Federal Policy (federal + policy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Triggers for Late Twentieth Century Reform of Australian Coastal Management

B. G. Thom
This paper identifies four triggers that underpinned the late 20th century reform of coastal management in Australia. These have operated across federal, state and local levels of government. The triggers are global environmental change, sustainable development, integrated resource management, and community awareness of management issues and participation in decision making. This reform has been driven by international and national forces. A number of inquiries into coastal management in Australia culminated in the production of a national coastal policy in 1995. This has led to fundamental changes in coastal management and to the recognition of the inevitability of changes in coastal systems. Federal policies and programs are being translated into action at the state and local government levels through a variety of funding mechanisms and programs. These involve capacity building, a memorandum of understanding between all levels of government, an enhanced role for state advisory or co-ordinating bodies, and an increased role for public participation. [source]

Educational Policy, Politics, and Mixed Heritage Students in the United States

Kristen A. Renn
This article describes local, state, and federal policies related to collecting, aggregating, and reporting data on student race and ethnicity in U.S. K-12 and postsecondary education. It traces data policy from the 1997 decision by the Office of Management and Budget to change from single-race reporting to a format that permits respondents to choose more than one race, to the October 2007 issuance of final guidance from the Department of Education. Taking a K-20 perspective, I consider how policies for data collection and reporting may affect educational and developmental outcomes for students, as well as local, state, and national education policy environments. [source]

The Effect of Adolescent Neighborhood Poverty on Adult Employment

Steven R. Holloway
Urban poverty grew more spatially concentrated during the 1970s and 1980s as industrial economies dramatically restructured. Some policies attempted to address the problems of impoverished neighborhoods by stimulating in-situ economic development, while others sought to geographically disperse the poor. Poverty grew less concentrated during the 1990s because of robust national economic growth and dispersal-oriented federal policies. Before celebrating, however, the long term effects of growing up in poor neighborhoods need to be considered. We used National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, geocoded to census tracts, to examine the effects of neighborhood poverty rates encountered during adolescence on adult employment. Living in poor neighborhoods during adolescence carries a long-term labor market disadvantage, caused at least in part by the limited ability to accumulate early work experience. Males appear to be more sensitive to these neighborhood effects than females. [source]

Moving from Public Housing to Homeownership: Perceived Barriers to Program Participation and Success

Anna M. Santiago
Despite numerous federal policies aimed at enhancing resident self-sufficiency and homeownership through programs run by local public housing authorities, little is known about who participates and who succeeds. This study explores barriers to participation and success in an innovative resident self-sufficiency/homeownership program developed by the Housing Authority of the city and county of Denver. We conduct surveys of participants in the Foundations for Homeownership program, eliciting their perceptions regarding willingness and ability to participate in the program and, thereafter, completing it successfully. We find that at time of entry into the program, participants reported, on average, 4.6 major barriers that they perceive would limit their ability to achieve current goals. OLS and logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the degree to which perceived barriers were associated with participants' demographic, economic, or attitudinal characteristics. [source]

Does U.S. federal policy support employment and recovery for people with psychiatric disabilities?,

Bonnie O'Day Ph.D.
Evidence suggests that a high percentage of people with a psychiatric disability can recover,find meaningful work, develop positive relationships, and participate fully in their communities. Evidence also suggests that work is an essential component of recovery. However, few people with a serious psychiatric disability are actually employed and most of those who are employed work only part-time at barely minimum wages. To assess the impact of federal programs such as Social Security Disability Insurance, vocational rehabilitation, medical insurance, and psychiatric services upon employment, we conducted a qualitative study of 16 employed and 16 unemployed individuals with psychiatric disabilities. All of our participants had disabilities severe enough to qualify them for Social Security Disability benefits. They told us that current federal policies and practices encouraged employment and integration of only a few participants, in a particular stage of their recovery, and placed significant barriers in the employment path of others. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The age-21 minimum legal drinking age: a case study linking past and current debates

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
Traci L. Toomey
ABSTRACT Background The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) in the United States (U.S.) has raised debate over the past several decades. During the 1970s many states lowered their MLDAs from age 21 to 18, 19, or 20. However, as a result of studies showing that these lower MLDAs were associated with increases in traffic crashes, state-level movements began in the later1970s to return MLDAs to age 21. A new movement has arisen to again lower the MLDA in the U.S. Aim The aim is to discuss this current MLDA debate within the context of the long history of the U.S. MLDA. Methods A search of research articles, websites, and newspaper articles was conducted to identify key messages and influences related to the MLDA movements. Results The complexity of state movements to change their MLDAs is illustrated by the Michigan experience, where strong political forces on both sides of the issue were involved, resulting in the MLDA returning to 21. Because the 21st Constitutional amendment prevents the federal government from mandating a MLDA for all states, a federal policy was proposed to provide incentives for all states to implement age-21 MLDAs. Due largely to strong research evidence, the National Minimum Legal Drinking Age Act was enacted in 1984, stipulating that states set their MLDA to 21 or face loss of federal highway funds. By 1988, all states had an age-21 MLDA. Conclusion Any current debate about the MLDA should be informed by the historical context of this policy and the available research. [source]

From plan to practice: Implementing watershed-based strategies into local, state, and federal policy,

Alice L. Jones
Abstract Planners are becoming increasingly interested in watershed-based plans as a way to more accurately reflect the natural landscape processes that cross the borders of political jurisdictions. Although developing plans that cross political boundaries is a relatively simple matter, establishing the transboundary authority necessary to implement such plans is often a much different matter. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms under which a watershed-based storm-water management plan could be implemented in the Big Darby Creek, Ohio, USA, a national scenic river currently facing critical threats from nonpoint sediment- and pollutant-loaded storm-water runoff in the rapidly urbanizing portions of the watershed. The watershed encompasses portions of 7 counties, 11 incorporated areas, and 26 townships, each of which has some authority over land use and storm water. The transboundary options explored include creation of a storm-water utility, creating a conservancy district, or an independent approach requiring all jurisdictions in the watershed to simultaneously adopt a series of storm-water ordinances. We evaluated these options on a number of characteristics, including their relative ability to control runoff quality and quantity, the locus of political control and enforcement authority under each, funding considerations, and the likelihood of acceptance given the region's existing political realities. Although a central authority such as a conservancy district or storm-water management district would likely be most effective in protecting water quality, the long tradition of local controls on land use makes this politically infeasible. Thus, we argue that a watershed-based protection plan for the Darby region will require the simultaneous independent approach. The case study of the Big Darby suggests that the successful implementation of watershed-based plans may be more dependent on the plan's political savvy than its technical superiority. [source]

The North American Naturalization Gap: An Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada,

Irene Bloemraad
Using 1990 U.S. Census 5% PUMS and 1991 Canadian Census 3% public and 20% restricted microfiles, this article demonstrates the existence of a North American naturalization gap: immigrants living in Canada are on average much more likely to be citizens than their counterparts in the United States, and they acquire citizenship much faster than those living south of the border. Current theories explaining naturalization differences , focusing on citizenship laws, group traits or the characteristics of individual migrants , fail to explain the naturalization gap. Instead, I propose an institutional approach to citizenship acquisition. States' normative stances regarding immigrant integration (interventionist or autonomous) generate integrated or disconnected institutional configurations between government, ethnic organizations and individuals. Evidence from a case study of Portuguese immigrants living in Massachusetts and Ontario suggests that in Toronto government bureaucrats and federal policy encourage citizenship through symbolic support and instrumental aid to ethnic organizations and community leaders. In contrast, Boston area grassroots groups are expected to mobilize and aid their constituents without direct state support, resulting in lower citizenship levels. [source]

Regulatory Federalism and Environmental Protection in the United States

John A. List
In this paper we address two aspects of regulatory federalism in U.S. environmental policy. First, we suggest that environmental quality in U.S. states responds positively to increases in income. Second, we provide evidence that environmental quality did not decline when President Reagan's policy of new federalism returned responsibility for many environmental regulations to the states. Thus, state environmental quality appears to reflect more than just the dictates of federal policy. Additionally, we find that a "race to the bottom" in environmental quality did not materialize in the 1980s. [source]

Implementing Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in North Carolina Public School Districts

Melinda M. Pankratz
ABSTRACT: The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) provides funding for prevention education to nearly every school district in the nation. Recent federal policy requires SDFSCA recipients to implement evidence-based prevention programs. This paper reports the extent to which North Carolina public school districts implement evidence-based substance use prevention curricula. Results showed that while the majority of school districts use evidence-based prevention curricula, they are rarely the most commonly used curricula. Evidence-based curricula are much more likely to be used at the middle school level than at the elementary or high school levels. Urbanicity, coordinator time, and coordinator experience correlated with extensive use of evidence-based curricula in the bivariate analysis, but only time spent on prevention by the Safe and Drug-Free Schools (SDFS) coordinator significantly predicted extensive use in the multivariate analysis. Increasing district SDFSCA coordinator time is a necessary step for diffusing evidence-based curricula. (J Sch Health. 2004;74(9):353,358) [source]

Workplace health and safety regulations: Impact of enforcement and consultation on workers' compensation claims rates in Washington State,

James Baggs PhD
Abstract Background There has been considerable debate in the public policy arena about the appropriate mix of regulatory enforcement and consultation in achieving desired health and safety behavior across industries. Recently there has been a shift in federal policy toward voluntary approaches and constraining the scope of enforcement programs, although there is little evidence that this might improve health and safety outcomes. To address this, we examined changes in lost time workers compensation claims rates for Washington State employers who had (1) no OSHA State Plan (WISHA) activity, (2) enforcement, (3) consultation, and (4) both types of visits. Methods Compensable claims rates, hours, and WISHA activity were determined for each employer account with a single business location that had payroll hours reported for every quarter from 1997,2000 and more than 10 employees. We used a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to Poisson regression to model the association between WISHA activity and claims rate controlling for other external factors. Results Controlling for previous claims rate and average size, claims rates for employers with WISHA enforcement activity declined 22.5% in fixed site industry SIC codes compared to 7% among employers with no WISHA activity (P,<,0.05), and in non-fixed site SICs (e.g., construction) claims rates declined 12.8% for employers with enforcement activity compared to a 7.4% decline for those with no WISHA activity (P,>,0.10). WISHA consultation activity was not associated with a greater decline in compensable claims rates (,2.3% for fixed sites and +3.5% for non-fixed sites). WISHA activity did not adversely affect worksite survivability through the study period. Conclusions Enforcement inspections are significantly associated with decreasing compensable workers compensation claims rates especially for fixed site employers. We were unable to identify an association between consultation activities and decreasing claims rates. Am. J. Ind. Med. 43:483,494, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Public policy and employment of people with disabilities: exploring new paradigms,

Judith A. Cook Ph.D.
A "sea change" in public attitudes, legislation, and political power at the end of the 20th century in the United States has helped set the stage in the early 21st century for the entry of people with disabilities into the labor force. Major pieces of federal legislation have altered national policy with the intention of maximizing the work force participation of people with disabilities. At the same time, a new theoretical paradigm of disability has emerged, which emphasizes community inclusion, accommodation, and protection of civil rights. This "New Paradigm" of disability can be applied in concert with rigorous behavioral science methodologies to shed light on the outcomes of recent federal policy changes regarding the labor force participation of people with disabilities. In so doing, social science can be used in more meaningful ways to understand both the intended and unintended consequences of federal policy. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]