Fatty Liver Disease (fatty + liver_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Fatty Liver Disease

  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Selected Abstracts

    Quantitative Lipid Metabolomic Changes in Alcoholic Micropigs With Fatty Liver Disease

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
    Angela M. Zivkovic
    Background:, Chronic ethanol consumption coupled with folate deficiency leads to rapid liver fat accumulation and progression to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). However, the specific effects of alcohol on key liver lipid metabolic pathways involved in fat accumulation are unknown. It is unclear whether lipid synthesis, lipid export, or a combination of both is contributing to hepatic steatosis in ASH. Methods:, In this study we estimated the flux of fatty acids (FA) through the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), phosphatidylethanolamine- N -methyltransferase (PEMT), and FA elongation pathways in relation to liver triacylglycerol (TG) content in Yucatan micropigs fed a 40% ethanol folate-deficient diet with or without supplementation with S -adenosyl methionine (SAM) compared with controls. Flux through the SCD and PEMT pathways was used to assess the contribution of lipid synthesis and lipid export respectively on the accumulation of fat in the liver. Liver FA composition within TG, cholesterol ester (CE), phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine classes was quantified by gas chromatography. Results:, Alcoholic pigs had increased liver TG content relative to controls, accompanied by increased flux through the SCD pathway as indicated by increases in the ratios of 16:1n7 to 16:0 and 18:1n9 to 18:0. Conversely, flux through the elongation and PEMT pathways was suppressed by alcohol, as indicated by multiple metabolite ratios. SAM supplementation attenuated the TG accumulation associated with alcohol. Conclusions:, These data provide an in vivo examination of liver lipid metabolic pathways confirming that both increased de novo lipogenesis (e.g., lipid synthesis) and altered phospholipid metabolism (e.g., lipid export) contribute to the excessive accumulation of lipids in liver affected by ASH. [source]

    Development of an in vitro cell culture model of hepatic steatosis using hepatocyte-derived reporter cells,

    Amol V. Janorkar
    Abstract Fatty liver disease is a problem of growing clinical importance due to its association with the increasingly prevalent conditions of obesity and diabetes. While steatosis represents a reversible state of excess intrahepatic lipid, it is also associated with increased susceptibility to oxidative and cytokine stresses and progression to irreversible hepatic injury characterized by steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and malignancy. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying progression of this dynamic disease remain poorly understood, particularly at the level of transcriptional regulation. We recently constructed a library of stable monoclonal green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cells that enable transcriptional regulation to be studied dynamically in living cells. Here, we adapt the reporter cells to create a model of steatosis that will allow investigation of transcriptional dynamics associated with the development of steatosis and the response to subsequent "second hit" stresses. The reporter model recapitulates many cellular features of the human disease, including fatty acid uptake, intracellular triglyceride accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species accumulation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased susceptibility to apoptotic cytokine stresses, and decreased proliferation. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of the reporter cells for studying transcriptional regulation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of nuclear factor ,B (NF,B), heat shock response element (HSE), and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) in response to their classical inducers under lean and fatty conditions and found that intracellular lipid accumulation was associated with dose-dependent impairment of NF,B and HSE but not GRE activation. Thus, steatotic reporter cells represent an efficient model for studying transcriptional responses and have the potential to provide important insights into the progression of fatty liver disease. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 1466,1474. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Current treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Mohamed H. Ahmed
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in Western World and frequently associated with insulin resistance and overweight and occurs often with type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, NAFLD is not only regarded as a hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome but also as an independent risk factor and a marker for increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Significantly, NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and predicts future CVD events independent of age, sex, LDL-cholesterol and features of metabolic syndrome. Although there was initial concern about drug toxicity with NAFLD, increasing evidence suggests that commonly used drugs such as metformin and statins do not cause harm and the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) may even confer a therapeutic benefit in NAFLD. Interestingly, medical and surgical treatments of obesity show potential benefit in treating NAFLD. In this review, we have focused on the safety and therapeutic impact of TZDs, statins, metformins and obesity medications in NAFLD. The potential benefit of bariatric surgery and the role of weight loss per se in treating NAFLD are also discussed. [source]

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic syndrome and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the plot thickens

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    G. Targher
    Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a substantial proportion of the general population and is frequently associated with many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Currently, the importance of NAFLD and its relationship with the MetS is being increasingly recognized, and this has stimulated an interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have reported the association of NAFLD with multiple classical and non-classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, there is a strong association between the severity of liver histopathology in NAFLD patients and greater carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque, and lower endothelial flow-mediated vasodilation (as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis) independent of obesity and other MetS components. Finally, it has recently been demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and predicts future CVD events independently of other prognostic factors, including MetS components. Overall, therefore, the evidence from these recent studies strongly emphasizes the importance of assessing the global CVD risk in patients with NAFLD. Moreover, these novel findings suggest a more complex picture and raise the possibility that NAFLD, as a component of the MetS, might not only be a marker but also an early mediator of CVD. [source]

    Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2006
    G. Targher
    Abstract Aims, To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Type 2 diabetic patients with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to assess whether NAFLD is independently related to prevalent CVD. Methods, We studied 400 Type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD and 400 diabetic patients without NAFLD who were matched for age and sex. Main outcome measures were prevalent CVD (as ascertained by medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram and echo-Doppler scanning of carotid and lower limb arteries), NAFLD (by ultrasonography) and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the World Health Organization or Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results, The prevalences of coronary (23.0 vs. 15.5%), cerebrovascular (17.2 vs. 10.2%) and peripheral (12.8 vs. 7.0%) vascular disease were significantly increased in those with NAFLD as compared with those without NAFLD (P < 0.001), with no differences between sexes. The MetS (by any criteria) and all its individual components were more frequent in NAFLD patients (P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, male sex, age, smoking history and MetS were independently related to prevalent CVD, whereas NAFLD was not. Conclusions, The prevalence of CVD is increased in patients with Type 2 diabetes and NAFLD in association with an increased prevalence of MetS as compared with diabetic patients without NAFLD. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine whether this higher prevalence of CVD among diabetic patients with NAFLD affects long-term mortality. Diabet. Med. (2006) [source]

    Recent concepts in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2005
    L. A. Adams
    Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in up to one-third of the general population and in the majority of patients with metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor resulting in hepatic fat accumulation. Recent evidence demonstrates NAFLD in turn exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and often precedes glucose intolerance. Once hepatic steatosis is established, other factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut-derived lipopolysaccharide and adipocytokines, may promote hepatocellular damage, inflammation and progressive liver disease. Confirmation of the diagnosis of NAFLD can usually be achieved by imaging studies, however, staging the disease requires a liver biopsy. NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death, probably because of complications of insulin resistance such as vascular disease, as well as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which occur in a minority of patients. NAFLD is also now recognized to account for a substantial proportion of patients previously diagnosed with ,cryptogenic cirrhosis'. Diabetes, obesity and the necroinflammatory form of NAFLD known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, are risk factors for progressive liver disease. Current treatment relies on weight loss and exercise, although various insulin-sensitizing medications appear promising. Further research is needed to identify which patients will achieve the most benefit from therapy. [source]

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase: a new therapeutic target of liver steatosis

    Pawel Dobrzyn
    Abstract Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate limiting enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleate and palmitoleoate, which are used as substrates for the synthesis of triglycerides, wax esters, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. Recent studies have shown that SCD1, the main SCD isoform expressed in liver, is a key player in the regulation of lipid metabolism. SCD1 deficient mice have increased energy expenditure, reduced body adiposity, increased insulin sensitivity and are resistant to diet-induced obesity and liver steatosis. SCD1 was found to be specifically repressed during leptin-mediated weight loss and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice lacking SCD1 showed markedly reduced adiposity, despite higher food intake. In addition, SCD1 deficiency completely corrects the hypometabolic phenotype and hepatic steatosis of ob/ob mice, and attenuates fasting-induced liver steatosis in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, , deficient mice. Consequently, increased SCD activity has been found in humans and animals which accumulate significant amounts of lipids in liver, whereas SCD1 deficiency ameliorates both high-fat diet induced and genetically induced hepatic steatosis. Much evidence indicates that the direct anti-steatotic effect of SCD1 deficiency stems from increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid synthesis. In this review we discuss our current understanding of the role of SCD1 in regulation of hepatic lipid partitioning and test the hypothesis that pharmacological manipulation of SCD might be of benefit in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Drug Dev. Res. 67:643,650, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A common variant in the patatin-like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) is associated with fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Nicola Santoro
    The genetic factors associated with susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in pediatric obesity remain largely unknown. Recently, a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs738409), in the patatin-like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) has been associated with hepatic steatosis in adults. In a multiethnic group of 85 obese youths, we genotyped the PNLPA3 single-nucleotide polymorphism, measured hepatic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging and insulin sensitivity by the insulin clamp. Because PNPLA3 might affect adipogenesis/lipogenesis, we explored the putative association with the distribution of adipose cell size and the expression of some adipogenic/lipogenic genes in a subset of subjects who underwent a subcutaneous fat biopsy. Steatosis was present in 41% of Caucasians, 23% of African Americans, and 66% of Hispanics. The frequency of PNPLA3(rs738409) G allele was 0.324 in Caucasians, 0.183 in African Americans, and 0.483 in Hispanics. The prevalence of the G allele was higher in subjects showing hepatic steatosis. Surprisingly, subjects carrying the G allele showed comparable hepatic glucose production rates, peripheral glucose disposal rate, and glycerol turnover as the CC homozygotes. Carriers of the G allele showed smaller adipocytes than those with CC genotype (P = 0.005). Although the expression of PNPLA3, PNPLA2, PPAR,2(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2), SREBP1c(sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c), and ACACA(acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase) was not different between genotypes, carriers of the G allele showed lower leptin (LEP)(P = 0.03) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression (P = 0.04). Conclusion: A common variant of the PNPLA3 gene confers susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in obese youths without increasing the level of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. The rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele is associated with morphological changes in adipocyte cell size. (HEPATOLOGY 2010.) [source]

    Emerging genes associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Christina Koutsari
    First page of article [source]

    Tumor necrosis factor,like weak inducer of apoptosis is a mitogen for liver progenitor cells,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Janina E. E. Tirnitz-Parker
    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) represent the cell compartment facilitating hepatic regeneration during chronic injury while hepatocyte-mediated repair mechanisms are compromised. LPC proliferation is frequently observed in human chronic liver diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, fatty liver disease, and chronic hepatitis. In vivo studies have suggested that a tumor necrosis factor family member, tumor necrosis factor,like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), is promitotic for LPCs; whether it acts directly is not known. In our murine choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) model of chronic liver injury, TWEAK receptor [fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14)] expression in the whole liver is massively upregulated. We therefore set out to investigate whether TWEAK/Fn14 signaling promotes the regenerative response in CDE-induced chronic liver injury by mitotic stimulation of LPCs. Fn14 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly reduced LPC numbers and attenuated inflammation and cytokine production after 2 weeks of CDE feeding. The close association between LPC proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver injury prompted us to investigate whether fibrogenesis was also modulated in Fn14 KO animals. Collagen deposition and expression of key fibrogenesis mediators were reduced after 2 weeks of injury, and this correlated with LPC numbers. Furthermore, the injection of 2-week-CDE-treated wildtype animals with TWEAK led to increased proliferation of nonparenchymal pan cytokeratin,positive cells. Stimulation of an Fn14-positive LPC line with TWEAK led to nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF,B) activation and dose-dependent proliferation, which was diminished after targeting of the p50 NF,B subunit by RNA interference. Conclusion: TWEAK acts directly and stimulates LPC mitosis in an Fn14-dependent and NF,B-dependent fashion, and signaling via this pathway mediates the LPC response to CDE-induced injury and regeneration. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

    Fitness versus fatness: Moving beyond weight loss in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Nathan A. Johnson
    The rapid emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a cause of both liver-related morbidity and mortality and cardiometabolic risk has led to the search for effective lifestyle strategies to reduce liver fat. Lifestyle intervention comprising dietary restriction in conjunction with increased physical activity has shown clear hepatic benefits when weight loss approximating 3%-10% of body weight is achieved. Yet, the poor sustainability of weight loss challenges the current therapeutic focus on body weight and highlights the need for alternative strategies for NAFLD management. Epidemiologic data show an independent relationship between liver fat, physical activity, and fitness, and a growing body of longitudinal research demonstrates that increased physical activity participation per se significantly reduces hepatic steatosis and serum aminotransferases in individuals with NAFLD, independent of weight loss. Mechanistic insights to explain this interaction are outlined, and recommendations for the implementation of lifestyle intervention involving physical activity are discussed. In light of the often poor sustainability of weight loss strategies, and the viability of physical activity therapy, clinicians should assess physical fitness and physical activity habits, educate patients on the benefits of fitness outside of weight loss, and focus on behavior change which promotes physical activity adoption. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present on human hepatocytes and has a direct role in decreasing hepatic steatosis in vitro by modulating elements of the insulin signaling pathway,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Nitika Arora Gupta
    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine. GLP-1 functions as an incretin and stimulates glucose-mediated insulin production by pancreatic , cells. In this study, we demonstrate that exendin-4/GLP-1 has a cognate receptor on human hepatocytes and that exendin-4 has a direct effect on the reduction of hepatic steatosis in the absence of insulin. Both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP/R) messenger RNA and protein were detected on primary human hepatocytes, and receptor was internalized in the presence of GLP-1. Exendin-4 increased the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), AKT, and protein kinase C , (PKC-,) in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Small interfering RNA against GLP-1R abolished the effects on PDK-1 and PKC-,. Treatment with exendin-4 quantitatively reduced triglyceride stores compared with control-treated cells. Conclusion: This is the first report that the G protein,coupled receptor GLP-1R is present on human hepatocytes. Furthermore, it appears that exendin-4 has the same beneficial effects in vitro as those seen in our previously published in vivo study in ob/ob mice, directly reducing hepatocyte steatosis. Future use for human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, either in combination with dietary manipulation or other pharmacotherapy, may be a significant advance in treatment of this common form of liver disease. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

    Molecular signatures of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: The present and future,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Yusuf Yilmaz M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Maternal high-fat feeding primes steatohepatitis in adult mice offspring, involving mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipogenesis gene expression,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Kimberley D. Bruce
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes an increasingly prevalent spectrum of liver disorders associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. It is uncertain why steatosis occurs in some individuals, whereas nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in others. We have generated a novel mouse model to test our hypothesis: that maternal fat intake contributes to the development of NAFLD in adult offspring. Female mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) or control chow (C) diet before and during gestation and lactation. Resulting offspring were fed either a C or a HF diet after weaning, to generate four offspring groups; HF/HF, HF/C, C/HF, C/C. At 15 weeks of age, liver histology was normal in both the C/C and HF/C offspring. Kleiner scoring showed that although the C/HF offspring developed nonalcoholic fatty liver, the HF/HF offspring developed NASH. At 30 weeks, histological analysis and Kleiner scoring showed that both the HF/C and C/HF groups had NAFLD, whereas the HF/HF had a more severe form of NASH. Therefore, exposure to a HF diet in utero and during lactation contributes toward NAFLD progression. We investigated the mechanisms by which this developmental priming is mediated. At 15 weeks of age, hepatic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme complex activity (I, II/III, and IV) was reduced in both groups of offspring from HF-fed mothers (HF/C and HF/HF). In addition, measurement of hepatic gene expression indicated that lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory pathways were up-regulated in the 15-week-old HF/C and HF/HF offspring. Conclusion: Maternal fat intake contributes toward the NAFLD progression in adult offspring, which is mediated through impaired hepatic mitochondrial metabolism and up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Activation of the complement system in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Sander S. Rensen
    Activation of the innate immune system plays a major role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The complement system is an important component of innate immunity that recognizes danger signals such as tissue injury. We aimed to determine whether activation of the complement system occurs in NAFLD, to identify initiating pathways, and to assess the relation between complement activation, NAFLD severity, apoptosis, and inflammatory parameters. Liver biopsies of 43 obese subjects with various degrees of NAFLD and of 10 healthy controls were analyzed for deposition of complement factors C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), C4d, activated C3, and membrane attack complex (MAC)-associated C9. Furthermore, hepatic neutrophil infiltration, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were quantified. Whereas complement activation was undetectable in the liver of healthy subjects, 74% of the NAFLD patients showed hepatic deposition of activated C3 and C4d. C1q as well as MBL accumulation was found in most activated C3-positive patients. Strikingly, 50% of activated C3-positive patients also displayed MAC-associated C9 deposition. Deposition of complement factors was predominantly seen around hepatocytes with macrovesicular steatosis. Subjects showing accumulation of activated C3 displayed increased numbers of apoptotic cells. Importantly, hepatic neutrophil infiltration as well as interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in patients showing activated C3 deposition, whereas patients with C9 deposition additionally had increased IL-1, expression. Moreover, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was more prevalent in patients showing hepatic C9 or activated C3 deposition. Conclusion: There is widespread activation of the complement system in NAFLD, which is associated with disease severity. This may have important implications for the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD given the function of complement factors in clearance of apoptotic cells, hepatic fibrosis, and liver regeneration. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Modulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism significantly improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and reverses hepatic steatosis in mice,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Nora Bijl
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The hyperinsulinemia that occurs as a consequence of insulin resistance is thought to be an important contributor to the development of fatty liver. We have shown that the iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM), an inhibitor of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase, is a potent enhancer of insulin signaling in rodent models for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The present study was designed to assess the impact of AMP-DNM on insulin levels, liver triglyceride synthesis, and gene expression profile. Treatment of ob/ob mice with AMP-DNM restored insulin signaling in the liver, corrected blood glucose values to levels found in lean mice, and decreased insulin concentration. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c target genes involved in fatty acid synthesis normalized. AMP-DNM treatment significantly reduced liver to body weight ratio and reversed hepatic steatosis, comprising fat as well as inflammatory markers. In addition, AMP-DNM treatment corrected to a large extent the gene expression profile of ob/ob mice livers toward the profile of lean mice. Conclusion: Pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids with the iminosugar AMP-DNM is a promising approach to restore insulin signaling and improve glucose homeostasis as well as hepatic steatosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Nathan A. Johnson
    Weight loss remains the most common therapy advocated for reducing hepatic lipid in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Yet, reduction of body weight by lifestyle intervention is often modest, and thus, therapies which effectively modulate the burden of fatty liver but are not contingent upon weight loss are of the highest practical significance. However, the effect of aerobic exercise on liver fat independent of weight loss has not been clarified. We assessed the effect of aerobic exercise training on hepatic, blood, abdominal and muscle lipids in 19 sedentary obese men and women using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Four weeks of aerobic cycling exercise, in accordance with current physical activity guidelines, significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue volume by 12% (P < 0.01) and hepatic triglyceride concentration by 21% (P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant (14%) reduction in plasma free fatty acids (P < 0.05). Exercise training did not alter body weight, vastus lateralis intramyocellular triglyceride concentration, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, 1H-MRS,measured hepatic lipid saturation, or HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; P > 0.05). Conclusion: These data provide the first direct experimental evidence demonstrating that regular aerobic exercise reduces hepatic lipids in obesity even in the absence of body weight reduction. Physical activity should be strongly promoted for the management of fatty liver, the benefits of which are not exclusively contingent upon weight loss. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Adipokines in liver diseases,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Fabio Marra
    Adipokines are polypeptides secreted in the adipose tissue in a regulated manner. While some of these molecules are expressed only by adipocytes, resident and infiltrating macrophages and components of the vascular stroma markedly contribute to expression of other adipokines. As a result, adipose tissue inflammation is associated with a modification in the pattern of adipokine secretion. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the best-studied molecules in this class, but cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 are also secreted at high levels by the adipose tissue. Several other molecules have been recently identified and are actively investigated. Adipokines interfere with hepatic injury associated with fatty infiltration, differentially modulating steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Several studies have investigated plasma levels of adiponectin in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, to establish correlations with the underlying state of insulin resistance and with the type and severity of hepatic damage. Hepatitis C is another disease where adipokines may represent a link between viral infection, steatosis, and metabolic disturbances. Identification of the mediators secreted by expanded adipose tissue and their pathogenic role is pivotal in consideration of the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and of the detrimental role that this condition exerts on the course of liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Specific role for acyl CoA:Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) in hepatic steatosis due to exogenous fatty acids,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Claudio J. Villanueva
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) and other lipids in the liver, often accompanies obesity and is a risk factor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. To treat or prevent fatty liver, a thorough understanding of hepatic fatty acid and TG metabolism is crucial. To investigate the role of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), a key enzyme of TG synthesis, in fatty liver development, we studied mice with global and liver-specific knockout of Dgat1. DGAT1 was required for hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet and prolonged fasting, which are both characterized by delivery of exogenous fatty acids to the liver. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that DGAT1 deficiency protected against hepatic steatosis by reducing synthesis and increasing the oxidation of fatty acids. In contrast, lipodystrophy (aP2-SREBP-1c436) and liver X receptor activation (T0901317), which increase de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver, caused steatosis independently of DGAT1. Pharmacologic inhibition of Dgat1 with antisense oligonucleotides protected against fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Conclusion: Our findings identify a specific role for hepatic DGAT1 in esterification of exogenous fatty acids and indicate that DGAT1 contributes to hepatic steatosis induced by this mechanism. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Luca Miele
    The role played by the gut in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still a matter of debate, although animal and human studies suggest that gut-derived endotoxin may be important. We investigated intestinal permeability in patients with NAFLD and evaluated the correlations between this phenomenon and the stage of the disease, the integrity of tight junctions within the small intestine, and prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We examined 35 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 27 with untreated celiac disease (as a model of intestinal hyperpermeability) and 24 healthy volunteers. We assessed the presence of SIBO by glucose breath testing (GBT), intestinal permeability by means of urinary excretion of 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetraacetate (51Cr-EDTA) test, and the integrity of tight junctions within the gut by immunohistochemical analysis of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression in duodenal biopsy specimens. Patients with NAFLD had significantly increased gut permeability (compared with healthy subjects; P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of SIBO, although both were lower than in the untreated celiac patients. In patients with NAFLD, both gut permeability and the prevalence of SIBO correlated with the severity of steatosis but not with presence of NASH. Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence that NAFLD in humans is associated with increased gut permeability and that this abnormality is related to the increased prevalence of SIBO in these patients. The increased permeability appears to be caused by disruption of intercellular tight junctions in the intestine, and it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat deposition. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Transcription factor 7,like 2 polymorphism modulates glucose and lipid homeostasis, adipokine profile, and hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Giovanni Musso
    Genetic factors underlying the association of NAFLD with diabetes and atherosclerosis are unknown. Recent human studies suggest transcription factor 7,like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphism predisposes to diabetes through modulation of ,-cell function and modulates lipid levels in familial dyslipidemia. Emerging experimental evidence connects TCF7L2 to adipocyte metabolism and lipid homeostasis, as well. We tested if TCF7L2 polymorphism is a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and if it modulates liver injury, glucose homeostasis, lipoprotein, and adipokine profiles in NASH. TCF7L2 genotype and dietary habits of 78 nondiabetic normolipidemic NAFLD subjects and 156 age-, body mass index,, sex-matched healthy controls were assessed. In 39 biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and matched controls TCF7L2 polymorphism was correlated to liver histology and oral glucose tolerance test,derived parameters of glucose homeostasis. Patients with NASH and controls consumed a high-fat meal and TCF7L2 genotype was correlated to postprandial circulating lipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokeratin-18 fragments. The TCF7L2 CT/TT genotype was more frequent in NAFLD and predicted the presence and severity of liver disease, of ,-cell dysfunction, of reduced incretin effect and hepatic insulin resistance in NASH; it also modulated postprandial hepatocyte apoptosis, lipoproteins, and adipokine profiles in both groups. Conclusion: TCF7L2 polymorphism predisposes to NAFLD and significantly impacts liver injury, glucose homeostasis, and postprandial lipoprotein and adipokine responses to fat ingestion. This polymorphism also modulates a fat-induced increase in circulating markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH. Targeting postprandial lipemia, at least in at-risk TCF7L2 genotypes, may improve liver disease and glucose dysmetabolism in these patients. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

    The genes that underlie fatty liver disease: The harvest has begun,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Ralf Weiskirchen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Selected practical issues in their evaluation and management,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Raj Vuppalanchi
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the western world. It is now recognized that these patients have myriad of important co-morbidities (e.g., diabetes, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome). The workup of patients with suspected NAFLD should consist of excluding competing etiologies and systemic evaluation of metabolic comorbidities. NAFLD is histologically categorized into steatosis and steatohepatitis, two states with fairly dichotomous natural history. While significant progress has been made in terms of noninvasively predicting advanced fibrosis, insufficient progress has been made in predicting steatohepatitis. Currently, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for the histological stratification of NAFLD. While sustained weight loss can be effective to treat NASH, it is often difficult to achieve. Foregut bariatric surgery can be quite effective in improving hepatic histology in selected patients without liver failure or significant portal hypertension. Thiazolidinediones have shown promise and the results from the ongoing, large multicenter study should become available soon. Large multicenter studies of CB, receptor anatagonists are also underway but their results will not be available for several years. Several recent studies have highlighted that cardiovascular disease is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Conclusion: Health care providers should not only focus on liver disease but also concentrate on aggressively modifying and treating their cardiovascular risk factors. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;49:306-317.) [source]

    Risk of severe liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Role of insulin resistance,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Features associated with treatment failure in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and predictive value of the model of end-stage liver disease,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Aldo J. Montano-Loza
    Autoimmune hepatitis may fail to respond to corticosteroid therapy, but the frequency and bases for this outcome are uncertain. We aimed to determine the frequency and nature of treatment failure in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, define features associated with its occurrence, and assess if the model for end-stage liver disease can predict this outcome. Patients failing conventional corticosteroid regimens were compared to patients who responded to similar regimens. Fourteen of 214 patients (7%) failed corticosteroid treatment. Patients who failed therapy were younger (33 3 years versus 48 1 years, P = 0.0008), had higher serum levels of bilirubin at accession (4.1 0.9 mg/dL versus 2.3 0.2 mg/dL, P = 0.02), presented acutely more frequently (43% versus 14%, P = 0.01), and had a higher frequency of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) DRB1*03 (93% versus 53%, P = 0.004) than did patients who achieved remission. An alternative disease (fatty liver disease) emerged in only 1 patient who failed therapy (7%). Scores determined by the model of end-stage liver disease at presentation of patients who failed treatment were higher than those of who achieved remission (16 1 versus 10 0.3 points, P < 0.0001), and score greater than 12 points had greater sensitivity (97%) and specificity (68%) for treatment failure than did HLA DRB1*03 or other features. Conclusion: Onset at an early age, acute presentation, hyperbilirubinemia, and presence of HLA DRB1*03 characterize patients who fail corticosteroid treatment. The model for end-stage liver disease may be a useful instrument for identifying patients prone to this outcome. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]

    Different fat distribution as marker of disease in nonalcholic fatty liver disease,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Melania Manco M.D., Ph.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Present and future,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Anna Wieckowska
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. It currently affects approximately 30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from simple fatty liver which in general follows a benign nonprogressive clinical course, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. At present, a liver biopsy remains the only reliable way to diagnose NASH and establish the presence of fibrosis. Current noninvasive clinically available tests lack accuracy and reliability. In light of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of NAFLD in conjunction with the significant research effort in developing novel therapies for patients with NASH, noninvasive, simple, reproducible, and reliable biomarkers are greatly needed. They will not only help in the diagnosis of NASH, but also be useful for assessment of treatment response and prognosis and remain a research priority in the NAFLD field. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;46:582,589.) [source]

    The histopathology of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Jean Pappas Molleston M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Interleukin 6 alleviates hepatic steatosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice with fatty liver disease

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Feng Hong
    Fatty liver, formerly associated predominantly with excessive alcohol intake, is now also recognized as a complication of obesity and an important precursor state to more severe forms of liver pathology including ischemia/reperfusion injury. No standard protocol for treating fatty liver exists at this time. We therefore examined the effects of 10 days of interleukin 6 (IL-6) injection in 3 murine models of fatty liver: leptin deficient ob/ob mice, ethanol-fed mice, and mice fed a high-fat diet. In all 3 models, IL-6 injection decreased steatosis and normalized serum aminotransferase. The beneficial effects of IL-6 treatment in vivo resulted in part from an increase in mitochondrial , oxidation of fatty acid and an increase in hepatic export of triglyceride and cholesterol. However, administration of IL-6 to isolated cultured steatotic hepatocytes failed to decrease lipid contents, suggesting that the beneficial effects of IL-6 in vivo do not result from its effects on hepatocytes alone. IL-6 treatment increased hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) , and decreased liver and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ,. Finally, 10 days of treatment with IL-6 prevented the susceptibility of fatty livers to warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. In conclusion, long-term IL-6 administration ameliorates fatty livers and protects against warm ischemia/reperfusion fatty liver injury, suggesting the therapeutic potential of IL-6 in treating human fatty liver disease. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the Hepatology website (http://interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.html). (HEPATOLOGY 2004;40:933,941.) [source]

    CYP2E1 activity before and after weight loss in morbidly obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Maurice G. Emery
    Previous studies suggest that hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity is increased in individuals with chronic alcoholism, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and morbid obesity, and may contribute to liver disease. We studied 16 morbidly obese subjects with varying degrees of hepatic steatosis and 16 normal-weight controls. Obese subjects were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 1 year after gastroplasty, a procedure that leads to weight loss. Hepatic CYP2E1 activity was assessed by determination of the clearance of chlorzoxazone (CLZ), an in vivo CYP2E1-selective probe. Liver biopsy tissue was obtained during surgery for histopathology. Both the total and unbound oral CLZ clearance (Clu/F) was elevated approximately threefold in morbidly obese subjects compared with controls (P < .001). The Clu/F was significantly higher among subjects with steatosis involving >50% of hepatocytes, compared with those with steatosis in ,50% of hepatocytes (P = .02). At postoperative week 6 and year 1, the median body mass index (BMI) of subjects who underwent gastroplasty decreased by 11% and 33%, total oral CLZ clearance declined by 16% (P < .01) and 46% (P < .05), and Clu/F decreased by 18% (P < .05) and 35% (P = .16), respectively. Moreover, those subjects with a year 1 BMI <30 kg/m2 exhibited a median Clu/F that was 63% lower (P = .02) than the respective clearance for all other subjects. In conclusion, hepatic CYP2E1 activity is up-regulated in morbidly obese subjects. A positive association between the degree of steatosis and CYP2E1 activity preoperatively and between the extent of obesity and CYP2E1 activity postoperatively, suggests that CYP2E1 induction is related to or caused by hepatic pathology that results from morbid obesity. [source]