Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Favorable

  • condition favorable

  • Terms modified by Favorable

  • favorable attitude
  • favorable case
  • favorable change
  • favorable clinical outcome
  • favorable condition
  • favorable effect
  • favorable effects
  • favorable factor
  • favorable impact
  • favorable interaction
  • favorable long-term outcome
  • favorable outcome
  • favorable performance
  • favorable pharmacokinetic
  • favorable prognosis
  • favorable prognostic factor
  • favorable property
  • favorable response
  • favorable result
  • favorable safety profile
  • favorable site

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Role of Friends' Appearance and Behavior on Evaluations of Individuals on Facebook: Are We Known by the Company We Keep?

    Joseph B. Walther
    This research explores how cues deposited by social partners onto one's online networking profile affect observers' impressions of the profile owner. An experiment tested the relationships between both (a) what one's associates say about a person on a social network site via "wall postings," where friends leave public messages, and (b) the physical attractiveness of one's associates reflected in the photos that accompany their wall postings on the attractiveness and credibility observers attribute to the target profile owner. Results indicated that profile owners' friends' attractiveness affected their own in an assimilative pattern. Favorable or unfavorable statements about the targets interacted with target gender: Negatively valenced messages about certain moral behaviors increased male profile owners' perceived physical attractiveness, although they caused females to be viewed as less attractive. Résumé Le rôle de l'apparence et du comportement des amis dans l'évaluation d,individus sur Facebook : Notre entourage nous connaît-il? Cette recherche explore la façon dont des indices déposés par des partenaires sociaux sur le profil de réseautage en ligne d'une personne ont un effet sur les impressions qu,ont les observateurs du propriétaire de ce profil. Une expérience a testé la relation entre 1) ce que les amis d'une personne disent de celle-ci sur un site de réseautage social par le biais de messages publics laissés par ces amis sur son «Wall» (« mur » virtuel servant à afficher des messages) et 2) l,attrait physique des amis d'une personne telle que reflété par les photos qui accompagnent leurs messages publiés sur le «Wall», sur l,attrait et la crédibilité que des observateurs attribuent au propriétaire du profil ciblé. Les résultats indiquent que l'attrait des amis des propriétaires de profils a un impact sur le leur, selon un schéma d,assimilation. Des affirmations favorables ou défavorables aux cibles ont interagi avec le genre de la cible : des messages à valence négative à propos de certains comportements moraux ont augmenté l'attrait physique perçu des propriétaires de profils masculins, alors qu,ils faisaient en sorte que les propriétaires de sexe féminin étaient considérées moins attirantes. Abstract Die Rolle des Erscheinungsbildes und Verhaltens von Freunden bei der Evaluation von Personen bei Facebook: Was verraten die anderen über uns? Diese Studie untersucht, wie der Eindruck bezüglich des Profilinhabers durch Nachrichten, die auf Online-Networking-Profilen hinterlassen werden, beeinflusst wird. In einem Experiment untersuchten wir den Einfluss von 1) dem, was die Bekannten einer Person über diese via öffentlich lesbaren Pinnwandbotschaften sagen und 2) der physischen Attraktivität eines Freundes auf den beigefügten Fotos auf die Attraktivität und Glaubwürdigkeit, die Beobachter dem Profilbesitzer zuschreiben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Attraktivität des Freundes die Attraktivität des Profilbesitzers auf vergleichbare Art und Weise beeinflusste. Positive oder negative Bemerkungen über das Zielprofil interagierten mit dem Geschlecht des Zielprofils. Negativ konnotierte Botschaften über das moralische Verhalten erhöhten bei männlichen Profilbesitzern die wahrgenommene physische Attraktivität, während sie bei weiblichen Profilbesitzern dazu führte, dass diese als weniger attraktiv wahrgenommen wurden. Resumen El Rol de la Apariencia y el Comportamiento de los Amigos sobre las Evaluaciones Individuales en Facebook: ¿Somos Conocidos por la Compañía que Mantenemos? Esta investigación explora cómo las claves depositadas por los compañeros sociales en el perfil de red online de uno mismo afectan las impresiones que los observadores tienen sobre el dueño de dicho perfil. Un experimento puso a prueba la relación entre (1) lo que sus asociados dicen acerca de una persona en la red social a través de los "mensajes de pared" donde los amigos dejan mensajes públicos, y (2) el atractivo físico de los asociados reflejado en las fotos que acompañan sus mensajes de pared, sobre el atractivo físico y la credibilidad que los observadores atribuyen al dueño del perfil. Los resultados indicaron que el atractivo físico de los amigos del dueño del perfil afectó el suyo propio en una pauta asimilativa. Las declaraciones favorables ó desfavorables sobre los perfiles metas interactuaron con el género meta: los mensajes de valencia negativa sobre ciertos comportamientos morales incrementaron la atracción física percibida del perfil masculino de los dueños, mientras que causó que las mujeres sean vistas como menos atractivas. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    The Characteristics and Features of SMEs: Favorable or Unfavorable to Logistics Integration?

    René Gélinas
    For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), logistics integration is one of the most significant challenges of modern management. Growing numbers of SMEs are under pressure from large manufacturing enterprises (LMEs) to change their traditional management styles, both operationally and organizationally, replacing them with integrated systems that help increase the speed and fluidity of physical and information flows, help synchronize demand with supply, and help manage transactions more accurately. The recent literature discusses integrated logistics chain management quite extensively, but most studies address the issue from the standpoint of large firms. Given the importance of SMEs in the economies of industrialized countries, and given, too, that a constantly growing number of such firms will have to replace their management methods by logistically integrated practices, the authors of this study believe that it is important to examine the characteristics and features of SMEs in order to identify those favorable and unfavorable to logistics integration. [source]

    Multicenter, noncomparative study of caspofungin in combination with other antifungals as salvage therapy in adults with invasive aspergillosis

    CANCER, Issue 12 2006
    Johan Maertens MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. Caspofungin inhibits synthesis of ,-1,3-glucan, an essential component of the Aspergillus cell wall. This echinocandin has demonstrated efficacy (45% success) as salvage monotherapy of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Interest remains as to whether caspofungin, in combination with other antifungal classes, can improve the efficacy against IA. METHODS. The study involved 53 adults with documented IA who were refractory to or intolerant of standard antifungal therapy and received caspofungin and 1 other mold-active antifungal agent (at the investigator's discretion). Efficacy was assessed by signs, symptoms, and radiographs at the end of combination therapy and Day 84 after combination therapy initiation. Favorable (complete or partial) responses required significant clinical and radiographic improvement. Diagnoses and outcomes were assessed by an independent expert. RESULTS. Among the 53 patients enrolled the most common underlying diseases were acute leukemia (53%), lymphoma (11%), and chronic leukemia (6%). Pulmonary aspergillosis (81%) was the most common site, and most patients (87%) were refractory to prior therapy. Success at the end of combination therapy and Day 84 was 55% (29/53) and 49% (25/51), respectively. Fifty-seven percent of patients with neutropenia and 54% who received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant responded favorably. Survival at Day 84 was 55%. Combination therapy, dosed on average for 31.3 days, was well tolerated. Two (4%) serious drug-related adverse events, both attributed to voriconazole, occurred. None of the patients discontinued caspofungin due to toxicity. CONCLUSIONS. Caspofungin in combination with a triazole or polyene was an effective alternative as salvage therapy for patients with recalcitrant Aspergillus infections. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Atomistic simulation of the self-diffusion in Mg (001) surface

    Jian-Min Zhang
    Abstract Both the formation energies and the intra- and inter-layer diffuse activation energies of a vacancy in the first six lattice planes of Mg (001) surface have been calculated by combining the modified analytical embedded-atom method (MAEAM) with molecular dynamics (MD). The results show that the effect of the surface on the formation and migration of the vacancy is only down to the third-layer. It is easer for a single vacancy to form and to migrate in the first layer. Furthermore, the vacancy in the second layer is favorable to migrate to the first layer. This is in agreement with the experimental results that the first layer has the highest concentration of the vacancy. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Fascin1 is dispensable for mouse development but is favorable for neonatal survival

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2009
    Yoshihiko Yamakita
    Abstract Fascin1, an actin-bundling protein, has been demonstrated to be critical for filopodia formation in cultured cells, and thus is believed to be vital in motile activities including neurite extension and cell migration. To test whether fascin1 plays such essential roles within a whole animal, we have generated and characterized fascin1-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, fascin1-deficient mice are viable and fertile with no major developmental defect. Nissl staining of serial coronal brain sections reveals that fascin1-deficient brain is grossly normal except that knockout mouse brain lacks the posterior region of the anterior commissure neuron and has larger lateral ventricle. Fascin1-deficient, dorsal root ganglion neurons are able to extend neurites in vitro as well as those from wild-type mice, although fascin1-deficient growth cones are smaller and exhibit fewer and shorter filopodia than wild-type counterparts. Likewise, fascin1-deficient, embryonic fibroblasts are able to assemble filopodia, though filopodia are fewer, shorter and short-lived. These results indicate that fascin1-mediated filopodia assembly is dispensable for mouse development. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Physical education undergraduates and dental trauma knowledge

    Sônia Regina Panzarini
    Abstract,,, The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of undergraduates from the College of Physical Education (Toledo, Araçatuba) concerning dental avulsion injuries. Data showed that 95% of the respondents did not know what dental avulsion is, 73.5% said they know how to define dental replantation, however, only 26% were able to do it correctly. When asked about first emergency measures after an avulsion, 50% of the respondents said they know what they should do, and the most cited measure was to seek a dentist. When asked about optimal storage media, 45.5% would keep it in a favorable one, and 28% did not know where to keep the tooth until treatment. Only 25.6% indicated a suitable extra-oral time for replantation; 90.3% of the respondents had received no advice about the emergency management of dental avulsion; 90% said they consider this an important and necessary subject. The results indicated that educational campaigns are necessary to improve the emergency management of dental injuries by those future P.E. professors for a better prognosis of dental replantation. [source]

    Treatment of patch-stage mycosis fungoides with topical corticosteroids

    Herschel S. Zackheim
    ABSTRACT:, Experience at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in the management of patch-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) with topical, predominantly high-potency, corticosteroids is reviewed. The technique of applications is discussed in detail. Approximately 200 patients have been treated. The results are very favorable. The response rate is over 90%. Side-effects are minor. Topical clobetasol is the first-line treatment for early stage MF at UCSF. [source]

    Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature

    Dr. Alice Leung M.D.
    Objective: To comprehensively and critically review the literature on gender differences in schizophrenia. Method: An initial search of MEDLINE abstracts (1966,1999) was conducted using the terms sex or gender and schizophrenia, followed by systematic search of all relevant articles. Results: Males have consistently an earlier onset, poorer premorbid functioning and different premorbid behavioral predictors. Males show more negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, with greater structural brain and neurophysiological abnormalities. Females display more affective symptoms, auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions with more rapid and greater responsivity to antipsychotics in the pre-menopausal period but increased side effects. Course of illness is more favorable in females in the short- and middle-term, with less smoking and substance abuse. Families of males are more critical, and expressed emotion has a greater negative impact on males. There are no clear sex differences in family history, obstetric complications, minor physical anomalies and neurological soft signs. Conclusion: This review supports the presence of significant differences between schizophrenic males and females arising from the interplay of sex hormones, neurodevelopmental and psychosocial sex differences. [source]

    Concurrent chemoradiation alone with curative intent for limited-disease small-cell esophageal cancer in nine Japanese patients

    H. Yamashita
    SUMMARY Small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare and aggressive tumor with early widespread dissemination. In this retrospective study, we report clinical outcomes of limited-disease small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus from the analysis of nine patients. Between 2003 and 2006, nine consecutive patients with small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus were treated in our single institution, representing 2.8% of all esophageal malignancies treated with curative concurrent chemoradiation during this period. All the patients received four cycles of etoposide (100 mg/m2, days 1,3), combined with cisplatin (80 mg/m2, day 1), plus radiation therapy (50 Gy in daily doses of 2 Gy, 5 days/week). At the time of analysis, the median follow-up time was 10.8 months (range: 4.2,42.8 months) and 21.8 months in five living patients (56%). Of all the nine patients, five patients (56%) had a complete response, and the actuarial 3-year overall survival rate was 55.6%. This regimen resulted in a favorable 3-year survival rate. We conclude that the optimum treatment seems to be the same as for small-cell carcinomas of the lung, that is, a multidrug combination chemotherapy regimen used with concurrent radiation. [source]

    Ion-Selective Electrodes for Thiocyanate Based on the Dinuclear Zinc(II) Complex of a Bis- N,O -bidentate Schiff Base

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2004
    Philippe Bühlmann
    Abstract An ion selective electrode based on the dinuclear complex formed by two zinc(II) ions and two molecules of the bis- N,O -bidentate Schiff base 2,2,-[methylenebis(4,1-phenylenenitrilomethylidyne)]bisphenol exhibits thiocyanate selectivity with a good discrimination of nitrite, nitrate, and azide. The selectivities of electrode membranes with various compositions indicate that this potentiometric selectivity is based on the formation of a 1,:,1 complex between the thiocyanate anion and the dinuclear ionophore. The 2,:,1 ratio of thiocyanate ions and the dinuclear ionophore that results from higher ratios of cationic sites and ionophore worsens the selectivity, suggesting that binding of a thiocyanate to both zinc(II) centers of the dinuclear ionophore is not favorable. Interestingly, the selectivity patterns of these electrodes differ radically from that of a highly sulfate selective electrode based on a compound reported previously to be the analogous mononuclear 1,:,1 complex of zinc(II) and the same Schiff base. It is suggested that the previously reported 1,:,1 complex with zinc(II) may indeed have been a polymer of the same elemental composition. [source]

    Compositional effects on electrophoretic and chromatographic figures of merit in electrokinetic chromatography with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/sodium octyl sulfate vesicles as the pseudostationary phase.

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 5 2008
    Part 1: Effect of the phase ratio
    Abstract The effect of the phase ratio on the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of unilamellar vesicles comprised of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) was investigated in EKC. The surfactant concentration of the vesicles was 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8% w/v, with a mole ratio of 1:3.66 (CTAB/SOS). Results were compared to those obtained using SDS micelles at concentrations of 1.0% (w/v, 35,mM) and 1.5% (52,mM). The CTAB/SOS vesicles (0.9,1.8% w/v) provided a significantly larger elution range (5.7,,,tves/t0,,,8.7) and greater hydrophobic (methylene) selectivity (2.8,,,,CH2,,,3.1) than SDS micelles (3.1,,,tmc/t0,,,3.3; ,CH2,=,2.2). Whereas the larger elution range can be attributed to the 25% reduction in EOF due to the interaction of unaggregated CTAB cations and the negatively charged capillary wall, the higher methylene selectivity is likely due to the lower concentration of water expected in the CTAB/SOS vesicle bilayer compared to the Palisades layer of SDS micelles. For a given phase ratio, CTAB/SOS vesicles are somewhat less retentive than SDS micelles, although retention factors comparable to those observed in 1.0,1.5% SDS can be obtained with 1.5,1.8% CTAB/SOS. A linear relationship was observed between phase ratio and retention factor, confirming the validity of the phase ratio model for these vesicles. Unique polar group selectivities and positional isomer shape selectivities were obtained with CTAB/SOS vesicles, with both types of selectivities being nearly independent of the phase ratio. For four sets of positional isomers, the elution order was always para < ortho < meta. Finally, the thermodynamics of solute retention was qualitatively similar to that reported for other surfactant aggregates (micelles and microemulsions); the enthalpic contribution to retention was consistently favorable for all compounds, whereas the entropic contribution was favorable only to hydrophobic solutes. [source]

    Development of emulsion from rhizobial fermented starch industry wastewater for application as Medicago sativa seed coat

    Rojan Pappy John
    Abstract Starch industry wastewater was efficiently employed for the production of Sinorhizobium meliloti and the concentrated culture was used for the development of a biofertilizer formulation. Tween-80 (0.02,g/L) acted as the best emulsifier for a Sinorhizobium,canola oil emulsion. The stability of the emulsion and survival of the organism was enhanced by supplementation of xanthan gum at pH 8. The refrigerated condition was most favorable for stability and survival of the microorganism. The survival of microorganism at 4±1°C was 2.78×1010 and 2.01×1010,CFU (colony forming unit)/mL on storage for 1 and 2 months, respectively. The values were higher than the prescribed cell count (×103,CFU/mL) for field application. At 40°C, the survival of bacteria reduced from 3×1010,CFU/mL to 8.1×109 and 8.8×106,CFU/mL in 1 and 2 months, respectively. Emulsion-coated seed was incubated at different temperatures and a cell count of 105,CFU/seed was observed after 2 months of storage at 4°C, which was equal to the highest level of the described requirement (103,105,CFU/seed). Emulsion supplemented with xanthan gum improved the shelf-life under optimized conditions (Sinorhizobium concentrate,,,canola oil (1:1) emulsion with 0.02,g/L Tween-80; storage at pH 8 and temperature 4±1°C) and this emulsion with the required cell count and prolonged viability was used for the pre-inoculation of seed or for in situ soil application. [source]

    A Geographic Information Systems,based, weights-of-evidence approach for diagnosing aquatic ecosystem impairment

    Katherine E. Kapo
    Abstract A Geographic Information Systems,based, watershed-level assessment using Bayesian weights of evidence (WOE) and weighted logistic regression (WLR) provides a method to determine and compare potential environmental stressors in lotic ecosystems and to create predictive models of general or species-specific biological impairment across numerous spatial scales based on limited existing sample data. The WOE/WLR technique used in the present study is a data-driven, probabilistic approach conceptualized in epidemiological research and both developed for and currently used in minerals exploration. Extrapolation of this methodology to a case-study watershed assessment of the Great and Little Miami watersheds (OH, USA) using archival data yielded baseline results consistent with previous assessments. The method additionally produced a quantitative determination of physical and chemical watershed stressor associations with biological impairment and a predicted comparative probability (i.e., favorability) of biological impairment at a spatial resolution of 0.5 km2 over the watershed study region. Habitat stressors showed the greatest spatial association with biological impairment in low-order streams (on average, 56% of total spatial association), whereas water chemistry, particularly that of wastewater effluent, was associated most strongly with biological impairment in high-order reaches (on average, 79% of total spatial association, 28% of which was attributed to effluent). Significant potential stressors varied by land-use and stream order as well as by species. This WOE/WLR method provides a highly useful "tier 1" watershed risk assessment product through the integration of various existing data sources, and it produces a clear visual communication of areas favorable for biological impairment and a quantitative ranking of candidate stressors and associated uncertainty. [source]

    Course and outcome of childhood epilepsy: A 15-year follow-up of the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2010
    Ada Geerts
    Summary Purpose:, To study the course and outcome of childhood-onset epilepsy during 15-year follow-up (FU). Methods:, We extended FU in 413 of 494 children with new-onset epilepsy recruited in a previously described prospective hospital-based study by questionnaire. Results:, Mean FU was 14.8 years (range 11.6,17.5 years). Five-year terminal remission (TR) was reached by 71% of the cohort. Course during FU was favorable in 50%, improving in 29%, and poor or deteriorating in 16%. Mean duration of seizure activity was 6.0 years (range 0,21.5 years), strongly depending on etiology and epilepsy type. Duration was <1 year in 25% of the cohort and exceeded 12 years in another 25%. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were used by 86% during a mean of 7.4 years: one-third had their last seizure within 1 year of treatment, and one-third continued treatment at the end, although some had a 5-year TR. At last contact, 9% of the cohort was intractable. In multivariate analysis, predictors were nonidiopathic etiology, febrile seizures, no 3-month remission, and early intractability. Eighteen patients died; 17 had remote symptomatic etiology. Standardized mortality ratio for remote symptomatic etiology was 31.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.4,50.6], versus 0.8 [95% CI 0.02,4.2] for idiopathic/cryptogenic etiology. Discussion:, In most children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, the long-term prognosis of epilepsy is favorable, and in particular, patients with idiopathic etiology will eventually reach remission. In contrast, epilepsy remains active in ,30% and becomes intractable in ,10%. AEDs probably do not influence epilepsy course; they merely suppress seizures. Mortality is significantly higher only in those with remote symptomatic etiology. [source]

    Differential effects of temporal pole resection with amygdalohippocampectomy versus selective amygdalohippocampectomy on material-specific memory in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2008
    Christoph Helmstaedter
    Summary Purpose: In the surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, there is converging evidence that individually tailored or selective approaches have a favorable cognitive outcome compared to standard resections. There is, however, also evidence that due to collateral damage, selective surgery can be less selective than suggested. As part of a prospective transregional research project the present study evaluated the outcome in memory and nonmemory functions, following two selective approaches: a combined temporal pole resection with amygdalohippocampectomy (TPR+) and transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Methods: One year after surgery, cognitive outcomes of postoperatively seizure-free patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis, who underwent either TPR+ (N = 35) or SAH (N = 62) in two German epilepsy centers (Bonn/Berlin), were compared. Results: Repeated measurement MANOVA and separate post hoc testing indicated a double dissociation of verbal/figural memory outcome as dependent on side and type of surgery. Verbal memory outcome was worse after left-sided operation, but especially for SAH, whereas figural memory outcome was worse after right-sided operation, preferentially for TPR+. Attention improved independent of side or type of surgery, and language functions showed some improvement after right-sided surgeries. Discussion: The results indicate a differential effect of left/right SAH versus TPR+ on material-specific memory insofar as transsylvian SAH appears to be favorable in right and TPR+ in left MTLE. The different outcomes are discussed in terms of a different surgical affection of the temporal pole and stem, and different roles of these structures for verbal and figural memory. [source]

    Migrating Partial Seizures in Infancy: Expanding the Phenotype of a Rare Seizure Syndrome

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2005
    Eric Marsh
    Summary:,Purpose: The constellation of early-onset, unprovoked, alternating electroclinical seizures and neurodevelopmental devastation was first described by Coppola et al. We report six new patients and the prospect of a more optimistic developmental outcome. Methods: Retrospective chart reviews were performed on six infants evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (five patients) and at Hershey Medical Center (one patient) who had electroclinically alternating seizures before age 6 months of age. Electroclinical characteristics and long-term follow-up were recorded. Results: All had unprovoked, early-onset (range, 1 day to 3 months; mean, 25 days) intractable electroclinical seizures that alternated between the two hemispheres. Each patient underwent comprehensive brain imaging and neurometabolic workups, which were unrevealing. In all patients, subsequently intractable partial seizures developed and often a progressive decline of head circumference percentile occurred with age. Three demonstrated severe developmental delay and hypotonia. All survived, and 7-year follow-up on one patient was quite favorable. Conclusions: Our patients satisfied the seven major diagnostic criteria first described by Coppola et al. The prognosis of this rare neonatal-onset epilepsy syndrome from the original description and subsequent case reports was very poor, with 28% mortality, and the majority of survivors were profoundly retarded and nonambulatory. Our patient data validate the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome and further quantify a previously described observation of progressive decline of head circumference percentiles with age. Our data also suggest that the prognosis of this syndrome, although poor, is not as uniformly grim as the cases reported previously in the literature. [source]

    Parietal Lobe Epilepsy: The Semiology, Yield of Diagnostic Workup, and Surgical Outcome

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2004
    Dong Wook Kim
    Summary: Purpose: To characterize the clinical features, the prognostic value, and diagnostic sensitivities of various presurgical evaluations and the surgical outcomes in parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE), we describe 40 patients who were diagnosed as having PLE, including 27 surgically treated patients. Methods: The diagnosis was established by means of a standard presurgical evaluation, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose,positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and scalp video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, with additional intracranial EEG monitoring in selected cases. Results: Among the 40 patients, 27 experienced at least one type of aura. The most common auras were somatosensory (13 patients), followed by affective, vertiginous, and visual auras. The patients had diverse manifestations. Eighteen patients showed simple motor seizure, followed by automotor seizure, and dialeptic seizure. Two patients manifested generalized tonic,clonic seizures only, and 19 patients experienced more than one type of seizure. The surgical outcome was favorable in 22 of 26 patients including 14 who were seizure free. Patients with localized MRI abnormality had a higher probability to be seizure free, with marginal significance (p = 0.062), whereas other diagnostic modalities failed to predict the surgical outcome. In the seizure-free group, localization sensitivity was 64.3% by MRI, 50% by PET, 45.5% by ictal SPECT, and 35.7% by ictal EEG. The concordance rate of the various diagnostic modalities was higher in the seizure-free group than in the non,seizure-free group, although it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Seizures, in the case of PLE, can manifest themselves in a wider variety of ways than was previously thought. Surgical outcome was favorable in most of the patients. MRI abnormality and concordance of different diagnostic modalities were associated with high seizure-free rate. [source]

    Prognostic Significance of Failure of the Initial Antiepileptic Drug in Children with Absence Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2001
    Elaine Wirrell
    Summary: ,Purpose: In children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), to determine the impact of failure of initial antiepileptic drug (AED) for lack of efficacy in eventual seizure control and long-term remission of epilepsy. Methods: Centralized EEG records for the province of Nova Scotia allowed identification of all children seen with CAE or JAE between 1977 and 1985. Information regarding success or failure of initial AED in fully controlling seizures and long-term seizure control and remission of epilepsy was collected by patient questionnaire and chart review. Results: Eighty-six of 92 eligible patients were followed up (75 CAE, 11 JAE). Initial AED treatment was successful in 52 (60%) of 86. Success tended to be greater for valproate (VPA) than for other AEDs (p = 0.07), and lower if generalized tonic,clonic or myoclonic seizures coexisted (p < 0.004 and p < 0.03). Terminal remission was more likely if the initial AED was successful than if it had failed (69% vs. 41%; p < 0.02). Compared with those in whom the initial AED was successful, subjects whose initial AED had failed were more likely to progress to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) at last follow-up (32% vs. 10%; p < 0.02) and to develop intractable epilepsy (17% vs. 2%; p < 0.04). Conclusions: Initial AED was successful in 60% of children with AE. If the first AED failed, the outcome was less favorable, with a lower rate of terminal remission and a higher rate of progression to JME and intractable epilepsy. [source]

    Should patients be informed about the risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia before prolonged low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis post-trauma/orthopedic surgery?

    Norbert Lubenow
    Abstract Objectives:, Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect that occurs less frequently with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) than with unfractionated heparin (UFH) in post-trauma/orthopedic surgery patients. The life-threatening nature of HIT raises the question whether informed consent for this treatment-induced adverse effect should be obtained, particularly as LMWH is often continued during the outpatient period when clinical and platelet count monitoring become problematic. Paradoxically, refusal of thromboprophylaxis as a result of seeking informed consent could increase risk for thrombosis. Methods:, We evaluated in patients undergoing routine LMWH thromboprophylaxis post-trauma/orthopedic surgery the feasibility of obtaining informed consent, using a standardized questionnaire to determine patient preferences. We also identified the proportion of HIT patients in our laboratory comprised of trauma/orthopedic surgery patients from 1995,1997 and 2002,2004 (time periods characterized, respectively, by UFH and LMWH thromboprophylaxis for this patient population). Results:, None of 460 patients in whom informed consent was administered rejected LMWH thromboprophylaxis. The patients' perception of the informed consent process and the written information provided about the risk of HIT and its risk due to clinical consequences were highly favorable. From 1995,1997 to 2002,2004, the proportion of HIT identified among trauma/orthopedic surgery patients declined from 30.3% to 1.2% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions:, Obtaining informed consent about HIT is feasible in written form and does not cause refusal of LMWH thromboprophylaxis. Despite the uncommon occurrence of HIT during LMWH thromboprophylaxis, informed consent increases patient's awareness of this potentially life-threatening adverse drug effect, an outcome that could increase outpatient recognition of the diagnosis. [source]

    Fas and Fas ligand expression on germinal center type-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with the clinical outcome

    Yasushi Kojima
    Abstract:, In recent years, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been classified by DNA microarray analysis into the germinal center B-cell-like (GC) type, the activated B-cell-like (ABC) type and type 3. The latter two types can be collectively categorized as the non-GC (NGC) type. From the prognostic perspective, the GC type has a favorable clinical outcome when compared with the NGC type. The protein Fas induces apoptosis of lymphocytes by binding with the Fas ligand (FasL), and escape from such apoptosis is considered to lead to malignant transformation of the cells and unrestricted growth of lymphoma. We proposed a hypothesis that Fas/FasL expression could be possibly related with a better survival of GC type DLBCL and evaluated 69 DLBCL cases immunohistochemically with CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1, Fas and FasL. These lymphomas were classified as GC type (positive for CD10 or Bcl-6 and negative for MUM1) or NGC type. The GC type had a better overall survival rate than the NGC type (P = 0.0723). Among markers as given above, positive CD10 was the most significant prognostic factor for overall survival in total DLBCL (P < 0.05). In the GC type, Fas and FasL expressions were significantly associated with a favorable overall survival (Fas: P < 0.005; FasL: P < 0.05). Hence, Fas or FasL expression might contribute to a better prognosis of this type of DLBCL. [source]

    Small Molecule-Controlled Spontaneous Growth of Rose-Like Se Crystals at Room Temperature

    Da-Wei Deng
    Abstract The spontaneous growth of rose-like Se crystals in aqueous solutions at room temperature is reported. The formation of rose-like Se crystals is based on the oxidation of Na2Se in the presence of thioglycerol solution at pH = 11 in a dark ambient atmosphere. In alkaline solutions, the growth evolution of rose-like Se crystals with aging time was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and an interesting formation process from initial Se monomers to amorphous Se (a-Se) spheres, and to the final rose-like complex structures of Se crystals was observed. Seven kinds of small molecules with different structures, including 1-thioglycerol (TG), mercaptamine (MA), L -cysteine (L -cys), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), thioglycolic acid (TGA), glycerol (GLY), and L -serine (L -ser), were used to manipulate the growth of Se crystals. The experimental results show that the structures of the small molecules play a key role in the growth of the Se crystals. The presence of thiols in the structure of the small molecules is favorable for the formation of the aggregates of Se crystals, and other termini, such as ,NH2, ,OH, or ,COO,, will determine whether the aggregates of Se crystals are made up of Se slices or Se prisms. These observations suggest that the ligand molecules have a crucial effect on the nucleation, monomers, and growth of nanocrystals. The selection of ligands can be extended to other important materials for further preparation of nanocrystals with desired shapes. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Cleavage of CO by Mo[N(R)Ar]3 Complexes

    Gemma Christian
    Abstract The reaction of MoL3 [L = NH2 and N(tBu)Ar] with CO was explored using DFT in order to rationalize why CO cleavage is not observed experimentally for this system in contrast to the corresponding N2 reaction which results in spontaneous cleavage of the N,N bond. The binding of CO to MoL3 was found to be both kinetically and thermodynamically favored over the binding of N2, with the formation of the encounter complex, L3Mo,CO, calculated to be without barrier and exothermic. While the overall reaction to form the C,MoL3 and O,MoL3 products was calculated to be energetically favorable, both the encounter complex and intermediate dimer, L3Mo,CO,MoL3, were found to be lower in energy than the products, with the final C,O cleavage step calculated to be endothermic by 169 kJ,mol,1 and 163 kJ,mol,1 for L = NH2 and N(tBu)Ar, respectively. The unfavorable CO cleavage step can be attributed to the fact that Mo does not possess the optimum d-electron configuration to sufficiently stabilise the carbide and oxide products relative to the CO-bridged intermediate dimer.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    BIOMARKER: The validity of the laboratory marker combinations DOVER and QUVER to detect physician's diagnosis of at-risk drinking

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Michael Bentele
    ABSTRACT Especially in situations where it might be favorable for the patient to dissimulate the existing alcohol problem, ,objective' laboratory tests can be helpful. In this study we report validation of the two combinations DOVER (DOctor VERified) and QUVER (QUestionnarie VERified) of the biological markers percent carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (,-GT) to detect patients that have been identified by their physicians with at-risk drinking behavior. Fifty-eight general practitioners (GPs) participated at two study sites in South-West Germany. Patients filled in a questionnaire that included the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and gave a blood sample. The GP recorded his/her assessment about the presence of an alcohol-related disorder in the patient. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses of the marker combinations DOVER and QUVER were performed. A total of 2940 patients participated in the study, of which 2496 completed data sets that could be used for further analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) of 79.5% for DOVER and 77.2% (QUVER) are in a higher range than the values for gamma%CDT (75.7%) or ,-GT (72.5%) and %CDT (64.5%) and suggest superiority of the proposed marker combinations. Cross-validation results were almost identical with 76.6% and 73.3% for DOVER and QUVER, respectively. Our analysis demonstrated that the combination of the markers ,-GT and %CDT with the physician's judgement of the condition as reference was superior to the use of single markers. [source]

    In vitro fracture behavior of maxillary premolars with metal crowns and several post-and-core systems

    Wietske A. Fokkinga
    The in vitro fracture behavior of severely damaged premolars, restored with metal crowns with limited ferrule and several post-and-core systems, was investigated. Crowns of maxillary premolars were removed and canals were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and with Parapost drills. Groups of 11 samples were each treated with cast post-and-cores (Parapost XP, Wironium Plus) (group 1), prefabricated metal posts (Parapost XH) (group 2), prefabricated glass fiber posts (Parapost FiberWhite) (group 3), and custom-made glass fiber posts (EverStick Post) (group 4). Posts and composite cores and metal crowns in groups 2, 3, and 4 were adhesively cemented. Post-and-cores and crowns in group 1 were cemented with phosphate cement. Thermocycling was performed (6,000×, 5,55 °C). Two static load tests (30°) were applied. During the first load test (preloading) no failures occurred. Failure modes from the second load test were categorized into favorable and unfavorable failures. Mean failure loads among the four groups (group 1, 1845 N; group 2, 1718 N; group 3, 1812 N; and group 4, 1514 N) were not significantly different. Unfavorable failures were root fractures and favorable failures were postcrown displacements. No differences in frequencies of unfavorable/favorable failures were seen among the groups. The results suggest that different post-and-core systems have no influence on the fracture behavior of severely damaged premolars restored with metal crowns with limited ferrule. [source]

    Preparation, Crystallographic Characterization, and Theoretical Study of C70(CF3)14,

    Alexey A. Goryunkov
    Abstract Five C70(CF3)14 isomers have been isolated chromatographically from the mixture produced in the ampoule reaction between C70 and CF3I at 390 °C. Molecular structures of four isomers have been determined in a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. A quantum chemical survey of the theoretically possible isomers demonstrated that the structures obtained are energetically favorable but that there is probably no full thermodynamic control in the trifluoromethylation process.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Technological revolution meets policy and the market: Explaining cross-national differences in agricultural biotechnology regulation

    Thomas Bernauer
    The European Union (EU) has imposed severe restrictions on agricultural biotechnology, particularly in terms of approval and labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food. The United States has adopted a far more permissive approval policy and has not required labeling. This article explains these differences in terms of the collective action capacity of consumer and producer interests, and the institutional environment in which regulation has taken place. We find that the regulatory outcome in the EU can be traced back to nongovernmental organizations' (NGOs) increased collective action capacity due to public outrage, an institutional environment favorable to anti-biotechnology NGO interests (multilevel regulatory policy making) and a disintegration of the producer coalition due to NGO campaigns and differences in industrial structure. Biotechnology politics in the United States has been dominated by a strong and cohesive coalition of pro-biotechnology upstream and downstream producers and farmers. Because of lower public outrage and a less favorable institutional environment (centralized regulatory policy making), anti-biotechnology NGOs in the United States have been largely excluded from agricultural biotechnology policy making. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2010
    Stephan Peischl
    We study the evolution of higher levels of dominance as a response to negative frequency-dependent selection. In contrast to previous studies, we focus on the effect of assortative mating on the evolution of dominance under frequency-dependent intraspecific competition. We analyze a two-locus two-allele model, in which the primary locus has a major effect on a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection, density-dependent selection, and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The second (modifier) locus determines the degree of dominance at the trait level. Additionally, the population mates assortatively with respect to similarities in the ecological trait. Our analysis shows that the parameter region in which dominance can be established decreases if small levels of assortment are introduced. In addition, the degree of dominance that can be established also decreases. In contrast, if assortment is intermediate, sexual selection for extreme types can be established, which leads to evolution of higher levels of dominance than under random mating. For modifiers with large effects, intermediate levels of assortative mating are most favorable for the evolution of dominance. For large modifiers, the speed of fixation can even be higher for intermediate levels of assortative mating than for random mating. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2009
    Adin Ross-Gillespie
    Although cooperative systems can persist in nature despite the potential for exploitation by noncooperators, it is often observed that small changes in population demography can tip the balance of selective forces for or against cooperation. Here we consider the role of population density in the context of microbial cooperation. First, we account for conflicting results from recent studies by demonstrating theoretically that: (1) for public goods cooperation, higher densities are relatively unfavorable for cooperation; (2) in contrast, for self-restraint,type cooperation, higher densities can be either favorable or unfavorable for cooperation, depending on the details of the system. We then test our predictions concerning public goods cooperation using strains of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produce variable levels of a public good,iron-scavenging siderophore molecules. As predicted, we found that the relative fitness of cheats (under-producers) was greatest at higher population densities. Furthermore, as assumed by theory, we show that this occurs because cheats are better able to exploit the cooperative siderophore production of other cells when they are physically closer to them. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2009
    Geoffrey A. Parker
    We investigate evolution of two categories of adaptive host manipulation by trophically transmitted helminths: (1) predation suppression decreases the host's mortality before the helminth is capable of establishing in its next host; (2) predation enhancement increases the existing host's mortality after it can establish in its next host. If all parasite mortality is purely random (time-independent), enhancement must increase predation by the next host sufficiently more (depending on manipulative costs) than it increases the average for all forms of host mortality; thus if host and parasite die only through random predation, manipulation must increase the "right" predation more than the "wrong" predation. But if almost all parasites die in their intermediate host through reaching the end of a fixed life span, enhancement can evolve if it increases the right predation, regardless of how much it attracts wrong predators. Although enhancement is always most favorable when it targets the right host, suppression aids survival to the time when establishment in the next host is possible: it is most favorable if it reduces all aspects of host (and hence parasite) mortality. If constrained to have selective effects, suppression should reduce the commonest form of mortality. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
    Dany Garant
    Abstract Despite great interest in sexual selection, relatively little is known in detail about the genetic and environmental determinants of secondary sexual characters in natural populations. Such information is important for determining the way in which populations may respond to sexual selection. We report analyses of genetic and large-scale environmental components of phenotypic variation of two secondary sexual plumage characters (forehead and wing patch size) in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis over a 22-year period. We found significant heritability for both characters but little genetic covariance between the two. We found a positive association between forehead patch size and a large-scale climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, but not for wing patch. This pattern was observed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting that the population response to NAO index can be explained as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Heritability of forehead patch size for old males, calculated under favorable conditions (NAO index median), was greater than that under unfavorable conditions (NAO index < median). These changes occurred because there were opposing changes in additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR) under favorable and unfavorable conditions, with VA increasing and VR decreasing in good environments. However, no such effect was detected for young birds, or for wing patch size in either age class. In addition to these environmental effects on both phenotypic and genetic variances, we found evidence for a significant decrease of forehead patch size over time in older birds. This change appears to be caused by a change in the sign of viability selection on forehead patch size, which is associated with a decline in the breeding value of multiple breeders. Our data thus reveal complex patterns of environmental influence on the expression of secondary sexual characters, which may have important implications for understanding selection and evolution of these characters. [source]