Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Females

  • active female
  • adolescent female
  • adult female
  • affected female
  • american female
  • beewolf female
  • black female
  • breeding female
  • captive female
  • carrier female
  • caucasian female
  • conspecific female
  • control female
  • cycling female
  • different female
  • dominant female
  • egg female
  • elderly female
  • fecund female
  • fewer female
  • generation female
  • gravid female
  • group female
  • healthy female
  • heterozygous female
  • high-quality female
  • hispanic female
  • human female
  • immature female
  • immigrant female
  • incubating female
  • indigenous female
  • individual female
  • infected female
  • japanese female
  • juvenile female
  • lactating female
  • large female
  • larger female
  • male female
  • many female
  • mated female
  • mature female
  • middle-aged female
  • multiparous female
  • nesting female
  • non-pregnant female
  • non-reproductive female
  • normal female
  • obese female
  • old female
  • older female
  • one female
  • only female
  • other female
  • ovariectomized female
  • ovigerou female
  • ovipositing female
  • parasitoid female
  • parthenogenetic female
  • polyandrous female
  • postmenopausal female
  • pregnant female
  • receptive female
  • reproductive female
  • resident female
  • same female
  • sexual female
  • single female
  • small female
  • smaller female
  • starved female
  • subordinate female
  • uninfected female
  • unmated female
  • unrelated female
  • virgin female
  • vs. female
  • white female
  • wild female
  • wild-caught female
  • young female
  • younger female
  • yr-old female

  • Terms modified by Females

  • female Long-Evan rat
  • female ability
  • female adolescent
  • female adult
  • female age
  • female animals
  • female athlete
  • female baby
  • female beagle dog
  • female behavior
  • female behaviour
  • female benefit
  • female bias
  • female bird
  • female body
  • female body size
  • female body weight
  • female breast
  • female breast cancer
  • female breast cancer patient
  • female c mouse
  • female c57bl/6 mouse
  • female c57bl/6j mouse
  • female cadaver
  • female candidate
  • female caregiver
  • female carrier
  • female case
  • female cat
  • female character
  • female chicken
  • female child
  • female choice
  • female circumcision
  • female college student
  • female competition
  • female condition
  • female conspecific
  • female control
  • female counterpart
  • female cynomolgu monkey
  • female decreased
  • female density
  • female diabetic patient
  • female difference
  • female dispersal
  • female dog
  • female dolphin
  • female dominance
  • female donor
  • female drosophila melanogaster
  • female dyad
  • female effects
  • female egg
  • female embryo
  • female employee
  • female employment
  • female experience
  • female f344 rat
  • female face
  • female fecundity
  • female feeding
  • female fertility
  • female fetus
  • female fetuse
  • female figure
  • female fischer
  • female fish
  • female fitness
  • female flower
  • female fly
  • female function
  • female gamete
  • female gender
  • female genital cutting
  • female genital organ
  • female genital tract
  • female genitalia
  • female genotype
  • female germ cell
  • female goat
  • female gonad
  • female group
  • female groups
  • female guppy
  • female head
  • female hormones
  • female hosts
  • female hybrid
  • female icr mouse
  • female identity
  • female immigrant
  • female individual
  • female infant
  • female infertility
  • female insect
  • female interaction
  • female investment
  • female juvenile offender
  • female labour force participation
  • female larva
  • female leader
  • female lizard
  • female longevity
  • female mammal
  • female managers
  • female mate choice
  • female mating
  • female mating behaviour
  • female mating preference
  • female medicare beneficiary
  • female member
  • female migrant
  • female migration
  • female monkey
  • female morph
  • female morphology
  • female mortality
  • female mosquito
  • female moth
  • female mouse
  • female multiple mating
  • female neonate
  • female noctuid moth
  • female nurse
  • female offender
  • female offspring
  • female only
  • female outpatient
  • female pair
  • female parasitoid
  • female parent
  • female participant
  • female participation
  • female partner
  • female patient
  • female pattern hair loss
  • female pelvis
  • female phase
  • female phenotype
  • female pheromone
  • female philopatry
  • female pig
  • female plant
  • female population
  • female prairie vole
  • female predominance
  • female preference
  • female preponderance
  • female presence
  • female prisoner
  • female progeny
  • female promiscuity
  • female pup
  • female quality
  • female rabbits
  • female rat
  • female ratio
  • female recipient
  • female relationships
  • female relative
  • female reluctance
  • female representation
  • female reproduction
  • female reproductive cycle
  • female reproductive function
  • female reproductive organ
  • female reproductive physiology
  • female reproductive status
  • female reproductive success
  • female reproductive system
  • female reproductive tract
  • female resident
  • female respondent
  • female response
  • female rhesus monkey
  • female sample
  • female sex
  • female sex hormones
  • female sex pheromone
  • female sex ratio
  • female sex worker
  • female sexual behaviour
  • female sexual dysfunction
  • female sexual function
  • female sexual function index
  • female sexuality
  • female sheep
  • female showing
  • female sibling
  • female size
  • female smoker
  • female spider
  • female spouse
  • female sprague
  • female sprague-dawley rat
  • female strategy
  • female structure
  • female student
  • female subject
  • female survival
  • female survivor
  • female teacher
  • female teenager
  • female tick
  • female trait
  • female transfer
  • female trout
  • female twin
  • female twin pair
  • female undergraduate
  • female undergraduate student
  • female university student
  • female urinary incontinence
  • female urology
  • female victim
  • female volunteer
  • female wasp
  • female weight
  • female wistar rat
  • female worker
  • female zebra finch

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2004
    Richard Shine
    Abstract Viviparity (live bearing) has evolved from egg laying (oviparity) in many lineages of lizards and snakes, apparently in response to occupancy of cold climates. Explanations for this pattern have focused on the idea that behaviorally thermoregulating (sun-basking) pregnant female reptiles can maintain higher incubation temperatures for their embryos than would be available in nests under the soil surface. This is certainly true at very high elevations, where only viviparous species occur. However, comparisons of nest and lizard temperatures at sites close to the upper elevational limit for oviparous reptiles (presumably, the selective environment where the transition from oviparity to viviparity actually occurs) suggest that reproductive mode has less effect on mean incubation temperatures than on the diel distribution of those temperatures. Nests of the oviparous scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi showed smooth diel cycles of heating and cooling. In contrast, body temperatures of the viviparous scincid Eulamprus heatwolei rose abruptly in the morning, were high and stable during daylight hours, and fell abruptly at night. Laboratory incubation experiments mimicking these patterns showed that developmental rates of eggs and phenotypic traits of hatchling B. duperreyi were sensitive to this type of thermal variance as well as to mean temperature. Hence, diel distributions as well as mean incubation temperatures may have played an important role in the selective forces for viviparity. More generally, variances as well as mean values of abiotic factors may constitute significant selective forces on life-history evolution. [source]


    Samuel Nii Ardey Codjoe
    ABSTRACT. The transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana, located between the richly endowed south and the impoverished north, has attracted seasonal and permanent farm migrants, mainly from northern Ghana, who now live side by side with the indigenous people. While migrants have higher numbers of Muslims, indigenous people are mainly Christians. Although the majority of the migrants live in migrant quarters with less favourable socio-economic conditions, they are more successful farmers and therefore wealthier. The objectives are to examine the varying effect of fertility determinants among migrants and indigenous females. This paper uses data collected in 2002 among 194 females aged 15 to 49 years. Multiple regression models are used to assess fertility determinants. Results show that although migrant households were wealthier, migrant females were more traditional. They had more children living in foster care, and a lower proportion of them approved of men participating in household activities. In addition, they were less well educated, recorded higher infant mortality, gave birth earlier and used less contraception. Furthermore, while a female's migration status is statistically significant so far as non-proximate determinants of fertility are concerned, the same variable is not significant with respect to proximate determinants. In addition, a married female migrant would on average have almost one more child compared to her indigenous counterpart, and migrant females who had experienced the loss of a child would on average have 2.5 more children compared to their indigenous counterparts. Finally, more affluent migrant females have 0.08 fewer children compared to their indigenous counterpart. [source]


    Dorothy Lloyd-Owen
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the psychopathology of perversion in women, an area often resisted in society and, as a consequence, leaving women without the help they need. The role of aggression and ,core complex' issues are discussed with case illustrations of the perverse use of the body in women. [source]

    Are there gender differences in catastrophic appraisals in panic disorder with agoraphobia?

    F.R.A.N.Z.C.P., Ph.D., Vladan Starcevic M.D.
    Abstract Our aim in this study was to compare panic-related catastrophic appraisals between women and men with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). One hundred two outpatients with PDA (75 women and 27 men) participated. Two instruments for the assessment of catastrophic appraisals, Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and Panic Appraisal Inventory, were administered before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that also included pharmacotherapy in three-fourths of the patients. Female and male patients did not differ significantly in terms of their tendency to anticipate catastrophic consequences of panic, before or after CBT-based treatment. For both females and males, the tendency to make catastrophic appraisals decreased significantly with treatment. We conclude that among patients with PDA there are no gender differences in catastrophic appraisals of panic sensations and symptoms. The apparently higher risk of panic recurrence in women does not seem to be related to their panic-related catastrophic appraisals. These findings also support a notion that there is no gender difference in response to CBT-based treatment of PDA. Depression and Anxiety 24:545,552, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nonsyndromic Segmental Multiple Infundibulocystic Basal Cell Carcinomas in an Adolescent Female

    First page of article [source]

    Large Ulcerated Perianal Hidradenoma Papilliferum in a Young Female

    Yoshihiro Handa MD
    Background. Hidradenoma papilliferum is an uncommon benign tumor that is located almost exclusively in the vulvar and anal areas. It is usually very small and asymptomatic, and to make a correct diagnosis is clinically very difficult. Occasionally the tumor becomes elevated to form a reddish brown papillary mass, and the surface ulcerates, which may erroneously suggest malignancy. Objective. We report a case of a large, perianal hidradenoma papilliferum with suspected malignancy in a young Japanese female. Results. A 22-year-old female had been aware of a perianal nodule for approximately 1 year. Examination of the perianal area revealed a wide pedunculated, reddish nodule with several white maculae. It was ulcerated and bleeding, 2.0 × 1.2 × 0.8 cm in size, and located in the 3 o'clock position. The nodule was totally excised with a narrow margin. The histopathologic diagnosis was hidradenoma papilliferum. No recurrence was observed for 23 months. Conclusion. When dermatologists encounter tumors of the anogenital area of adult females, it is important to keep hidradenoma papilliferum in mind as the differential diagnosis. Dermatologists should recognize that the tumor is benign, eliminating the need for wide resection. [source]

    Stimulation of reproductive growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following exposure to treated sewage effluent

    Birgit Hoger
    Abstract Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 1.5 and 15% v/v secondary treated sewage effluent for 32 weeks in flow-through mesocosms. The exposure encompassed the full period of reproductive development for rainbow trout. Trout did not show any evidence of a dose-dependent change in growth. Fish exposed to 15% effluent were the only group to show mortality (5%) over the duration of the experiment. Trout at the highest effluent concentration had significantly higher liver size than reference water fish. Both male and female trout in the 15% exposure group also exhibited significantly higher gonad weight than the reference group. In female trout, this gonad size increase could be explained by higher egg numbers. Female and male trout both displayed a significant increase in plasma 17,-estradiol levels after exposure to 15% effluent, while neither sex had dose-dependent differences in plasma testosterone. Male trout displayed elevated vitellogenin levels and reduced plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration after exposure to 15% effluent. Chemical examination of steroidal compounds, including both estrogens and androgens, in the wastewater revealed that only estrone was detectable at a mean concentration of 4.5 ng/L. It is assumed that the effects observed in trout exposed to 15% effluent were consistent with stimulation of reproductive development due to very low levels of estrogens. Overall, long-term exposure to treated sewage effluent containing low levels of estrogen did not have significant negative implications for reproductive development in rainbow trout. [source]

    The Influence of Gonadal Hormones on Neuronal Excitability, Seizures, and Epilepsy in the Female

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2006
    Helen E. Scharfman
    Summary:, It is clear from both clinical observations of women, and research in laboratory animals, that gonadal hormones exert a profound influence on neuronal excitability, seizures, and epilepsy. These studies have led to a focus on two of the primary ovarian steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, to clarify how gonadal hormones influence seizures in women with epilepsy. The prevailing view is that estrogen is proconvulsant, whereas progesterone is anticonvulsant. However, estrogen and progesterone may not be the only reproductive hormones to consider in evaluating excitability, seizures, or epilepsy in the female. It seems unlikely that estrogen and progesterone would exert single, uniform actions given our current understanding of their complex pharmacological and physiological relationships. Their modulatory effects are likely to depend on endocrine state, relative concentration, metabolism, and many other factors. Despite the challenges these issues raise to future research, some recent advances have helped clarify past confusion in the literature. In addition, testable hypotheses have developed for complex clinical problems such as "catamenial epilepsy." Clinical and animal research, designed with the relevant endocrinological and neurobiological issues in mind, will help advance this field in the future. [source]

    Components of Relationship Quality in Chimpanzees

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
    Orlaith N. Fraser
    A novel approach to studying social relationships in captive adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was taken by using principal components analysis (PCA) to extract three key components of relationship quality from nine behavioural variables. Based on the loadings of the behavioural variables, the components appeared to match previously hypothesized critical aspects of social relationships and were therefore labelled Value, Compatibility and Security. The effects of kinship, sex combination, age difference and time spent together on each of the relationship quality components were analysed. As expected, kin were found to have more valuable, compatible and secure relationships than non-kin. Female,female dyads were found to be more compatible than male,male or mixed-sex dyads, whereas the latter were found to be most secure. Partners of a similar age were found to have more secure and more valuable relationships than those with a larger age gap. Individuals that were together in the group for longer were more valuable and more compatible, but their relationships were found to be less secure than individuals that were together in the group for a shorter time. Although some of the results may be unexpected based on chimpanzee socio-ecology, they fit well overall with the history and social dynamics of the study group. The methods used confer a significant advantage in producing quantitative composite measures of each component of relationship quality, obtained in an objective manner. These findings therefore promote the use of such measures in future studies requiring an assessment of the qualities of dyadic social relationships. [source]

    Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    David Gonçalves
    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females' morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize fertilizations. These two alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers develop into bourgeois males. We investigated whether bourgeois males were able to discriminate between sneakers and females of different sizes. In a laboratory experiment bourgeois males were sequentially presented with a female and a sneaker matched for size. Complementary field observations were conducted on the interactions between females and sneakers with bourgeois males. If bourgeois males discriminated females from sneakers, we predicted that they should direct more aggressive behaviours towards sneakers and more courtship acts towards females. In general, bourgeois males courted and attacked small females and sneakers equally. However, large sneakers were courted less and attacked more than large females. Larger sneakers, beginning to develop SSC, were attacked more and courted less by the bourgeois male than smaller sneakers, and larger females were attacked less and courted more than smaller females. These results strongly suggest that only small female-mimicking males were able to deceive bourgeois males. In S. pavo, if the sneakers' fertilization success correlates with their female-mimicking ability, a fitness decrease with an increasing body size can be predicted. [source]

    Differential Sperm Priming by Male Sailfin Mollies (Poecilia latipinna): Effects of Female and Male Size

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Andrea S. Aspbury
    Recent interest in sperm competition has led to a re-evaluation of the ,cheap sperm' assumption inherent in many studies of sexual selection. In particular, mounting evidence suggests that male sperm availability can be increased by the presence of females. However, there is little information on how this interacts with male traits presumably affected by female mate choice, such as larger size. This study examines the effects on male sperm availability of female presence, male body size, and female body size in the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna. Individual males of variable body sizes were isolated in divided tanks for 3 d, after which time either a female or no female was added to the other side of the tank. Prior to the treatments, larger males had more stripped sperm than smaller males. Female presence significantly increased the amount of sperm males primed, but this effect was strongest in small males. Furthermore, males showed a greater priming response in the presence of larger females than in the presence of smaller females. These results demonstrate that the presence of sexually mature females increases the amount of sperm males have for insemination. Furthermore, traits that indicate female fecundity may be used by males as cues in male mate choice. [source]

    Do Male Veiled Chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus, Adjust their Courtship Displays in Response to Female Reproductive Status?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Erin C. Kelso
    Variation in male courtship behavior may be due to inherent differences among males or may arise from males adjusting their courtship displays according to female responsiveness. Female veiled chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus, exhibit two distinctive suites of body coloration and behavior patterns that vary according to receptive and non-receptive stages of their reproductive cycle. We presented male chameleons with both receptive and non-receptive females, and recorded differences in their mating frequency, courtship intensity and courtship behavior patterns. As expected, males were more likely to court and attempt mating with receptive females. Although fewer males courted non-receptive females, their courtship displays were significantly longer than those directed towards receptive females. Males also adjusted the contents of their displays according to female reproductive condition. Certain behavior patterns were unique to courtship displays directed towards each class of females. Males exhibited the behavior pattern `head roll' only when paired with receptive females, and `chin rub' was displayed only during courtship of non-receptive females. We hypothesize that these differences in male courtship frequency, intensity and content reflect differences in female reproductive value. Although males may benefit from mating with both receptive and non-receptive females, the costs associated with courtship may depend on female responsiveness. Thus, males adjust their courtship tactics accordingly. [source]

    Nest, but Not Egg, Fidelity in a Territorial Salamander

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2000
    Megan G. Peterson
    Egg recognition and subsequent egg brooding are costly forms of parental investment in many species of vertebrates. Life history factors, such as coloniality or risk of brood parasitism, may constrain egg recognition in vertebrates. Female red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) from my study site are territorial and do not share nest sites with other females. They are terrestrial and neither they nor their eggs are likely to be displaced by environmental factors such as flooding. I experimentally tested, in the laboratory, the hypothesis that female red-backed salamanders can discriminate between their own eggs and the eggs of unfamiliar females. Each female was allowed to move about a test chamber containing two clutches of eggs, one clutch with which it was found in the forest and one that had been found with a distant female. Most females remained with one clutch of eggs, which they brooded during the entire observation period. However, they did not significantly prefer to brood their own eggs over the eggs of another female. In a corollary field experiment, I tested whether brooding females that were displaced 1 m from their nest sites would return to their territories and commence brooding behaviour within 3 d. All 10 displaced females returned to their own nest within this time period and were found brooding their eggs. Because female red-backed salamanders at my study site do not tend to share nest sites with other females and because their eggs remain in stationary nests, selection may not have favoured egg recognition. However, the results suggest that female salamanders indirectly recognize their own eggs by actively recognizing their territorial nest sites. [source]

    Expression and function of the adaptor protein Gads in murine B,cells

    Abstract Nearly all hematopoietic receptors are dependent on adaptor proteins for the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The Gads adaptor protein is expressed in many hematopoietic tissues, including bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen. Using intracellular staining, we detected Gads protein in a number cells, including B,cells, T,cells, NK cells, monocytes, and plasmacytoid DC, but not in macrophages, neutrophils, or monocyte-derived DC. In the B,cell compartment, Gads was first expressed after immature B,cells leave the bone marrow and was down-regulated after B,cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation. Female Gads,/, mice had increased numbers of splenic B,cells, as compared to female Gads+/+ mice, suggesting a role for Gads in B,cell homeostasis. Although B,cell production and turnover of splenic B,cell subsets appeared normal in Gads,/, mice, homeostatic proliferation was significantly impaired in Gads,/, B,cells. Whereas BCR ligation can induce apoptosis in wild-type transitional stage 1 (T1) B,cells, Gads,/, T1 B,cells were resistant to BCR-induced apoptosis. Gads,/, B,cells also showed increased BCR-mediated calcium mobilization. We conclude that Gads may have a negative regulatory role in signaling through survival pathways, and is necessary for normal homeostatic proliferation in B,cells. [source]

    Female, Nonnative Perspectives on Second Language Conversation: Connecting Participation with Intercultural Sensitivity

    Anne M. Edstrom
    This study, based on interviews with 13 American women living in Venezuela, explores nonnatives' perspectives on factors that influence their participation in L2 conversation: familiarity with L2 conversational styles, ability to accept differences in style, and interest in topics of conversation. The participants' experiences highlight the role of individual differences and the link between language and culture. Bennett's (1993) model of intercultural sensitivity provides a framework for considering the role of culture in the development of L2 conversation skills, and these findings reinforce the value of exposing learners to factors that may affect their L2 competence. [source]

    Dialysis adequacy and nutritional status of hemodialysis patients

    Abstract To characterize the nutritional status of renal failure patients and its relationship with hemodialysis adequacy measured by Kt/V, a study was carried out with a population of 44 adult patients with renal failure and mean age 51±15 years. Anthropometric data, such as dry weight, height, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, and body mass index were assessed, and biochemical tests were conducted for urea, potassium, creatinine, serum albumin, and phosphorus levels, in addition to hemogram and quarterly urea reduction rate average (Kt/V). In order to evaluate calorie intake, a dietary questionnaire on habitual daily food ingestion was administered, taking into consideration the hemodialysis date. The patients were divided into 2 separate groups for the statistical analysis, with 50% of the patients in each group: A (Kt/V<1.2) and B (Kt/V>1.2). The data were tabulated as mean and standard deviation, with differences tested by Student's t test. The correlations between variables were established by the coefficient p of Pearson. Most of the patients (43%) were considered eutrophic, based on the BMI, and presented inadequate calorie intake, corresponding to 88.5±24% (30.8 kcal/kg actual weight) of the total energy required and adequate protein intake, reaching 109.9±40% of the recommended daily allowance (1.24 g/kg of actual weight). There was a correlation of Kt/V with anthropometric parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, and mid-arm muscle circumference. The biochemical parameters related to dialysis adequacy were albumin, ferritin, and urea (predialysis). Well-dialyzed patients presented better levels of serum albumin. There was an influence of gender and age on correlations of the analyzed variables. Female and younger patients presented better dialysis adequacy. The dialysis adequacy was related to the nutritional status and influenced by the protein intake and body composition. Gender and age had an important influence in the dialysis adequacy, as men presented lower dialysis adequacy and younger adults presented better dialysis adequacy. Further research is necessary to understand better how to facilitate effective and efficient techniques for the nutritional status assessment of hemodialysis patients. [source]

    Hepatocarcinogenesis in Female Mice With Mosaic Expression of Connexin32

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Oliver Moennikes
    Mice deficient for connexin32 (Cx32), the major gap junction forming protein in liver, are highly susceptible to hepatocarcinogenesis. Because the Cx32 gene is located on the X-chromosome, heterozygous females show mosaicism with respect to Cx32 expression; this enables their use in studying the effect of Cx32-deficiency in a mixed Cx32-plus/Cx32-minus environment in vivo. Female C3H/He mice (Cx32+/+) were crossed with Cx32-deficient C57BL/129Sv males (Cx32Y/- ) to yield F1 females heterozygous with respect to Cx32 (Cx32+/,). Patches of hepatocytes were observed in normal liver that either expressed Cx32 or failed to express the protein. The mean fraction of Cx32-negative tissue in liver was about 60% and did not change significantly with age of mice. Neoplastic liver lesions, induced in weanling mice, were identified in serial liver sections by their deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase staining. Parallel sections were used for immunohistochemical demonstration of Cx32 protein. Smaller lesions were either homogenously Cx32-negative or showed unchanged to slightly elevated levels of Cx32 protein. There were no major differences in number and size distribution between lesions of these 2 phenotypes. In addition, larger lesions were mostly Cx32-negative but often contained embedded patches of Cx32-positive cells. Staining for the proliferation-associated nuclear antigen Ki-67 did not reveal significant differences between Cx32-negative and Cx32-positive hepatocytes in Cx32-mosaic tumors. This suggests that expression of Cx32 within a subpopulation of tumor cells does not negatively regulate their growth nor does it seem to affect the proliferation of their directly neighboring Cx32-negative counterparts. [source]

    "Images" of the Female and of the Self: Two Recent Interpretations by Women Authors

    HYPATIA, Issue 4 2003
    Flo LeibowitzArticle first published online: 9 JAN 200
    First page of article [source]

    Some biological characteristics of the garfish (Belone belone L., 1761) in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

    D. Uçkun
    Summary The present work was aimed at determining the growth parameters of the garfish, Belone belone, a commercially important pelagic fish species in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea). A total of 347 garfish specimens was collected during the period January,December 1997 from purse-seine boats operating in Izmir Bay. Fork length and total weight of the specimens ranged from 26.0 to 54.5 cm and from 16.51 to 281.73 g, respectively. Maximum age group determined was V for females and IV for males. Female : male ratio was 1 : 0.45. Most specimens belonged to age group II. The von Bertalanffy growth equations for length and weight were for both sexes. [source]

    The Effect of Victims' Social Support on Attributions of Blame in Female and Male Rape

    Irina Anderson
    The effects of perceived social support of the victim, victim gender, and participant gender on attributions of blame in rape were examined. The impact of attitudes toward gender roles was also investigated for their mediational role between participant gender and blame. Participants (N= 121) read a report of an incident of rape and evaluated the victim and the perpetrator. Two ANOVAs showed that social support and participant gender influenced blame attributed to the victim, while victim gender influenced blame attributed to the perpetrator. Socially supported victims were blamed less than were unsupported victims. Men were more blaming of rape victims than were women, but further analyses showed this was mediated by attitudes toward gender roles. Men held significantly more traditional attitudes toward gender roles than did women, and this accounted for the effect of participant gender on victim perceptions. The perpetrator of male rape was blamed less than the perpetrator of female rape. Findings are discussed in terms of the differential attributional mechanisms that may underpin men's and women's reasoning about different types of rape. [source]

    Female and male plumage brightness correlate with nesting failure in azure-winged magpies Cyanopica cyanus

    Jesús M. Avilés
    Animals may assess the quality of other individuals by using information that is contained in elaborate traits. We investigated the degree of sexual dimorphism in structural blue plumage coloration and the potential signal value of these traits in the azure-winged magpie Cyanopica cyanus. We predicted that in this species blue coloration should signal individual quality in both sexes since both females and males invest significantly in caring for offspring. Males have more saturated UV/blue coloration than females and blueness decreased from moulting to reproduction. Males and females did not mate assortatively for blue coloration although they did in relation to body size and condition. Blue colour did not correlate with adult body size or condition. However, nest predation decreased with female and male brightness. Our results suggest that blue coloration may potentially be used to assess parental qualities by potential mates in both sexes of the azure-winged magpie. [source]

    Effect of Osteoblast-Targeted Expression of Bcl-2 in Bone: Differential Response in Male and Female Mice,

    Alexander G Pantschenko
    Abstract Transgenic mice (Col2.3Bcl-2) with osteoblast-targeted human Bcl-2 expression were established. Phenotypically, these mice were smaller than their wildtype littermates and showed differential effects of the transgene on bone parameters and osteoblast activity dependent on sex. The net effect was an abrogation of sex differences normally observed in wildtype mice and an inhibition of bone loss with age. Ex vivo osteoblast cultures showed that the transgene had no effect on osteoblast proliferation, but decreased bone formation. Estrogen was shown to stimulate endogenous Bcl-2 message levels. These studies suggest a link between Bcl-2 and sex regulation of bone development and age-related bone loss. Introduction: Whereas Bcl-2 has been shown to be an important regulator of apoptosis in development, differentiation, and disease, its role in bone homeostasis and development is not well understood. We have previously showed that the induction of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis occurred through a dose-dependent decrease in Bcl-2. Estrogen prevented glucocorticoid-induced osteoblast apoptosis in vivo and in vitro by preventing the decrease in Bcl-2 in osteoblasts. Therefore, Bcl-2 may be an important regulator of bone growth through mechanisms that control osteoblast longevity and function. Materials and Methods: Col2.3Bcl-2 mice were developed carrying a 2.3-kb region of the type I collagen promoter driving 1.8 kb of human Bcl-2 (hBcl-2). Tissue specific expression of hBcl-2 in immunoassays validated the transgenic animal model. Histomorphometry and DXA were performed. Proliferation, mineralization, and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis were examined in ex vivo cultures of osteoblasts. The effect of estrogen on mouse Bcl-2 in ex vivo osteoblast cultures was assayed by RT-PCR and Q-PCR. Results and Conclusions: Two Col2.3Bcl-2 (tg/+) founder lines were established and appeared normal except that they were smaller than their nontransgenic wildtype (+/+) littermates at 1, 2, and 6 months of age, with the greatest differences at 2 months. Immunohistochemistry showed hBcl-2 in osteoblasts at the growth plate and cortical surfaces. Nontransgenic littermates were negative. Western blots revealed hBcl-2 only in type I collagen-expressing tissues. Histomorphometry of 2-month-old mice showed a significant decrease in tg/+ calvaria width with no significant differences in femoral trabecular area or cortical width compared with +/+. However, tg/+ males had significantly more trabecular bone than tg/+ females. Female +/+ mice showed increased bone turnover with elevated osteoblast and osteoclast parameters compared with +/+ males. Col2.3Bcl-2 mice did not show such significant differences between sexes. Male tg/+ mice had a 76.5 ± 1.5% increase in ObS/BS with no significant differences in bone formation rate (BFR) or mineral apposition rate (MAR) compared with male +/+ mice. Transgenic females had a significant 48.4 ± 0.1% and 20.1 ± 5.8% decrease in BFR and MAR, respectively, compared with +/+ females. Osteoclast and osteocyte parameters were unchanged. By 6 months, femurs from female and male +/+ mice had lost a significant amount of their percent of trabecular bone compared with 2-month-old mice. There was little to no change in femoral bone in the tg/+ mice with age. Ex vivo cultures of osteoblasts from +/+ and Col2.3Bcl-2 mice showed a decrease in mineralization, no effect on proliferation, and an inhibition of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in Col2.3Bcl-2 cultures. Estrogen was shown to increase mouse Bcl-2 transcript levels in osteoblast cultures of wildtype mice, supporting a role for Bcl-2 in the sex-related differences in bone phenotype regulated by estrogen. Therefore, Bcl-2 differentially affected bone phenotype in male and female transgenic mice, altered bone cell activity associated with sex-related differences, and decreased bone formation, suggesting that apoptosis is necessary for mineralization. In addition, Bcl-2 targeted to mature osteoblasts seemed to delay bone development, producing a smaller transgenic mouse compared with wildtype littermates. These studies suggest that expression of Bcl-2 in osteoblasts is important in regulating bone mass in development and in the normal aging process of bone. [source]

    Using explicit criteria to evaluate the quality of prescribing in elderly Italian outpatients: a cohort study

    V. Maio PharmD MS MSPH
    Summary Background and objective:, Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly population is a well-recognized problem in public health. The Beers criteria have been widely used to evaluate the quality of prescribing for the elderly. However, because the Beers criteria were developed in the United States, they are not fully applicable in Italy. The purpose of this study was to establish explicit criteria for potentially inappropriate medication prescribing (PIP) for the elderly and assess the prevalence of and factors associated with PIP among elderly residents in the Local Health Unit of Parma, Italy according to the developed criteria. Methods:, A nine-member expert panel was convened to identify a list of inappropriate medications reflecting the Italian prescribing habits. The panel decided to refine and update the 2002 Beers criteria. Consensus through a Nominal Group Technique was reached to classify the identified 23 inappropriate medications into three categories: 17 medications to be always avoided, three medications rarely appropriate, and three medications with some indications but often misused. A retrospective cohort study using the 2006 Parma Local Health Unit automated outpatient prescriptions database was conducted. The cohort comprised 91 741 elderly individuals ,65 years with at least one prescription medication. PIP was defined as having a prescription claim for at least one inappropriate medication. Results and discussion:, A total of 23 662 elderly in the cohort (25·8%) had at least one PIP. Of these, 14·1% received prescriptions for two medications of concern, and 2·0% for three or more. Using the expert panel's categories, 59·2% of the elderly receiving PIP had prescriptions for drugs that should always be avoided, 33·9% for rarely appropriate drugs, and 19·1% for drugs that have some indications but are often misused. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (35·7% of subjects) were the most frequently occurring PIP, followed by ticlopidine (17·6%), doxazosin (15·5%), and amiodarone (13·6%). Female, older age, overall number of drugs prescribed, greater number of chronic conditions were factors associated with greater odds of receiving PIP. Conclusion:, Via the developed criteria, the study corroborates that PIP among elderly outpatients is a substantial issue in Parma Local Health Unit, Italy. Knowledge of the prevalence of PIP and associated factors should gear efforts to develop strategies to reduce PIP in outpatient settings in Italy. [source]

    Effects of psychoeducation for offenders in a community correctional facility

    Albert K. Liau
    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive distortions, and social skill deficiencies. The participants were 316 felony offenders, 71% male, aged 18 to 61 years. Relative to a control group, participants who received portions of the curriculum reported fewer serious institutional violations. Female, but not male participants, who received the curriculum were less likely to recidivate than those in the control group at six months. Reductions in mediating factors,cognitive distortion for males and social skills for females,were associated with fewer serious institutional violations. Levels of substance abuse, exposure to violence, and number of serious violations were found to predict recidivism at six months. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 32: 543,558, 2004. [source]

    Sexual dimorphism and the genetic potential for evolution of sex allocation in the gynodioecious plant, Schiedea salicaria

    A. K. SAKAI
    Abstract Sex allocation theory addresses how separate sexes can evolve from hermaphroditism but little is known about the genetic potential for shifts in sex allocation in flowering plants. We tested assumptions of this theory using the common currency of biomass and measurements of narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations in Schiedea salicaria, a gynodioecious species under selection for greater differentiation of the sexes. Female (carpel) biomass showed heritable variation in both sexes. Male (stamen) biomass in hermaphrodites also had significant heritability, suggesting the potential for further evolution of dioecy. Significant positive genetic correlations between females and hermaphrodites in carpel mass may slow differentiation between the sexes. Within hermaphrodites, there were no negative genetic correlations between male and female biomass as assumed by models for the evolution of dioecy, suggesting that S. salicaria is capable of further changes in biomass allocation to male and female functions and evolution toward dioecy. [source]

    Performance of the invasive weevil Polydrusus sericeus is influenced by atmospheric CO2 and host species

    Michael L. Hillstrom
    1Natural forest systems constitute a major portion of the world's land area, and are subject to the potentially negative effects of both global climate change and invasion by exotic insects. A suite of invasive weevils has become established in the northern hardwood forests of North America. How these insects will respond to increasing CO2 or O3 is unknown. 2The present study examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on the invasive weevil Polydrusus sericeus Schaller at the Aspen Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. A performance assay was conducted in the laboratory during the summer of 2007 using mated pairs of P. sericeus fed a combination of aspen, birch and maple foliage. We recorded leaf area consumption, oviposition and adult longevity. We also conducted visual abundance surveys in the field from 2004 to 2007 on aspen and birch at Aspen FACE. 3Elevated CO2, but not O3, significantly affected P. sericeus performance. Female, but not male, longevity was reduced under elevated CO2. Polydrusus sericeus also produced fewer eggs under elevated CO2 conditions compared with ambient conditions. Adult P. sericeus strongly preferred birch over both aspen and maple, regardless of fumigation treatment. 4The effects of elevated CO2 on P. sericeus populations at Aspen FACE were minimal, and varied among years and host tree species. Polydrusus sericeus abundance was significantly greater on birch than aspen. Over the long term, elevated CO2 may reduce adult female longevity and fecundity of P. sericeus. Further studies are needed to evaluate how this information may scale to ecosystem impacts. [source]


    Siti Nurdjanah
    Objective: To determine the gastric histopathological types distribution of H. pylori positive patients who were detected histopathologically. Material& Methods: Study design was prospective study. Consecutive patients who were suffering chronic dyspepsia underwent endoscopy examination between August 1998 and December 1999. The biopsy specimens were taken from gastric antrum and corpus and sent to the pathologist for histopathology type and H. pylori examinations. H. pylori were also confirmed with CLO and IgG-Helicobacter pylori tests. Results: There were 92 patients (48 male (M) and 44 Female (F) who underwent gastric biopsies endoscopically between August 1998 and December 1999. Fifty-six (60.87%) patients were chronic superficial gastritis, 11(11.96%) chronic antropic gastritis, 18 (19.56%) chronic gastritis 2 (2.17%) chronic gastritis with metaplasia, 3 (3.27%) gastric ulcer, and 2 (2.17%) gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma. Twenty one (22.8%) patients with H. pylori positive by histopathology examination with CLO and IgG-H.pylori tests. Those were 5 (8.90%) patients with chronic superficial gastritis, 7(63.63%) chronic atrophic gastritis, 3(100%) gastric ulcer, 2 (100%) chronic gastritis with metaplasia, 3(16.67%) chronic gastritis, 1(50%) signet-ring cell carcinoma. The age range of the H. pylori positive patients were between 16 and 76 years old. Conclusion: Twenty one (22.8%) H. pylori positive patients out of 92 endoscopied patients and the high percentage tendency of H. pylori positively in chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and chronic gastritis with metaplasia, although most of the patients had chronic superficial gastritis. Further study is needed with larger with larger sample to get the clearer picture of H. pylori distribution based on gastric histopathological types. [source]

    Expression of GABAB Receptors in Magnocellular Neurosecretory Cells of Male, Virgin Female and Lactating Rats

    D. S. Richards
    Abstract GABA is one of the key neurotransmitters that regulate the firing activity of neurones in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. In the present study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to study the distribution and subcellular localisation of metabotropic GABAB receptors in magnocellular neurones in the SON and PVN. Robust GABAB receptor immunoreactivity (GABABR; both subunit 1 and subunit 2 of the heterodimer), was observed in the SON and PVN. At the light microcope level, GABABR immonoreactivity displayed a clustered pattern localised both intracytoplasmically and at the plasma membrane. Densitometry analysis indicated that GABABR immunoreactivity was significantly more intense in vasopressin cells than in oxytocin cells, both in male, virgin female and lactating rats, and was denser in males than in virgin females. Light and electron microscope studies indicated that cytoplasmic GABABR was localised in various organelles, including the Golgi, early endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting the cycling of the receptor within the endocytic and trafficking pathways. Some smaller clusters at the level of the cell plasma membrane were apposed to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 immunoreactive boutons, and appeared to be colocalised with gephyrin, a constituent protein of the postsynaptic density at inhibitory synapses. The presence of GABABR immunoreactivity at synaptic and extrasynaptic sites was supported by electron microscopy. These results provide anatomical evidence for the expression of postsynaptic GABAB receptors in magnocellular neurosecretory cells. [source]

    Effect of acute tensile loading on gender-specific tendon structural and mechanical properties

    Katherine E. Burgess
    Abstract Stretching is commonly used prior to exercise, as it is thought to reduce the risk of injury, and it is also used in the preconditioning of tendon grafts. As tendon properties have been shown to be different between genders, it is proposed that stretching will differentially affect the structure. Here we examine the effect of acute stretch on the mechanical properties of both male and female medial gastrocnemius tendon. Female [20 years,±,1 (SEM), n,=,17] and male (22 years,±,1, n,=,18) subjects underwent a 5-min passive dorsiflexion stretch. Prior to and post stretch medial gastrocnemius tendon stiffness (K), length (l) and cross-sectional area (csa) were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Stiffness and Young's modulus (,) were significantly reduced with stretch for both genders (p,<,0.05). Females showed significantly (p,<,0.05) greater pre- to poststretch decreases in K (22.4 vs. 8.8%) and , (20.5 vs. 8.4%) in comparison to males. The present results show that stretching acutely reduces stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius tendon in females and males, with females showing significantly greater change. The observed disparity between genders may be due in part to variations in tendon moment arm and intrinsic differences in tendon composition. These differential changes in tendon mechanical properties have functional, motor control, and injury risk implications, as well as possible implications for preconditioning of tendon grafts. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 510,516, 2009 [source]

    ,-Endorphin Mediates Behavioral Despair and the Effect of Ethanol on the Tail Suspension Test in Mice

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    Elizabeth T. Barfield
    Background:, The opioid peptide ,-endorphin (,-E) is synthesized and released in response to stressful stimuli as well as acute alcohol administration. The release of ,-E following exposure to an inescapable aversive situation may mediate behaviors that contribute to allostasis of the stress response. The present study examines the effects of ,-E on immobility in assays involving inescapable stress, both under basal conditions and after acute administration of EtOH. Methods:, Female and male transgenic mice with varying capacities to translate ,-E were subjected to either the forced swim (FST, Experiment 1) or the tail suspension test (TST, Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, mice were divided into three groups based on hormonal status (male, female-estrous, and female-nonestrous) and injected with either 1 g/kg EtOH or equivolume saline 14 minutes prior to behavioral assessment on the TST. Results:, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated a direct relationship between ,-E levels and immobility. There were also sex differences in behavior in these tests, with males displaying more immobility than females. A main effect of genotype in Experiment 3 replicated findings in Experiments 1 and 2. There was also an effect of EtOH (increasing immobility) and a significant interaction reflecting a particularly robust effect of the drug in mice with low ,-E. In addition, there were interactions between ,-E, EtOH effects, and hormonal status. Conclusions:, These findings support the contention that ,-E moderates behavioral responses to stressful stimuli and suggest a role for this peptide in coping behavior. Furthermore, the effects of EtOH on the response to stress may be mediated by ,-E. Sex differences in this influence may contribute to sex differences in disease susceptibility and expression. [source]