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders, and the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric disorders was significantly different in men and women. These differences included stronger associations in female offspring of men with alcoholism (alcohol abuse without dependence); in female offspring of women with alcoholism (mania, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse, and schizoid personality disorder); in male offspring of men with alcoholism (mania); and in male offspring of women with alcoholism (panic disorder). Conclusions:, Interactions between gender and parental alcoholism were specific to certain disorders but varied in their effects, and in general female children of women with alcoholism appear at greatest risk for adult psychopathology. [source]


How well do advertising images of health and beauty travel across cultures?

PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 10 2006
A self-concept perspective
This study is a cross-cultural examination of the ideal self-image of women in terms of health and beauty. The match-up between two advertising beauty types (possible advertising presenters) and female consumers' ideal health and beauty images in terms of wanting to look like a specific model were tested with 750 female respondents from five European cities. The respondents also identified the ideal eye and hair colors for health and beauty. This quantitative study revealed cross-cultural variation in ideal self-image in terms of healthy and beautiful beauty types. International advertisers need to understand the important, contemporary, cultural characteristics of an ideal beauty type in terms of healthy or beautiful before developing standardized advertising communicating such appeals. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The cancer screening practices of adult survivors of childhood cancer,

CANCER, Issue 3 2004
A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study
Abstract BACKGROUND The current study characterized the self-reported cancer screening practices of adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS A cohort of 9434 long-term survivors of childhood cancer and a comparison group of 2667 siblings completed a 289-item survey that included items regarding cancer-screening practices. RESULTS Overall, 27.3% of female respondents reported performing breast self-examination (BSE) regularly, 78.2% reported undergoing a Papanicolaou smear within the previous 3 years, 62.4% underwent a clinical breast examination (CBE) within the last year, and 20.9% had gotten a mammogram at least once in their lifetime. Approximately 17.4% of male respondents reported performing regular testicular self-examination (TSE). Women age , 30 years who had been exposed to chest or mantle radiation therapy were more likely to report undergoing CBE (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.32,1.92) and mammography (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.47,2.56). Compared with the sibling comparison group, survivors demonstrated an increased likelihood of performing TSE (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.22,1.85) or BSE (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10,1.52), of having undergone a CBE within the last year (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02,1.35), and of ever having undergone a mammogram (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.52,2.17). CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study demonstrate that the cancer screening practices among survivors of childhood cancer are below optimal levels. Primary care physicians who include childhood cancer survivors among their patients could benefit these individuals by informing them about future cancer risks and recommending appropriate evidence-based screening. Cancer 2004. 2003 American Cancer Society. [source]


Update on epidemiology of pollinosis in Japan: changes over the last 10 years

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY REVIEWS, Issue 1 2010
K. Nakae
Summary A nationwide epidemiologic survey of atopic diseases including allergic pollinosis was conducted in 9656 Japanese otorhinolaryngologists and their family members during the Japanese cedar pollen dispersion season in 2008 using methods identical to a previous survey that was performed in 1998. The survey response rate was 37.7% (compared with 42.8% in 1998). The overall prevalence rate of Japanese cedar pollinosis was 26.5%, which is an increase of approximately 9% from that noted in 1998. Similar increases were observed in all age groups, and the prevalence rate was similar between male and female respondents. A unimodal distribution was observed in male and female subjects, with a peak in both men and women aged in their 40s. Nationwide, a consistent positive relation was observed between the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis and the regional Japanese cedar pollen counts. The prevalence rate of pollinosis other than Japanese cedar pollinosis and of perennial allergic rhinitis was 15.4% and 23.3%, respectively; both disease entities tended to occur more frequently in male than in female subjects. The prevalence rate of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy was 5.2%, 14.1%, and 3.9%, respectively. Our results suggest that the prevalence rates of atopic diseases including Japanese cedar pollinosis are dramatically increasing across all age groups in Japan. In particular, the increasing prevalence rate of Japanese cedar pollinosis seems to reflect higher exposure to the Japanese cedar pollen antigen in many prefectures. [source]


Gender and Computer Games: Exploring Females' Dislikes

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2006
Tilo Hartmann
On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female respondents' (N= 317) ratings of fictional video games and demonstrated that lack of meaningful social interaction, followed by violent content and sexual gender role stereotyping of game characters, were the most important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N= 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences. These findings are discussed with respect to communication theory on interactive entertainment and their implications for applied video game design. [source]