Fatigue Life (fatigue + life)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Fatigue Life

  • fatigue life improvement
  • fatigue life prediction

  • Selected Abstracts


    Low and high flow analyses and wavelet application for characterization of the Blue Nile River system

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 3 2010
    Assefa Melesse
    Abstract The low and high flow characteristic of the Blue Nile River (BNR) basin is presented. The study discusses low and high flow, flow duration curve (FDC) and trend analysis of the BNR and its major tributaries. Different probability density functions were fitted to better describe the low and high flows of the BNR and major tributaries in the basin. Wavelet analysis was used in understanding the variance and frequency-time localization and detection of dominant oscillations in rainfall and flow. FDCs were developed, and low flow (below 50% exceedance) and high flow (over 75% exceedance) of the curves were analysed and compared. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-based maps of monthly changes in gravity converted to water equivalents from 2003 to 2006 for February, May and September showed an increase in the moisture influx in the BNR basin for the month of September, and loss of moisture in February and May. It was also shown that 2004 and 2005 were drier with less moisture influx compared to 2003 and 2006. On the basis of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-square tests, Gen. Pareto, Frechet 3P, Log-normal, Log-logistics, Fatigue Life and Phased Bi-Weibull distributions best describe the low and high flows within the BNR basin. This will be beneficial in developing flow hydrographs for similar ungauged watersheds within the BNR basin. The below 50% and above 75% exceedance on the FDC for five major rivers in addition to the BNR showed different characteristics depending on size, land cover, topography and other factors. The low flow frequency analysis of the BNR at Bahir Dar showed 055 m3/s as the monthly low flow with recurrence interval of 10 years. The wavelet analysis of the rainfall (at Bahir Dar and basin-wide) and flows at three selected stations shows inter- and intra-annual variability of rainfall and flows at various scales. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Fatigue behaviour of SiCp -reinforced aluminium composites in the very high cycle regime using ultrasonic fatigue

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 7 2006
    J. HUANG
    ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of a 2009/SiC/15p-T4 DRA composite has been examined in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime where 107,Nf, 109 cycles. Ultrasonic fatigue was used to achieve the very high cycle counts. Careful processing yielded a composite with a very homogeneous particle distribution with minimal clustering. Fatigue crack initiation was observed almost exclusively at AlCuFe inclusions with no crack initiation observed at SiC particle clusters. Fatigue lives at a given stress level exhibited minimal scatter and subsurface crack initiation was observed in all cases. This behaviour is consistent with the presence of a low number density of critical inclusions that are responsible for crack initiation very early in fatigue life. [source]


    The effect of pitting corrosion on fatigue life

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 7 2000
    Dolley
    Fatigue testing of pre-pitted 2024-T3 aluminium alloy specimens is performed in laboratory air at 22 C and 40% RH to characterize the effect of pitting corrosion on fatigue life. Specimens, pre-corroded in a 0.5 M NaCl solution from 48 to 384 h, have fatigue lives that are reduced by more than one order of magnitude after 384 h pre-corrosion as compared to those of uncorroded specimens. The reduction in fatigue life is interpreted in terms of the influence of the time of exposure to the corrosive environment or pit size. The crack-nucleating pit sizes, ranging from 20 to 70 ,m, are determined from post-fracture examinations by scanning electron microscopy. Fatigue lives are estimated using a fracture mechanics approach and are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data. A probabilistic analysis shows that the distribution of fatigue life is strongly correlated to the distribution in nucleating pit size. [source]


    "PHYBAL" a Short-Time Procedure for a Reliable Fatigue Life Calculation

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 4 2010
    Peter Starke
    Abstract The reliable calculation of the fatigue life of high-strength steels and components requires the systematic investigation of the cyclic deformation behaviour and the comprehensive evaluation of proceeding fatigue damage. Besides mechanical stress-strain hysteresis measurements, temperature and electrical resistance measurements were used for the detailed characterisation of the fatigue behaviour of the steel SAE 4140 in one quenched and tempered, one normalised, one bainitic and one martensitic condition. To guarantee optimal operation conditions the new fatigue life calculation method "PHYBAL" on the basis of generalised Morrow and Basquin equations was developed. It is a short-time procedure which requires the data of only three fatigue tests for a rapid and nevertheless precise determination of S-N (Woehler) curves. Consequently, "PHYBAL" provides the opportunity to reduce significantly experimental time and costs compared to conventional test methods. [source]


    Fatigue crack growth and life prediction of a single interference fitted holed plate

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 10 2010
    T. N. CHAKHERLOU
    ABSTRACT To understand the different aspects of fatigue behaviour of complex structural joints it will be much helpful if the effects of different parameters are studied separately. In this article, to study the isolated effect of interference fit on fatigue life a pined hole specimen is investigated. This specimen is a single-holed plate with an oversized pin which force fitted to the hole. The investigation was carried out both experimentally and numerically. In the experimental part, interference fitted specimens along with open hole specimens were fatigue tested to study the experimental effect of the interference fit. In the numerical part, three-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations have been performed in order to obtain the created stresses due to interference fit and subsequent applied longitudinal load at the holed plate. The stress distribution obtained from FE simulation around the hole was used to predict crack initiation life using Smith,Watson,Topper method and fatigue crack growth life using the NASGRO equation with applying the AFGROW computer code. The predicted fatigue life obtained from the numerical methods show a good agreement with the experimental fatigue life. [source]


    Combined effect of strength & sheet thickness on fatigue behaviour of resistance spot welded joint

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 9 2010
    S. GHOSH
    ABSTRACT Fatigue performance of spot welded lap shear joint is primarily dependent on weld nugget size, sheet thickness and corresponding joint stiffness. Two automotive steel sheets having higher strength lower thickness and lower strength higher thickness are resistance spot welded with established optimum welding condition. The tensile-shear strength and fatigue strength of lap shear joint of the two automotive steel sheets are determined and compared. Experimental fatigue life of spot welded lap shear joint of each steel are compared with predicted fatigue lives using different stress intensity factor solutions for kinked crack and spot weld available in literature. Micrographs of fatigue fractured surfaces are examined to understand fracture micro-mechanisms. [source]


    Industrial experiences of bending fatigue strength in table liner for cement mill

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2010
    S.-H. BAEK
    ABSTRACT A table liner for the vertical roller mill has been used to grind natural limestone. Unexpected fatigue failure accidents have occurred during portland cement manufacturing process. The design life of a table liner is 4 107 cycles, but the actual fatigue life of a table liner is 2 106 to 8 106 cycles. The fatigue crack of a table liner initiates from the outside edge of the grinding path of the limestone. When such a crack occurs, the table liner has to be replaced, and this requires 30% of the total maintenance cost of the vertical roller mill. Therefore, this study examines the fatigue failure of a table liner by plane-bending fatigue test, stress measurement test, finite element analysis and fatigue fracture analysis. [source]


    Effects of spectrum modification on fatigue crack growth

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 3 2010
    D. KUJAWSKI
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the effects associated with modification of a loading spectrum recorded from P-3 a maritime aircraft on fatigue crack growth behaviour. The material is 2324-T39 Al alloy widely used in the aircraft industry. Experiments were conducted using the full spectrum and modified versions of it such as only ,positive' (no negative loads) or with reduced (clipped) high peaks. The results show that the compressive loads decrease fatigue life of the specimen by ,300%. Furthermore, by running tests with clipped peaks it was found that the fatigue life was shorten significantly due to reduction of crack growth retardation caused by highest tensile peaks. Multiple tests were conducted in order to establish a scatter in the experimental data under spectrum loads. [source]


    Influence of bulk damage on crack initiation in low-cycle fatigue of 316 stainless steel

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 2 2010
    M. KAMAYA
    ABSTRACT To investigate the effect of bulk damage on fatigue crack initiation, crack initiations due to low-cycle fatigue of Type 316 stainless steel were observed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning electron microscopy. The EBSD observations showed that local misorientation developed inhomogeneously due to the cyclic strain, and many cracks were initiated from the slip steps and grain boundaries where the local misorientation was relatively large. The crack initiations could be categorized into two types: enhancement of the driving force by geometrical discontinuity (slip steps and notches), and reduction of material resistance against crack initiation caused by accumulated bulk damage at grain boundaries. In particular, more than half of the cracks were initiated from grain boundaries. However, in spite of the significant bulk damage, the fatigue life was extended by removing the surface cracks under strain of 1 and 2% amplitude. The stress state at the microstructural level was changed by the surface removal, and the damaged portion did not suffer further damage. It was concluded that although bulk damage surely exists, the fatigue life can be restored to that of the untested specimen by removing the surface cracks. [source]


    On the estimation of fatigue life in notches differentiating the phases of crack initiation and propagation

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 1 2010
    J. VZQUEZ
    ABSTRACT Over the last three decades, a variety of models have been developed in order to predict the life of components under fatigue. Some of the models are based on the definition of the fatigue process as a combination of the phases of crack initiation and crack propagation, considering component life as the sum of the duration of each phase. Other models consider only one of the phases; some consider only initiation while others only propagation, though in this case, from cracks with lengths in the order of the microstructural dimensions. This article will carry out a comparative analysis of the methods that consider life as the sum of the duration of both phases. In this same line, it proposes yet another method, which simulates crack growth according to damage theories. In analysing the behaviour of each model, this paper will describe various elements: the prediction that each of them produces regarding notched specimens submitted to testing, the advantages and inconveniences of each, and lastly, the possibilities of applying each of the models to more realistic geometries. [source]


    Stress-life fatigue assessment of pipelines with plain dents

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 12 2009
    S. B. CUNHA
    ABSTRACT This paper presents a new algorithm for assessing the fatigue life of dented pipelines. The proposed methodology was conceived according to the current stress-life fatigue theory and design practice: it employs S,N curves inferred from tensile test material properties and uses well established methodologies to deal with the stress concentration, the mean stress and the multi-axial stress state that characterizes a dented pipe. Finite element analyses are carried out to model the denting process and to determine the stress concentration factors of several pipe-dent geometries. Using dimensional analysis over the numerical results, a non-dimensional number to characterize the pipe-dent geometry is determined and linear interpolation expressions for the stress concentration factors of dented pipelines are developed. Fatigue tests are conducted with the application of cyclic internal pressure on small-scale dented steel pipe models. In view of the fatigue test results, the more appropriate S,N curve and mean stress criteria are selected. [source]


    Effect of hardness on multiaxial fatigue behaviour and some simple approximations for steels

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 8 2009
    N. SHAMSAEI
    ABSTRACT Constant-amplitude in-phase and 90 out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue tests were conducted on tubular specimens made from a medium-carbon steel with three hardness levels obtained from normalizing, quenching and tempering and induction hardening to find the effect of hardness on multiaxial fatigue behaviour. In addition, the same loadings were applied on the normalized solid specimens to investigate the effect of specimen geometry on multiaxial fatigue life. Similar fatigue life variation as a function of hardness was found for in-phase and out-of-phase loadings, with higher ductility beneficial in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and higher strength beneficial in high-cycle fatigue (HCF). Multiaxial fatigue data were satisfactorily correlated for all hardness levels with the Fatemi,Socie parameter. Furthermore, in order to predict multiaxial fatigue life of steels in the absence of any fatigue data, the Roessle,Fatemi hardness method was used. Multiaxial fatigue lives were predicted fairly accurately using the Fatemi,Socie multiaxial model based on only the hardness level of the material. The applicability of the prediction method based on hardness was also examined for Inconel 718 and a stainless steel under a wide range of loading conditions. The great majority of the observed fatigue lives were found to be in good agreement with predicted lives. [source]


    Influence of inclusion size on S-N curve characteristics of high-strength steels in the giga-cycle fatigue regime

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 8 2009
    L. T. LU
    ABSTRACT Fatigue fracture of high-strength steels often occurs from small defect on the surface of a material or from non-metallic inclusion in the subsurface zone of a material. Under rotating bending loading, the S-N curve of high-strength steels consists of two curves corresponding to surface defect-induced fracture and internal inclusion-induced fracture. The surface defect-induced fracture occurs at high stress amplitude levels and low cycles. However, the subsurface inclusion-induced fracture occurs at low stress amplitude levels and high-cycle region of more than 106 cycles (giga-cycle fatigue life). There is a definite stress range in the S-N curve obtained from the rotating bending, where the crack initiation site changes from surface to subsurface, giving a stepwise S-N curve or a duplex S-N curve. On the other hand, under cyclic axial loading, the S-N curve of high-strength steels displays a continuous decline and surface defect-induced or internal inclusion-induced fracture occur in the whole range of amplitudes. In this paper, influence factors on S-N curve characteristics of high-strength steels, including size of inclusions and the stress gradient of bending fatigue, were investigated for rotating bending and cyclic axial loading in the giga-cycle fatigue regime. Then, based on the estimated subsurface crack growth rate from the S-N data, effect of inclusion size on the dispersion of fatigue life was explained, and it was clarified that the shape of S-N curve for subsurface inclusion-induced fracture depends on the inclusion size. [source]


    The influence of the environment and corrosion on the structural integrity of aircraft materials

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2009
    S. RUSSO
    ABSTRACT Fatigue results of 11/2 dog-bone jointed specimens manufactured from 7075-T6 aluminium alloy indicated that the application of corrosion preventative compounds (CPCs) at the faying surfaces slightly decreased the log mean fatigue life at 144 MPa, while the effect was not statistically significant at the higher stress level (210 MPa). The addition of the CPC also reduced fretting corrosion at the faying surfaces and shifted the fatigue initiation sites closer to the edge of fastener holes. Scatter in fatigue life was found to be associated with the location and size of the intermetallics at the initiation site. The presence of corrosion in the bores of the countersunk fastener holes reduced the fatigue life by up to one order of magnitude. Fatigue test results for dog-bone specimens manufactured from 7075-T651 and 2024-T351 aluminium alloys indicated that the presence of exfoliation corrosion reduced the fatigue life under dry conditions, with a greater reduction under humid conditions. The application of a CPC to the corroded region eliminated the influence humidity had on fatigue life. [source]


    Effect of test frequency on fatigue strength of low carbon steel

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2009
    N. TSUTSUMI
    ABSTRACT Ultrasonic fatigue tests (test frequency: 20 kHz) and conventional tension,compression fatigue tests (10 Hz) have been conducted on annealed and 10% pre-strained specimens of 0.13% carbon steel. Small holes were introduced on the specimen surface to investigate the effect of test frequency on small crack growth. The dynamic stress concentration factor and the stress intensity factor under ultrasonic fatigue tests were checked to be almost the same as those of conventional tension,compression fatigue tests. However, the fatigue properties were dependent on the test frequency. Ultrasonic fatigue tests showed longer fatigue life and lower fatigue crack growth rate for the annealed and 10% pre-strained specimens. Slip bands were scarce in the neighbourhood of cracks under ultrasonic fatigue tests, while many slip bands were observed in a wide area around the crack under conventional fatigue tests. In order to explain the effect of test frequency on fatigue strength, dynamic compression tests with Split Hopkinson bars were carried out. The stress level increases substantially with the strain rate. Thus, the increase in fatigue strength might be, to a large extent, due to a reduction in crack tip cyclic plasticity during ultrasonic fatigue tests. [source]


    Vehicle fatigue damage caused by road irregularities

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 5 2009
    K. BOGSJ
    ABSTRACT Road roughness causes fatigue-inducing loads in travelling vehicles. Road sections with a high degree of roughness are of special interest because these have a significant impact on vehicle's fatigue life. This study is focused on the statistical description and analysis of vehicle damage caused by irregularities. Standard statistical analysis tools are not straightforwardly applicable because of the non-stationary property of the irregularities. However, it is found that the road irregularities' influence on vehicles can be accurately described using a ,local' narrow-band approximation of the fatigue damage intensity. [source]


    Improvement in the fatigue strength of chromium electroplated AISI 4340 steel by shot peening

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 2 2009
    H. J. C. VOORWALD
    ABSTRACT In landing gear, an important mechanical component for high responsible applications, wear and corrosion control is currently accomplished by chrome plating or hard anodising. However, some problems are associated with these operations. Experimental results have also shown that chrome-plated specimens have fatigue strength lower than those of uncoated parts, attributed to high residual tensile stress and microcracks density contained into the coating. Under fatigue conditions these microcracks propagate and will cross the interface coating-substrate and penetrate base metal without impediment. Shot peening is a surface process used to improve fatigue strength of metal components due to compressive residual stresses induced in the surface layers of the material, making the nucleation and propagation of fatigue cracks difficult. This investigation is concerned with analysis of the shot peening influence on the rotating bending fatigue strength of hard chromium electroplated AISI 4340 steel. Specimens were submitted to shot peening treatment with steel and ceramic shots and, in both cases, experimental results show increase in the fatigue life of AISI 4340 steel hard chromium electroplated, up to level of base metal without chromium. Peening using ceramic shot resulted in lower scatter in rotating bending fatigue data than steel shots. [source]


    Description of fatigue damage in carbon black filled natural rubber

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 12 2008
    J.-B. LE CAM
    ABSTRACT The present paper describes macroscopic fatigue damage in carbon black-filled natural rubber (CB-NR) under uniaxial loading conditions. Uniaxial tension-compression, fully relaxing uniaxial tension and non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions were applied until sample failure. Results, summarized in a Haigh-like diagram, show that only one type of fatigue damage is observed for uniaxial tension-compression and fully relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions, and that several different types of fatigue damage take place in non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions. The different damage types observed under non-relaxing uniaxial tension, loading conditions are closely related to the improvement of rubber fatigue life. Therefore, as fatigue life improvement is classically supposed to be due to strain-induced crystallization (SIC), a similar conclusion can be drawn for the occurrence of different types of fatigue damage. [source]


    The effect of laser power density on the fatigue life of laser-shock-peened 7050 aluminium alloy

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 11 2007
    Q. LIU
    ABSTRACT Laser shock peening (LSP) is an innovative surface treatment method that can result in significant improvement in the fatigue life of many metallic components. The process produces very little or no surface profile modification while producing a considerably deeper compressive residual stress layer than traditional shot peening operations. The work discussed here was designed to: (a) quantify the fatigue life improvement achieved by LSP in a typical high strength aircraft aluminium alloy and (b) identify any technological risks associated with its use. It is shown that when LSP conditions are optimal for the material and specimen configuration, a ,three to four times increase in fatigue life over the as-machined specimens could be achieved for a representative fighter aircraft loading spectrum when applied at a representative load level. However, if the process parameters are not optimal for the material investigated here, fatigue lives of LSP treated specimens may be reduced instead of increased due to the occurrence of internal cracking. This paper details the effect of laser power density on fatigue life of 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy by experimental and numerical analysis. [source]


    Experimental investigations on the growth of small fatigue cracks in naval steel

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2007
    A. ELMALKI ALAOUI
    ABSTRACT The concept of damage tolerance is now largely employed to evaluate the fatigue life of structures. However, part of this fatigue relies on the initiation and growth of small cracks. The fatigue behaviour of a naval structural steel (S355NL) was investigated. In order to characterize the behaviour of short and long cracks, tests were performed under constant amplitude loading for several load ratios between ,1.0 and 0.5. A major part of fatigue life is constituted by short crack initiation and propagation. [source]


    Determining the life cycle of bolts using a local approach and the Dang Van criterion

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 8 2006
    Y. FARES
    ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of bolts under axial load has always been considered from the component point of view for which fatigue limit is usually taken equal to 50 MPa, and few results are available to designers for limited lifetimes. Here, we take up this problem from a material point of view using a local approach. For each case of fatigue testing, using finite-element (FE) model of the bolt, we determine the stabilized local stress at the root of the first thread in contact with the nut. To characterize bolt behaviour with these numerical results, we use Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion for which we extend application to the medium fatigue life. These results can be correlated with the experimental numbers of cycles to failure to determine material parameters of the generalized criterion. Using statistical Gauss method, we can make lifetime predictions for any level of risk of failure. In addition, we propose an analytical model to rapidly determine the local stress condition from nominal loading data (mean stress and alternating stress). This model dispenses us from a new modelling if the bolt is stressed in the same manner as the bolts used for behaviour characterization. Using this model and the generalized criterion, it is extremely easy to make lifetime predictions whatever the risk considered. [source]


    Fatigue behaviour of SiCp -reinforced aluminium composites in the very high cycle regime using ultrasonic fatigue

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 7 2006
    J. HUANG
    ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of a 2009/SiC/15p-T4 DRA composite has been examined in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime where 107,Nf, 109 cycles. Ultrasonic fatigue was used to achieve the very high cycle counts. Careful processing yielded a composite with a very homogeneous particle distribution with minimal clustering. Fatigue crack initiation was observed almost exclusively at AlCuFe inclusions with no crack initiation observed at SiC particle clusters. Fatigue lives at a given stress level exhibited minimal scatter and subsurface crack initiation was observed in all cases. This behaviour is consistent with the presence of a low number density of critical inclusions that are responsible for crack initiation very early in fatigue life. [source]


    The influence of porosity on the fatigue strength of high-pressure die cast aluminium

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 5 2006
    J. LINDER
    ABSTRACT Aluminium is a lightweight material with high strength and good corrosion resistance among other beneficial properties. Thanks to these properties, aluminium is more extensively used in the vehicle industry. High-pressure die casting of aluminium is a manufacturing process that makes it possible to attain complex, multi-functional components with near-net shape. However, there is one disadvantage of such castings, that is, the presence of various defects such as porosity and its effect on mechanical properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of porosity on the fatigue strength of high-pressure die cast aluminium. The objective was to derive the influence of defect size with respect to the fatigue load, and to generate a model for fatigue life in terms of a Kitagawa diagram. The aluminium alloy used in this study is comparable to AlSi9Cu3. Specimens were examined in X-ray prior to fatigue loading and classified with respect to porosity level and eventually fatigue tested in bending at the load ratio, R, equal to ,1. Two different specimen types with a stress concentration factor of 1.05 and 2.25 have been tested. It has been shown that the fatigue strength decreases by up to 25% as the amount of porosity of the specimen is increased. The results further showed that the influence of defects was less for the specimen type with the higher stress concentration. This is believed to be an effect of a smaller volume being exposed to the maximum stress for this specimen type. A Kitagawa diagram was constructed on the basis of the test results and fracture mechanics calculations. A value of 1.4 Mpa m1/2 was used for the so-called stress intensity threshold range. This analysis predicts that defects larger than 0.06 mm2 will reduce the fatigue strength at 5 106 cycles for the aluminium AlSi9Cu3 material tested. [source]


    Analytical and experimental studies on fatigue crack path under complex multi-axial loading

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 4 2006
    L. REIS
    ABSTRACT In real engineering components and structures, many accidental failures are due to unexpected or additional loadings, such as additional bending or torsion, etc. Fractographical analyses of the failure surface and the crack orientation are helpful for identifying the effects of the non-proportional multi-axial loading. There are many factors that influence fatigue crack paths. This paper studies the effects of multi-axial loading path on the crack path. Two kinds of materials were studied and compared in this paper: AISI 303 stainless steel and 42CrMo4 steel. Experiments were conducted in a biaxial testing machine INSTRON 8800. Six different biaxial loading paths were selected and applied in the tests to observe the effects of multi-axial loading paths on the additional hardening, fatigue life and the crack propagation orientation. Fractographic analyses of the plane orientations of crack initiation and propagation were carried out by optical microscope and SEM approaches. It was shown that the two materials studied had different crack orientations under the same loading path, due to their different cyclic plasticity behaviour and different sensitivity to non-proportional loading. Theoretical predictions of the damage plane were made using the critical plane approaches such as the Brown,Miller, the Findley, the Wang,Brown, the Fatemi,Socie, the Smith,Watson,Topper and the Liu's criteria. Comparisons of the predicted orientation of the damage plane with the experimental observations show that the critical plane models give satisfactory predictions for the orientations of early crack growth of the 42CrMo4 steel, but less accurate predictions were obtained for the AISI 303 stainless steel. This observation appears to show that the applicability of the fatigue models is dependent on the material type and multi-axial microstructure characteristics. [source]


    The effect of interference-fit fasteners on the fatigue life of central hole specimens

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 7 2005
    A. LANCIOTTI
    ABSTRACT Fatigue tests were carried out on 2024-T351, thickness 1.6 mm, central hole specimens containing pins installed with five different interference-fit levels. Tests clearly demonstrated the beneficial effect of interference fit on fatigue resistance, up to the maximum value examined, 2.5%. A three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model was used in order to characterize the stress field around the hole. A large specimen, with a 40-mm-diameter hole filled with interference-fit pin, was instrumented by strain gauges and statically tested in order to check FEM results. A very good correlation existed between measured and numerically evaluated strains. FEM results demonstrated the well-known effect of interference-fit fasteners on reducing stress ranges. By increasing the interference level, the stress range was practically unchanged, while the mean stress decreased. Interference-fit produces a biaxial stress state, which must be taken into account for fatigue evaluation. In the present case, a simple criterion, based on hoop strain, predicted the fatigue results quite well with the exception of open hole fatigue test results, which were overestimated. [source]


    Low-cycle fatigue of 1Cr,18Ni,9Ti stainless steel and related weld metal under axial, torsional and 90 out-of-phase loading

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2004
    X. CHEN
    ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of base metal and weld joints of 1Cr,18Ni,9Ti stainless steel has been studied under uniaxial, torsional and 90 out-of-phase loading. A significant degree of additional hardening is found for both base metal and weld metal under 90 out-of-phase loading. Both base metal and weld metal have the same cyclic stable stress,strain relationship under torsional cyclic loading and 90 out-of-phase cyclic loading. Base metal exhibits higher cyclic stress than weld metal under uniaxial loading, and Young's modulus and yield stress of weld metal are smaller than those of base metal. Weld metal exhibited lower fatigue resistance than base metal under uniaxial and torsional loading, but no significant difference was found between the two materials under 90 out-of-phase loading. A large scatter of fatigue life is observed for weld metal, perhaps because of heterogeneity of the microstructure. The Wang,Brown (WB) damage parameter and the Fatemi,Socie (FS) damage parameter, both based on the shear critical plane approach, were evaluated relative to the fatigue data obtained. [source]


    Fretting fatigue behaviour of shot-peened Ti-6Al-4V at room and elevated temperatures

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 9 2003
    H. LEE
    ABSTRACT Fretting fatigue behaviour of shot-peened titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V was investigated at room and elevated temperatures. Constant amplitude fretting fatigue tests were conducted over a wide range of maximum stresses, ,max= 333 to 666 MPa with a stress ratio of R= 0.1. Two infrared heaters, placed at the front and back of specimen, were used to heat and maintain temperature of the gage section of specimen at 260 C. Residual stress measurements by X-ray diffraction method before and after fretting test showed that residual compressive stress was relaxed during fretting fatigue. Elevated temperature induced more residual stress relaxation, which, in turn, decreased fretting fatigue life significantly at 260 C. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed that the longitudinal tensile stress, ,xx varied with the depth inside the specimen from contact surface during fretting fatigue and the largest ,xx could exist away from the contact surface in a certain situation. A critical plane based fatigue crack initiation model, modified shear stress range parameter (MSSR), was computed from FEA results to characterize fretting fatigue crack initiation behaviour. It showed that stress relaxation during test affected fretting fatigue life and location of crack initiation significantly. MSSR parameter also predicted crack initiation location, which matched with experimental observations and the number of cycles for crack initiation, which showed the appropriate trend with the experimental observations at both temperatures. [source]


    Fatigue crack nucleation and growth in filled natural rubber

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 9 2003
    W. V. MARS
    ABSTRACT Rubber components subjected to fluctuating loads often fail due to nucleation and the growth of defects or cracks. The prevention of such failures depends upon an understanding of the mechanics underlying the failure process. This investigation explores the nucleation and growth of cracks in filled natural rubber. Both fatigue macro-crack nucleation as well as fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted using simple tension and planar tension specimens, respectively. Crack nucleation as well as crack growth life prediction analysis approaches were used to correlate the experimental data. Several aspects of the fatigue process, such as failure mode and the effects of R ratio (minimum strain) on fatigue life, are also discussed. It is shown that a small positive R ratio can have a significant beneficial effect on fatigue life and crack growth rate, particularly at low strain range. [source]


    Fretting fatigue crack nucleation in Ti,6Al,4V

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 3 2003
    J. M. WALLACE
    ABSTRACT Fretting fatigue crack nucleation in Ti,6Al,4V when fretted against itself is investigated to determine the influence of contact pressure, stress amplitude, stress ratio, and contact geometry on the degradation process. For the test parameters considered in this investigation, a partial slip condition generally prevails. The resulting fatigue modifying factors are 0.53 or less. Cycles to crack nucleation, frictional force evolution, crack orientations and their relationship to the microstructure are reported. The crack nucleation process volume is of the same order as the microstructural length scales with several non-dominant cracks penetrating 50 ,m or less. The effective coefficient of friction increases during early part of fretting. Observations suggest that cyclic plastic deformation is extensive in the surface layers and that cyclic ratchetting of plastic strain may play a key role in nucleation of the fretting cracks. A Kitagawa,Takahashi diagram is used to relate the depth of fretting damage to the modifying factor on fatigue life. [source]


    Very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of shot-peened high-carbon,chromium bearing steel

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 8-9 2002
    K. SHIOZAWA
    ABSTRACT Effect of shot-peening on fatigue behaviour in the gigacycle regime was investigated in order to clarify the duplex S,N curve characteristics. Cantilever-type rotary bending fatigue tests were performed in laboratory air at room temperature by using hourglass-shaped specimens of high-carbon,chromium bearing steel, JIS SUJ2. Fatigue crack initiation site changed from the surface of untreated specimen to the subsurface of the specimen because of hardening and compressive residual stress with shot-peening in the region of high-stress amplitude. On the other hand, no difference in fatigue life controlled by the subsurface crack initiation between untreated specimen and shot-peening one was observed in high-cycle region. It was suggested that the S,N curve corresponding to the internal fracture mode is inherent in the material, as compared with the S,N curve of surface fracture mode, which is affected by surface conditions, environmental conditions and so on. Subsurface crack initiation and propagation behaviour were discussed under the detailed measurement of crack initiation area and shape of the fish-eye fracture surface. [source]