Favorable Changes (favorable + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Efficacy of mizoribine in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus in children

Kouichi Yoshidome
AbstractBackground:,Mizoribine (MZR) is a novel immunosuppressant developed in Japan. As MZR is reported to be less toxic than other cytotoxic drugs, it is frequently used in Japan in the treatment of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus nephritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MZR in children with SLE. Nine female children with lupus nephritis who had undergone renal biopsy before starting MZR, were involved in this study. Their mean disease duration was 4.8 years at the time MZR treatment was initiated. Patients who had received intensive medications, such as methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy, and/or other immunosuppressants, within the 4 months prior to the start of the study, were excluded. Methods:,Patients treated with 3 mg/kg per day of MZR were monitored every month for up to 1 year. The efficacy of MZR was evaluated by the changes from baseline values of serum C3, serum C4, anti-dsDNA antibody titer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), urinary protein, dosage of prednisolone (PSL), and the sum of the scores defined by these parameters. Results:,Favorable changes were observed in C3 and ESR after 2 months and 3 months of MZR therapy, respectively. At 3 months of MZR therapy, the sum of scores defined by the parameters for disease activity indicated that MZR was more effective in non-class IV nephritis patients (n = 5) than in class IV nephritis patients (n = 4) (P = 0.0197). All nine children involved in the study tolerated the MZR therapy well during the study. Conclusion:,MZR was safe in lupus children, but its efficacy was limited in patients with non-class IV nephritis. Further study is necessary, in which higher dosages and/or earlier use of MZR is provided to a larger number of children. [source]

Evaluation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Concussion Initiative for High School Coaches: "Heads Up: Concussion in High School Sports"

Kelly Sarmiento MPH
BACKGROUND: To reduce the number of sports-related concussions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the support of partners and experts in the field, has developed a tool kit for high school coaches with practical, easy-to-use concussion-related information. This study explores the success of the tool kit in changing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the prevention and management of concussions. METHODS: A mail questionnaire was administered to all eligible high school coaches who received the tool kit. Follow-up focus groups were conducted for additional information. Both quantitative data from the surveys and qualitative data from the focus groups were analyzed to support the objectives of the study. RESULTS: Respondents self-reported favorable changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the prevention and management of concussions. Qualitative responses augmented the quantitative data. CONCLUSION: Barriers to concussion prevention and management are complex; however, these results highlight the role that coaches can play in school settings in establishing a safe environment for their athletes. [source]

Thermoregulatory sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced waist-circumference reduction in obese Japanese women

Mami Fujibayashi
The present study is designed to investigate how and to what extent sympathovagal behavior in a balanced low-calorie diet relates to favorable changes of body mass, waist circumference, and/or metabolic risk factors. The study involved 28 mildly obese women without clinical complications, who underwent an 8-week calorie restriction program using a 1,200-kcal daily diet with an adequate nutrient content; including two regular meals, and one formula meal replacement. All subjects were examined before and after the dietary intervention. We measured anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and biochemical blood profiles for lipid metabolism. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated by heart rate variability power spectral analysis. The dietary intervention induced moderate, but significant reduction of waist circumference (,5.3% 0.8%), body fat percentage (,5.8% 0.8%), and body mass (,6.6% 0.5%). Linear regression analysis showed that ,very low frequency (VLF) power reflecting energy metabolic- and thermoregulatory sympathetic function significantly correlated to ,waist circumference (r = ,0.53, P < 0.01), ,body fat percentage (r = ,0.39, P < 0.05), ,body mass (r = ,0.43, P < 0.05), ,HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC) (r = 0.62, P < 0.001), and ,nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). A stepwise multiple regression analysis additionally revealed that ,waist circumference (P = 0.024), ,HDL-C/TC (P = 0.013), and ,NEFA (P = 0.016) were significant and independent factors, which contributing to the variance in ,VLF power (r2 = 0.61). Although causes and consequences of obesity continue to elude researchers, the present study indicates that thermoregulatory sympathetic activity relates to moderate waist-circumference reduction together with favorable changes of blood lipid profiles after short-term dietary modification in mildly obese women. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Carbohydrate restriction, prostate cancer growth, and the insulin-like growth factor axis,

THE PROSTATE, Issue 1 2008
Stephen J. Freedland
Abstract BACKGROUND Recent evidence suggests carbohydrate intake may influence prostate cancer biology. We tested whether a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) would delay prostate cancer growth relative to Western and low-fat diets in a xenograft model. METHODS Seventy-five male SCID mice were fed a NCKD (84% fat,0% carbohydrate,16% protein kcal), low-fat (12% fat,72% carbohydrate,16% protein kcal), or Western diet (40% fat,44% carbohydrate,16% protein kcal). Low-fat mice were fed ad libitum and the other arms fed via a modified-paired feeding protocol. After 24 days, all mice were injected with LAPC-4 cells and sacrificed when tumors approached 1,000 mm3. RESULTS Despite consuming equal calories, NCKD-fed mice lost weight (up to 15% body weight) relative to low-fat and Western diet-fed mice and required additional kcal to equalize body weight. Fifty-one days after injection, NCKD mice tumor volumes were 33% smaller than Western mice (rank-sum, P,=,0.009). There were no differences in tumor volume between low-fat and NCKD mice. Dietary treatment was significantly associated with survival (log-rank, P,=,0.006), with the longest survival among the NCKD mice, followed by the low-fat mice. Serum IGFBP-3 was highest and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio was lowest among NCKD mice while serum insulin and IGF-1 levels were highest in Western mice. NCKD mice had significantly decreased hepatic fatty infiltration relative to the other arms. CONCLUSIONS In this xenograft model, despite consuming more calories, NCKD-fed mice had significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival relative to Western mice and was associated with favorable changes in serum insulin and IGF axis hormones relative to low-fat or Western diet. Prostate 68: 11,19, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Improvement of lipid profile is accompanied by atheroprotective alterations in high-density lipoprotein composition upon tumor necrosis factor blockade: A prospective cohort study in ankylosing spondylitis

I. C. van Eijk
Objective Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) within the particle. Anti,tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment may improve these parameters. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the effects of etanercept on lipid profile and HDL composition in AS. Methods In 92 AS patients, lipid levels and their association with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and SAA were evaluated serially during 3 months of etanercept treatment. HDL composition and its relationship to inflammation markers was determined in a subgroup of patients, using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Results With anti-TNF treatment, levels of all parameters of inflammation decreased significantly, whereas total cholesterol, HDL-c, and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) levels increased significantly. This resulted in a better total cholesterol:HDL-c ratio (from 3.9 to 3.7) (although the difference was not statistically significant), and an improved Apo B:Apo A-I ratio, which decreased by 7.5% over time (P = 0.008). In general, increases in levels of all lipid parameters were associated with reductions in inflammatory activity. In addition, SAA was present at high levels within HDL particles from AS patients with increased CRP levels and disappeared during treatment, in parallel with declining plasma levels of SAA. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that during anti-TNF therapy for AS, along with favorable changes in the lipid profile, HDL composition is actually altered whereby SAA disappears from the HDL particle, increasing its atheroprotective ability. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of functional characteristics of HDL-c in cardiovascular diseases related to chronic inflammatory conditions. [source]

SiO2 Entrapment of Animal Cells: Liver-Specific Metabolic Activities in Silica-Overlaid Hepatocytes

Maurizio Muraca
Abstract: Rat hepatocytes in a collagen-gel sandwich configuration were exposed to silicon alkoxides in a gas phase, yielding a 0.05 to 0.15 ,m porous silica layer on the gel surface. Cell viability was unaffected by the procedure. After 24 h, bilirubin conjugation, ammonia removal, urea synthesis, and diazepam metabolism were unaffected by the procedure. However, both the ammonia removal rate and diazepam metabolism were increased after 48 hr, whereas urea synthesis was unaffected. These data indicate that silica overlay allows efficient metabolic activity of collagen-gel entrapped hepatocytes. The fact that the KM of bilirubin conjugation was unaffected by the presence of the silica membrane suggests that the transport of albumin-bound substrates is not decreased. The enhancement in some metabolic activities found 48 h after the entrapment procedure may be the result of favorable changes in the hepatocyte microenvironment. These characteristics might be useful for the development of organotypical bioartificial liver devices. [source]