Favorable Impact (favorable + impact)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Favorable Impact of a Vegan Diet with Exercise on Hemorheology: Implications for Control of Diabetic Neuropathy

JOURNAL OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, Issue 2 2003
MF McCarty
A little-noticed clinical report indicates that a low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, coupled with daily walking exercise, leads to rapid remission of neuropathic pain in the majority of type 2 diabetics expressing this complication. Concurrent marked improvements in glycemic control presumably contribute to this benefit, but are unlikely to be solely responsible. Consideration should be given to the possibility that improved blood rheology , decreased blood viscosity and increased blood filterability , plays a prominent role in mediating this effect. There is considerable evidence that neural hypoxia, secondary to impaired endoneurial microcirculatory perfusion, is a crucial etiologic factor in diabetic neuropathy; the unfavorable impact of diabetes on hemorheology would be expected to exacerbate endoneurial ischemia. Conversely, measures which improve blood fluidity would likely have a beneficial impact on diabetic neuropathy. There is indeed evidence that vegan diets, as well as exercise training, tend to decrease the viscosity of both whole blood and plasma; reductions in hematocrit and in fibrinogen may contribute to this effect. The fact that vegan diets decrease the white cell count is suggestive of an improvement in blood filterability as well; filterability improves with exercise training owing to an increase in erythrocyte deformability. Whether these measures influence the activation of leukocytes in diabetics , an important determinant of blood filterability , remains to be determined. There are various reasons for suspecting that a vegan diet can reduce risk for other major complications of diabetes , retinopathy, nephropathy, and macrovascular disease , independent of its tendency to improve glycemic control in type 2 patients. The vegan diet/exercise strategy represents a safe, ,low-tech' approach to managing diabetes that deserves far greater attention from medical researchers and practitioners. [source]


Smokers with financial stress are more likely to want to quit but less likely to try or succeed: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
Mohammad Siahpush
ABSTRACT Objective To examine the association of financial stress with interest in quitting smoking, making a quit attempt and quit success. Design and participants The analysis used data from 4984 smokers who participated in waves 4 and 5 (2005,07) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey, a prospective study of a cohort of smokers in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia. Measurement The outcomes were interest in quitting at wave 4, making a quit attempt and quit success at wave 5. The main predictor was financial stress at wave 4: ,. . . because of a shortage of money, were you unable to pay any important bills on time, such as electricity, telephone or rent bills?'. Additional socio-demographic and smoking-related covariates were also examined. Findings Smokers with financial stress were more likely than others to have an interest in quitting at baseline [odds ratio (OR): 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22,2.19], but were less likely to have made a quit attempt at follow-up (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57,0.96). Among those who made a quit attempt, financial stress was associated with a lower probability of abstinence at follow-up (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33,0.87). Conclusions Cessation treatment efforts should consider assessing routinely the financial stress of their clients and providing additional counseling and resources for smokers who experience financial stress. Social policies that provide a safety net for people who might otherwise face severe financial problems, such as not being able to pay for rent or food, may have a favorable impact on cessation rates. [source]


Primary cancer of the sphenoid sinus,A GETTEC study,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 3 2009
Pierre Olivier Vedrine MD
Abstract Background. Primary involvement of the sphenoid sinus occurs in 2% of all paranasal sinus tumors and is associated with dismal prognosis. Optimal management remains debatable. Methods. A total of 23 patients were treated for a primary cancer of the sphenoid sinus from 1988 to 2004. Charts were reviewed for patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Results. Cranial neuropathies were present in 12 patients. Pathologic findings included adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, melanoma, and malignant hemangiopericytoma. All but 2 patients had stages III to IV cancer. Radiotherapy was performed in 18 patients and chemotherapy in 12. Of 10 patients undergoing surgery, total excision with grossly negative margins was achieved in 4 patients and subtotal resection in 6. Median locoregional control and overall survival were 12 and 41 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cranial neuropathy was associated with worse locoregional control and survival. Surgery was rarely complete because of advanced stages at presentation, but it yielded better outcomes than other treatments without surgery in non lymphoma-cases. Conclusion. Early CT and MRI should be performed when facing aspecific, rhinological, or neuro-ophtalmological symptoms. Cranial neuropathies indicate a worse prognosis. Surgery, including debulking surgery, may be preferred to combined modality treatments without surgery. Its apparently favorable impact on prognosis would need to be tested in homogenous histological groups of patients, which is impossible because of the rarity of the disease. Highly conformal radiotherapy (adjuvant or definitive) should be encouraged and optimized with concurrent chemotherapy in advanced stages. Aggressive multidisciplinary management including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy should be encouraged and adapted on histology and tumor extensions. Progress is still warranted to improve outcomes. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]


Clinical significance of Gata-1, Gata-2, EKLF, and c-MPL expression in acute myeloid leukemia,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Rosa M. Ayala
The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological correlation and prognostic impact of Gata-1, Gata-2, EKLF, and c-MPL transcript level in a group of 41 acute mieloid leukemia (AML) patients. Gata-1 overexpression was related to advanced age and a low percentage of bone marrow blasts and was associated with the expression of CD34 antigen and lymphoid T markers. The negative impact of Gata-1 expression on the probability of achieving complete remission has been confirmed. Gata-2 overexpression was associated with a low percentage of blasts in BM and males. Expression of c-MPL was associated with CD34+ AML and M2 FAB AML subtype. A higher expression of EKLF was found in secondary AML versus primary AML. Nevertheless, patients expressing EKLF had a longer overall survival and event free survival than those patients that did not express EKLF. Our study has identified expression of EKLF as a factor with a favorable impact on prognosis in AML. Am. J. Hematol, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Response of myasthenia gravis to rituximab in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Ajeet Gajra
Abstract Myasthenia gravis is a B-cell-mediated autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatigability of skeletal muscles. The underlying defect is an autoantibody-mediated attack on the acetylcholine receptors (AchRs) at the neuromuscular junction. Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody indicated for treatment of patients with low-grade or follicular, CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Based on its potential for elimination of auto-reactive B-cell clones, rituximab may have a role in the management of some autoimmune disorders. We report a patient with B-cell, follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and a long-standing history of myasthenia gravis and the favorable impact of rituximab on both disorders. Am. J. Hematol. 77:196,197, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


DYNAMIC ANALYSES AND ROBUST STEERING CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR AUTOMATED LANE GUIDANCE OF HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES

ASIAN JOURNAL OF CONTROL, Issue 3 2000
Jeng-Yu Wang
ABSTRACT In this paper, we present various linear analyses of the linearized lateral dynamics of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) (tractor-semitrailer type), which include time domain, frequency domain and pole/zero analyses. These analyses are conducted to examine the vehicle response to the steering input subjected to variations of speed, road adhesion coefficient, cargo load in the trailer, and look-ahead distance for the lateral deviation sensor. These parameters (uncertainties) have significant influence on vehicle dynamics. It has been shown that redefining the look-ahead lateral error as the controlled output has a favorable impact on the lateral control problem. Based on these analyses, a robust steering controller using H, loop-shaping procedure is designed for a tractor semitrailer combination to follow the road center line on both curved and straight highway sections. The proposed controller ensures the robust performance under model uncertainties which include varying vehicle longitudinal speed, road adhesion coefficient, and cargo load in the trailer. The performance of the designed controller is evaluated by simulations and validated by experiments. [source]


Public investment and regional inequality in rural China

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2004
Xiaobo Zhang
Public investment; Regional inequality; Growth; Chinese economy Abstract This paper develops a method for decomposing the contributions of various types of public investment to regional inequality and applies the method to rural China. Public investments are found to have contributed to production growth in both the agricultural and rural non-agricultural sectors, but their contributions to regional inequality have differed by type of investment and the region in which they are made. All types of investment in the least-developed western region reduce regional inequality, whereas additional investments in the coastal and central regions worsen regional inequality. Investments in rural education and agricultural R&D in the western region have the largest and most favorable impacts on reducing regional inequality. [source]