Favorable Clinical Outcome (favorable + clinical_outcome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fas and Fas ligand expression on germinal center type-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with the clinical outcome

Yasushi Kojima
Abstract:, In recent years, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been classified by DNA microarray analysis into the germinal center B-cell-like (GC) type, the activated B-cell-like (ABC) type and type 3. The latter two types can be collectively categorized as the non-GC (NGC) type. From the prognostic perspective, the GC type has a favorable clinical outcome when compared with the NGC type. The protein Fas induces apoptosis of lymphocytes by binding with the Fas ligand (FasL), and escape from such apoptosis is considered to lead to malignant transformation of the cells and unrestricted growth of lymphoma. We proposed a hypothesis that Fas/FasL expression could be possibly related with a better survival of GC type DLBCL and evaluated 69 DLBCL cases immunohistochemically with CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1, Fas and FasL. These lymphomas were classified as GC type (positive for CD10 or Bcl-6 and negative for MUM1) or NGC type. The GC type had a better overall survival rate than the NGC type (P = 0.0723). Among markers as given above, positive CD10 was the most significant prognostic factor for overall survival in total DLBCL (P < 0.05). In the GC type, Fas and FasL expressions were significantly associated with a favorable overall survival (Fas: P < 0.005; FasL: P < 0.05). Hence, Fas or FasL expression might contribute to a better prognosis of this type of DLBCL. [source]

Des-,-carboxyprothrombin, ,-fetoprotein and AFP-L3 in patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

Francisco A Durazo
Abstract Background and Aim:, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Detection of HCC at an early stage is critical for a favorable clinical outcome. The study aim was to: (i) compare the levels of des-,-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), ,-fetoprotein (AFP) and AFP-L3 in HCC patients and in chronic viral hepatitis patients without HCC; (ii) define the level of each tumor marker with the best sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis; and (iii) to correlate the levels of these markers with respect to size and tumor burden. Methods:, Two hundred and forty patients with either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied. These included 144 with HCC, 47 with chronic hepatitis (fibrosis stage I,III on liver biopsy) and 49 with cirrhosis. Results:, Levels of DCP, AFP and AFP L-3 were significantly higher in patients with HCC than in those without HCC (P , 0.0001). Receiver,operating curves (ROC) indicated that the cut-off value with the best sensitivity and specificity for each test was ,84 mAU/mL for DCP, ,25 ng/mL for AFP and ,10% for AFP-L3. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for DCP was 87%, 85% and 86.8%, for AFP 69%, 87% and 69.8%, and for AFP-L3 56%, 90% and 56.1%, respectively. DCP levels were below the ROC cut-off in all patients without HCC. In patients with single lesions, there was a direct correlation of DCP to tumor size. High levels of AFP correlated with diffuse type of HCC. All three markers were significantly elevated in the presence of metastatic HCC. No advantage was observed by combining two or three markers for HCC diagnosis. Conclusion:, DCP had the highest sensitivity and PPV for HCC diagnosis, had a direct correlation with tumor size, and was not elevated in any patients without HCC. DCP should be used as the main serum test for HCC detection. [source]

Pediatric moyamoya disease: An analysis of 410 consecutive cases

Seung-Ki Kim MD
Objective Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease of the bilateral internal carotid arteries that causes a compensatory abnormal vascular network at the base of brain. The rare incidence and various surgical techniques applied have limited the clinical research on MMD. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the surgical outcome of 410 pediatric MMD patients. All patients were treated in a relatively uniform scheme at a single institution. The surgical procedures consisted of bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis augmented by bifrontal encephalogaleo-/periosteal synangiosis. Logistic regression analyses were applied to reveal the prognostic factors for surgical outcome. Results The overall clinical outcome was excellent in 66%, good in 15%, fair in 15%, and poor in 4% of the patients. Therefore, 81% of the patients had a favorable clinical outcome (excellent and good). Multivariate analyses revealed that infarction on presentation was associated with unfavorable clinical outcome (odds ratio [OR], 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49,5.46; p < 0.01) and decreased vascular reserve only on single-photon emission computerized tomography (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01,0.52; p < 0.01), with favorable clinical outcome. Interpretation Our results indicate that an early diagnosis and active intervention before establishment of irreversible hemodynamic change are essential to achieve a favorable clinical outcome in children with MMD. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:92,101 [source]

Retrospective review of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital cases during 1998,2005

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to review cases of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC), including their clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and pathological reports of patients who were diagnosed with EPSCC from 1998 to 2005. Results: Overall 21 EPSCC patients were eligible for this study. The most common primary sites were the gastrointestinal organs and the nasal cavity. Eleven patients (52.3%) had limited disease (LD) and 10 patients (47.7%) had extensive disease (ED). Nine patients underwent radical surgery alone, four received only radical radiation and two received only palliative chemotherapy. Two patients received adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy following surgical resection and one received a combination of all three treatment modalities. Three patients declined specific treatment and were treated with best supportive care. The median overall survival in the ED group was only 3 months (range 1,16 months), compared to 30 months (range 20,61 months) for LD. EPSCC of pancreas demonstrated a favorable clinical outcome with treatment, whereas primary EPSCC of the liver, esophagus and rectum had an aggressive natural history and a poor response to treatment. Conclusion: Our report suggests that EPSCC may have a different biology from that of pulmonary small cell carcinoma. When detected at an early stage, EPSCC may have an excellent prognosis with treatment. Additional studies involving more patients with EPSCC are warranted to further define the optimal roles of each treatment modality. [source]

Impact of HER2 and EGFR gene status on gefitinib-treated patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer,

Junichi Soh
Abstract We previously examined the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status and clinical outcomes of nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gefitinib. In our study, we additionally examined HER2 status and investigate the impact of genetic status as predictors in Japanese NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib. The HER2 copy number status was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay and mutation of HER2 exon 20 was determined by direct sequencing in 74 patients to investigate the relationship between molecular statuses including HER2 and EGFR and the clinical outcomes of patients treated with gefitinib. The high HER2 copy number was identified in 32 (43.2%) of 74 NSCLC patients and no HER2 exon 20 mutations were found. The high HER2 copy number was significantly associated with the sensitivity to gefitinib (p = 0.0045) and a prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0089) in a univariate analysis, but not in a multivariate analysis. Multivariate analyses exhibited that the drug-sensitive EGFR mutation was an independent predictive factor of a better sensitivity to gefitinib (OR = 41.9, p = 0.002), prolonged overall survival (HR = 0.32, p = 0.019) and PFS (HR = 0.31, p = 0.0045). The high EGFR copy number might have a weak association with better response and prognosis without statistical significance. In conclusion, the drug-sensitive EGFR mutation, rather than HER2 and EGFR copy numbers, is a determinant of favorable clinical outcomes in gefitinib-treated patients with NSCLC, although the high HER2 copy number, to some extent, may influence the gefitinib effect. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Testosterone Supplementation Therapy for Older Men: Potential Benefits and Risks

David A. Gruenewald MD
Serum testosterone levels decline gradually and progressively with aging in men. Many manifestations associated with aging in men, including muscle atrophy and weakness, osteoporosis, reduced sexual functioning, and increased fat mass, are similar to changes associated with testosterone deficiency in young men. These similarities suggest that testosterone supplementation may prevent or reverse the effects of aging. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify studies of testosterone supplementation therapy in older men. A structured, qualitative review was performed of placebo-controlled trials that included men aged 60 and older and evaluated one or more physical, cognitive, affective, functional, or quality-of-life outcomes. Studies focusing on patients with severe systemic diseases and hormone deficiencies related to specific diseases were excluded. In healthy older men with low-normal to mildly decreased testosterone levels, testosterone supplementation increased lean body mass and decreased fat mass. Upper and lower body strength, functional performance, sexual functioning, and mood were improved or unchanged with testosterone replacement. Variable effects on cognitive function were reported, with improvements in some cognitive domains (e.g., spatial, working, and verbal memory). Testosterone supplementation improved exercise-induced coronary ischemia in men with coronary heart disease, whereas angina pectoris was improved or unchanged. In a few studies, men with low testosterone levels were more likely to experience improvements in lumbar bone mineral density, self-perceived functional status, libido, erectile function, and exercise-induced coronary ischemia with testosterone replacement than men with less marked testosterone deficiency. No major unfavorable effects on lipids were reported, but hematocrit and prostate specific antigen levels often increased. Based on these results, testosterone supplementation cannot be recommended at this time for older men with normal or low-normal testosterone levels and no clinical manifestations of hypogonadism. However, testosterone replacement may be warranted in older men with markedly decreased testosterone levels, regardless of symptoms, and in men with mildly decreased testosterone levels and symptoms or signs suggesting hypogonadism. The long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone supplementation remain uncertain. Establishment of evidence-based indications will depend on further demonstrations of favorable clinical outcomes and symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life benefits in carefully performed, long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:101,115, 2003. [source]

Less systemic cytokine response in patients following microendoscopic versus open lumbar discectomy

Tsung-Jen Huang
Abstract The magnitude of the tissue damage from surgery impacts the trauma response. This response is proportional to the severity of surgical stress. Systemic cytokines are recognized as markers of postoperative tissue trauma. Microendoscopic discectomy (MED) recently has become popular for treating lumbar disc herniations, and is associated with favorable clinical outcomes compared with open discectomy (OD). This study postulates that MED is a less traumatic procedure, and therefore has a lower surgical stress response compared to OD. In this study, a quantitative comparison of the overall effects of surgical trauma resulting from MED and OD was performed through analyzing patient systemic cytokines response. From April, 2002 to June, 2003, 22 consecutive patients who had symptomatic lumbar disc herniations were prospectively randomized to undergo either intracanalicular MED (N = 10) or OD (N = 12). In this study, the Vertebroscope System (Zeppelin, Pullach, Germany) was used to perform the endoscopic discectomy procedure in all MED patients. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), Interleukin-1, (IL-1,), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured before surgery and at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h after surgery using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at the same time interval. The results showed the MED patients had shorter postoperative hospital stay (mean, 3.57 0.98 vs. 5.92 2.39 days, p = 0.025) and less intraoperative blood loss (mean. 87.5 69.4 vs. 190 115 ml, p = 0.042). The operating length, including the set-up time, was longer in the MED group (mean, 109 35.9 vs. 72.1 17.8 min, p = 0.01). The mean size of skin incision made for the MED patients was 1.86 0.13cm (range 1.7,2.0cm); and 6.3 0.98 cm for the OD patients (range 5.5,8cm), p = 0.001. The patients' pain severity of the involved limbs on 10-point Visual Analog Scale before operation in MED group was 7.5 0.3 (range 6,9) and 8 0.2 (range 7,9) in OD group, p = 0.17; and after surgery, 1.5 0.2 (range 1,2) in MED group and 1.4 0.1 (range 1,3) in OD group, p = 0.91. CRP levels peaked at 24h in both groups, and OD patients displayed a significantly greater postoperative rise in serum CRP (mean, 27.78 15.02 vs. 13.84 6.25mg/l, p = 0.026). Concentrations of TNF-,, IL-1,, and IL-8 were detected only sporadically. Serum IL-6 increased less significantly following MED than after OD. In the MED group, IL-6 level peaked 8 h after surgery, with the response statistically less than in the open group (mean, 6.27 5.96 vs. 17.18 11.60pg/ml, p = 0.025). A statistically significant correlation was identified between IL-6 and CRP values (r = 0.79). Using the modified MacNab criteria, the clinical outcomes were 90% satisfactory (9/10) in MED patients and 91.6% satisfactory (11/12) in OD patients at a mean 18.9 months (range 10,25) follow-up. Based on the current data, surgical trauma, as reflected by systemic IL-6 and CRP response, was significantly less following MED than following OD. The difference in the systemic cytokine response may support that the MED procedure is less traumatic. Moreover, our MED patients had achieved satisfactory clinical outcomes as the OD patients at a mean 18.9 months follow-up after surgery. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]