Far East (far + east)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Far East

  • russian far east

  • Terms modified by Far East

  • far east russia

  • Selected Abstracts

    Geography of Production Linkages in the Irish and Scottish Microcomputer Industry: The Role of Logistics

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
    Chris van Egeraat
    Abstract: The economic crisis of the mid-1970s marked the transition from the traditional Fordist mode of industrial organization to one of time-based competition (TBC). It has been postulated that the rise of TBC will lead to an increase in local and regional production linkages. Part of the argument is that the associated search for logistical efficiency and the adoption of the just-in-time (JIT) principles will lead to closer buyer-supplier proximity. In this article, we test the relevance of this idea in a case study of the microcomputer hardware industry in Ireland and Scotland. Most of the data were collected during multiple interviews with subsidiaries of all global microcomputer assemblers with operations in one of the two countries. The study shows that rather than sourcing locally or regionally, the assemblers import the vast majority of their material inputs from regions outside Ireland and Britain, notably from the Far East, and that the inbound logistics pipelines of most components involve inventories, often hubbed in local warehouses. Such supply systems have been interpreted as pseudo-JIT, suboptimal inbound logistics systems that are organized on traditional Fordist principles. We argue that the logistics systems and the geography of the supply linkages should not be interpreted this way. Inbound inventories were tightly managed, leading to modest target buffer levels and high shipment frequencies. Even under JIT supply, the geographic configuration of production linkages and the details of logistics systems remain highly dependent on a range of contextual conditions and component characteristics. The findings of this study suggest that a strategy of building integrated vertical production clusters around subsidiaries of multinational enterprises is no longer suitable for Ireland and Scotland, at least not in the context of the microcomputer industry. [source]

    A novel host shift and invaded range of a seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), of an invasive weed, Leucaena leucocephala

    Midori TUDA
    Abstract An endophagous seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), utilizes Neotropical Leucaena (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). One of its hosts, Leucaena leucocephala, is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree that serves as a multipurpose beneficial plant but eventually becomes an aggressive invader where it was introduced. Herein, we report A. macrophthalmus invasion of the Far East, South Asian tropics and subtropics (Japanese Pacific Islands, Taiwan, Southern China, Northern Thailand and Southern India). Of other field-collected mimosoid legumes, an introduced tree, Falcataria moluccana, in Taiwan was found to be used by the seed predator. Conversely, our published work review revealed that the seed predator had retained high host specificity to Leucaena species in its native and introduced regions. Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus was able to utilize aphagously postharvest mature seeds for oviposition and larval development, which is a trait of post-dispersal seed predators. We confirmed that A. macrophthalmus that was reared on L. leucocephala was able to utilize F. moluccana as well. Although the relatively high host specificity of the oligophagous beetle is suitable for controlling the weedy L. leucocephala, the potential host range expansion confirmed by this study must be cautioned. [source]

    Detection and typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Ixodes persulcatus ticks in West Siberia, Russia

    Anatoly B Beklemishev
    Abstract The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies in West Siberia as well as in many other regions of Russia remains insufficiently investigated. In the present study a total of 151 adult female ticks Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, collected at three localities in eastern regions of West Siberia, where Lyme disease is endemic, were examined for the presence of the spirochete B. burgdorferi s.l. by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 23S,5S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Spirochetal DNA was detected in on average 15.2±3.0% of the ticks examined. The infection rate of adult ticks with B. burgdorferi s.l. at various localities ranged from 8.6±3.4% to 29.0±7.6%, being greatest in the northernmost site studied and decreasing southwards. The restriction patterns obtained after MseI digestion of the 23S,5S rRNA intergenic spacer amplicons assigned 23 DNA samples to the following genomic groups: 19 to B. garinii (12 to group NT29 and seven to group 20047T), three to B. afzelii, and one to mixed B. afzelii and B. garinii NT29. We have not detected other genospecies, which were found in ticks in Europe, the Russian Far East and Japan. Thus, the ticks examined were associated only with two genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. pathogenic to humans (B. garinii and B. afzelii), and B. garinii was the major genospecies infecting adult I. persulcatus in eastern regions of West Siberia. [source]

    Palaeozoic tropical rainforests and their effect on global climates: is the past the key to the present?

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    ABSTRACT Wetland forests, known as coal forests, extended over large areas of the palaeotropics during the Late Carboniferous and the Permian Periods. They were initiated during the Serpukhovian Age as a response to lowering sea levels having exposed large areas of continental shelf. They expanded dramatically during the late Bashkirian Age, but then contracted by over one-half during the Kasimovian Age. The estimated loss of carbon sink probably resulted in an annual increase in atmospheric CO2 of about 2,5 ppm, and coincided with clear evidence of global warming in both the northern and southern high latitudes. A return to cooler conditions in very Early Permian times coincided with an expansion of the palaeotropical coal forests in the Far East, but this was short-lived and most of the rest of the Permian was a time of global warming. The Palaeozoic evidence clearly confirms that there is a correlation between levels of atmospheric CO2 and global climates. However, care must be taken in extrapolating this evidence to the present-day tropical forests, which do not act as a comparable unsaturated carbon sink. [source]

    Hepatitis B viral load predicts survival of HCC patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Winnie Yeo
    HCC is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. For patients who are not candidates for curative surgery, systemic chemotherapy is one of the standard treatments. In parts of China and the Far East, over 80% of HCC patients have chronic HBV infection. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between pre-chemotherapy HBV viral load and the survival of HCC patients. HBV infection status was determined prior to chemotherapy in 188 patients, 170 of whom had evidence of HBV chronic infection/exposure (160 hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive, 10 HBsAg-negative/hepatitis B core antibody,positive). Of these, 125 had pretreatment HBV DNA levels determined via real-time PCR. Virological data were analyzed using conventional clinical variables to identify factors that influenced survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that high total bilirubin (P = 0.0016; hazard ratio = 1.040 per 1 ,M increase; 95% CI 1.015,1.065), HCV infection (P = 0.0095; hazard ratio = 6.955; 95% CI 1.606,30.129), and high HBV DNA level (P = 0.0217; hazard ratio = 1.650; 95% CI 1.076,2.531) affected survival significantly. Exploratory analysis revealed that high levels of pretreatment HBV DNA had a significantly higher incidence of severe hepatitis during chemotherapy. Conclusion: For HCC patients with HBV chronic infection/exposure, a high viral load prior to treatment is an adverse factor for survival and may be associated with a higher incidence of severe hepatitis during chemotherapy. Future strategies to improve the prognosis of HCC patients undergoing chemotherapy should consider supportive therapy that incorporates antiviral therapies to reduce HBV viral load. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;45:1382,1389.) [source]

    The Enigma of ,Aydhab: a Medieval Islamic Port on the Red Sea Coast

    David Peacock
    The medieval Islamic port of ,Aydhab played a major role in the hajj and in trade with Yemen, India and the Far East. A recent satellite image reveals the layout of the town in some detail, but there seems to be no trace of a viable harbour. Yet there was a fine secure harbour at Halaib, 20 km to the south. We tentatively suggest that the main port of ,Aydhab was separate from the town. This hypothesis can only be verified by fieldwork and our objective in this paper is draw attention to the problem rather than to resolve it. © 2007 The Authors [source]

    18th- and 19th-century shipyards at the south-east entrance to the West India Docks, London

    Ken Pitt
    Archaeological fieldwork in 1997 on the Isle of Dogs, at the south-east entrance to the West India Docks, recovered evidence of 17th- to 19th-century shipyards, associated activities and foreign trade. Reused timbers may be the remains of the 17th-century Rolt's yard. Reclamation along the natural inlet was accompanied by the construction of a timber dry dock probably in the late 18th century. This soon fell out of use and was filled in with the construction of new dry docks to the south in 1806 by Thomas Pitcher. Much of the debris dating to the first half of the 19th century from ship repairing and building and from a range of ancillary crafts, together with ceramics from Iberia and the Far East, probably came from Pitcher's yard. [source]

    Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence

    Summary 1The Amur or Siberian tiger Panthera tigris altaica forms a relatively small and disjunct population of less than 600 individuals in the Russian Far East. Because tigers in this region require large territories to acquire sufficient prey, current strictly protected areas, comprising 3·4% (10 300 km2) of the region, are unlikely to prevent extirpation of the subspecies in the face of expanding forestry and external demand for tiger parts. 2We used resource selection function models and spatially explicit population models to analyse the distribution and predict the demographic structure of the population to identify policy options that may enhance population viability. 3A resource selection function model developed from track distribution data predicted that tigers were most likely to occur in lower altitude valley bottoms with Korean pine forest and low human impacts. 4The results from the spatially explicit population model suggested that current tiger distribution is highly dependent on de facto refugia with low human impacts but without statutory protection, and that small increases in mortality in these areas will result in range fragmentation. Although an expanded reserve network only marginally increases tiger viability under current conditions, it dramatically enhances distribution under potential future scenarios, preventing regional extirpation despite a more hostile landscape matrix. 5The portion of tiger range most resistant to extirpation connects a large coastal reserve in the central portion of the region with largely unprotected watersheds to the north. A southern block of habitat is also important but more severely threatened with anthropogenic disturbances. The results suggest that preserving source habitat in these two zones and ensuring linkages are retained between blocks of habitat in the north and south will be critical to the survival of the tiger population. 6Synthesis and applications. Conservation priorities identified in this analysis differ from those suggested by a conservation paradigm focusing only on sustaining and connecting existing protected areas that has been applied to tiger conservation in more developed landscapes with higher prey densities. An alternative paradigm that assesses population viability in a whole-landscape context and develops priorities for both protected area expansion and increasing survival rates in the landscape matrix may be more appropriate in areas where tigers and other large carnivores coexist with low-density human populations. Although landscape connectivity merits increased emphasis in conservation planning, identification of landscape linkages should be tied to broad-scale recommendations resulting from spatial viability analyses in order to prevent misdirection of resources towards protecting corridors that add little to population persistence. [source]

    Characterization of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from a drinking water reservoir

    E.P. Ivanova
    E.P. IVANOVA, N.V. ZHUKOVA, N.M. GORSHKOVA AND E.L. CHAIKINA. 2001. Aims: To study the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic (i.e. phospholipid and cellular fatty acid composition) characteristics of environmental Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp. isolated from a drinking water reservoir near Vladivostok City, and the application of some chemotaxonomic markers for discrimination of the two genera and species. Methods and Results: Presumptive Aeromonas species were dominant in surface water samples (up to 25% of the total number of bacteria recovered). These strains were consistent with respect to the cultural and biochemical properties used to define the species Aeromonas sobria (seven strains) and Aer. popoffii (three strains). Vibrio mimicus (two strains) and Vibrio metschnikovii (one strain) were identified according to phenotypic features and cellular fatty acid composition. Conclusions: Environmental Aer. sobria isolates were atypical in their ability to grow at 42°C, and were haemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic. Although it was present in a high proportion in the water samples, atypical Aer. sobria is not an indicator of polluted water. Significance and Impact of the Study: The incidence of Aeromonas in the drinking water reservoirs in the Far East of Russia is reported for the first time. [source]

    Radiation of Atlantic goldcrests Regulus regulus spp.: evidence of a new taxon from the Canary Islands

    Martin Päckert
    Phylogenetic relationships between goldcrest populations from the Atlantic Islands (Azores and Canary Islands) were investigated by two molecular markers (mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b sequences), and partly by morphology and territorial song. The Azorean goldcrest populations are closely related to European nominate R. r. regulus. Most probably, the Azores were colonized by goldcrests in a single late-pleistocene invasion, while colonization of the Canary Islands presumably occurred in two steps: An early invasion to Tenerife and La Gomera 1.9,2.3 million years (my) ago and a more recent one to El Hierro and La Palma 1.3,1.8 my ago. Distribution of haplotypes on the Azores suggests a division of R. r. azoricus on São Miguel into an eastern population with close affinities to R. r. sanctaemariae and a western population belonging to the lineage of R. r. inermis on the central and western island group. The Canarian populations are genetically substructured into a northeastern group embracing Tenerife and La Gomera and a second, southwestern group including El Hierro and La Palma. Genetic distances between members of the two Canarian clades range at 3.1,3.4% (TrN distance, control region and cytochrome b). Differentiation between the two groups is also supported by morphology and by territorial song. Substitution rate estimates for the both genes range at approximately the same values of 0.0031 and 0.0044 substitutions per site and lineage per my which roughly corresponds 0.61,0.83% divergence between Regulus lineages per my. Highest local rates occur in island clades of the Azorean and the Canarian population and in R. r. japonensis from the Russian Far East and Japan. However, a general acceleration of a molecular clock in island populations is not evident from the Regulus data set due to extremely low local rate estimates in the Canarian clade of Tenerife and La Gomera. As a taxonomic consequence of the marked differentiation of the two Canarian goldcrest clades the populations from El Hierro and La Palma are described as a taxon new to science and are named Regulus regulus ellenthalerae n. ssp. [source]

    Patterns of density, diversity, and the distribution of migratory strategies in the Russian boreal forest avifauna

    Russell Greenberg
    Abstract Aim, Comparisons of the biotas in the Palaearctic and Nearctic have focused on limited portions of the two regions. The purpose of this study was to assess the geographic pattern in the abundance, species richness, and importance of different migration patterns of the boreal forest avifauna of Eurasia from Europe to East Asia as well as their relationship to climate and forest productivity. We further examine data from two widely separated sites in the New World to see how these conform to the patterns found in the Eurasian system. Location, Boreal forest sites in Russia and Canada. Methods, Point counts were conducted in two to four boreal forest habitats at each of 14 sites in the Russian boreal forest from near to the Finnish border to the Far East, as well as at two sites in boreal Canada. We examined the abundance and species richness of all birds, and specific migratory classes, against four gradients (climate, primary productivity, latitude, and longitude). We tested for spatial autocorrelation in both dependent and independent variables using Moran's I to develop spatial correlograms. For each migratory class we used maximum likelihood to fit models, first assuming uncorrelated residuals and then assuming spatially autocorrelated residuals. For models assuming unstructured residuals we again generated correlograms on model residuals to determine whether model fitting removed spatial autocorrelation. Models were compared using Akaike's information criterion, adjusted for small sample size. Results, Overall abundance was highest at the eastern and western extremes of the survey region and lowest at the continent centre, whereas the abundance of tropical and short-distance migrants displayed an east,west gradient, with tropical migrants increasing in abundance in the east (and south), and short-distance migrants in the west. Although overall species richness showed no geographic pattern, richness within migratory classes showed patterns weaker than, but similar to, their abundance patterns described above. Overall abundance was correlated with climate variables that relate to continentality. The abundances of birds within different migration strategies were correlated with a second climatic gradient , increasing precipitation from west to east. Models using descriptors of location generally had greater explanatory value for the abundance and species-richness response variables than did those based on climate data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Main conclusions, The distribution patterns for migrant types were related to both climatic and locational variables, and thus the patterns could be explained by either climatic regime or the accessibility of winter habitats, both historically and currently. Non-boreal wintering habitat is more accessible from both the western and eastern ends than from the centre of the boreal forest belt, but the tropics are most accessible from the eastern end of the Palaearctic boreal zone, in terms of distance and the absence of geographical barriers. Based on comparisons with Canadian sites, we recommend that future comparative studies between Palaearctic and Nearctic faunas be focused more on Siberia and the Russian Far East, as well as on central and western Canada. [source]

    Performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus on coniferous species in Europe

    Natalia I. Kirichenko
    Abstract 1,The native range of the Siberian moth extends from the Pacific Ocean (Russian Far East, Japan and Northern Korea) across Siberia, Northern China and Mongolia to the Ural Mountains. At the beginning of the 21st Century, this species was documented west of the Ural Mountains in the Republic of Mari El, indicating range extension toward the west. 2,The Siberian moth has recently been suggested for regulation as a quarantine pest for European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization member countries. However, no specific report on European host plants for this pest has been published so far. 3,In the present study, larval host plant choice and performance was tested for the first time on coniferous tree species that are widely distributed and of commercial value in Europe. 4,Based on dual-choice tests on neonates and mortality, developmental duration and relative growth rates of the first- to sixth-instar larvae, we found European larch Larix decidua to be the most suitable host for the moth larvae, whereas European black pine Pinus nigra and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris were the poorest hosts. The remaining conifer species tested, European silver fir Abies alba, Nordmann fir Abies nordmanniana, and Norway spruce Picea abies, were intermediate host plants. Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii, originating from North America, was chosen by the larvae to the same extend as European larch, and was also highly suitable for larval development. 5,If the moth is introduced to European countries, it will become damaging in stands of European larch and Douglas-fir, mixed stands of fir and spruce; however, it will be less damaging in forests dominated by two-needle pines. 6,We predict that Dendrolimus superans sibiricus will be able to survive and develop on the main European coniferous tree species, including non-native coniferous tree species, resulting in severe damage to large areas of forests. [source]

    Availability and Characteristics of Nonbeverage Alcohols Sold in 17 Russian Cities in 2007

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Artyom Gil
    Background:, It is known that a range of nonbeverage alcohols including eau-de-colognes and medicinal tinctures are consumed by sections of the Russian population. Research conducted in a city in the Urals (2003 to 2005) showed that consumption of such products is associated with very high mortality from a wide range of causes. However, there have been no systematic attempts to investigate the extent to which such products are available in other cities of the Russian Federation. There is particular interest in establishing this following the introduction of new federal regulations in January 2006 aimed at restricting the availability of these products. Methods:, In the first half of 2007, we conducted a survey in 17 cities that spanned the full range of city types in the Russian Federation excluding those in the Far East. In each city, fieldworkers visited pharmacies and other types of retail outlets and purchased samples of nonbeverage alcohols. These were defined as being typically 10 to 15 roubles per bottle, with an ethanol concentration of at least 60% by volume. Results:, We were able to purchase samples of nonbeverage alcohols in each of the 17 cities we investigated. The majority of the 271 products included were a cheaper and more affordable source of ethanol than standard Russian vodka. Medicinal tinctures, sold almost exclusively in pharmacies, were particularly common with an average concentration of 78% ethanol by volume. Most importantly, the majority of the products were of a sort that our previous research in 2004 to 2005 had established were drunk by working-age men. Conclusions:, While the 2006 federal regulations introduced in part to reduce the availability and consumption of nonbeverage alcohols may have had some effect on certain classes of nonmedicinal products, up until June 2007 at least, medicinal tinctures as well as some other nonbeverage alcohols that are consumed appear to have been readily available. [source]

    Prevalence, knowledge and care patterns for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in United States minority populations

    E. Yuen
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 645,654 Summary Background, While there is evidence of ethnic variation in the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, few population-based studies examine GERD symptom prevalence amongst the growing Hispanic minority in the US as well as Asians in the West. Aim, To examine the prevalence, awareness and care patterns for GERD across different ethnic groups. Methods, A population-based, cross-sectional survey was fielded in English, Chinese and Spanish that assessed self-reported GERD prevalence, awareness and care patterns in four ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, Asian, Hispanic). Results, A total of 1172 subjects were included for analysis: 34.6% experienced GERD symptoms at least monthly, 26.2% at least weekly and 8.2% at least daily. Statistically significant differences in raw prevalence rates between racial groups were found: 50% of Hispanics experienced heartburn at least monthly, compared with 37% of Caucasians, 31% of African Americans and 20% of Asians (P > 0.0001). Significant differences in knowledge and care-seeking patterns by ethnicity were also observed. Conclusions, This study confirms the high prevalence of GERD symptoms in the US and introduces Hispanics as the ethnicity with the highest prevalence rate. Asians in the US have higher rates of symptoms than in the Far East. These data demonstrate a need for culturally appropriate education about GERD symptoms and treatment. [source]

    Implementation of problem-based learning in Asia: similarities between Far East and Middle East medical schools

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2004
    Alexandre Yazigi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the red snow crab (Chionoecetes japonicus)

    N. AZUMA
    Abstract A total of 12 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were isolated from the red snow crab, Chionoecetes japonicus (Brachyura: Majidae), one of important fisheries resources in the Far East. The number of alleles observed at each locus ranged from two to 19, with the observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.125,0.875 and 0.156,0.949, respectively, suggesting these loci to be a useful molecular marker for population analysis in this species. Of the 12 loci, seven also were available for genotyping of the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, implying these loci as a useful molecular marker in the genus Chionoecetes. [source]

    Antler on the Sea: The Yup'ik and Chukchi of the Russian Far East

    Patty A. Gray
    Antler on the Sea: The Yup'ik and Chukchi of the Russian Far East. Anna M. Kerttula. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000. ix + 180 pp., notes, glossary, references, index. [source]

    Despite the Northern Territories: Hokkaido's Courting of the Russian Far East

    PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2003
    Tsuneo Akaha
    Recent studies of Japan's postwar policy toward Russia have persuasively argued that the intrinsic (symbolic and psychological) value rather than the instrumental (economic or strategic) value that the Northern Territories (Southern Kuriles) represents to Japan is the most important obstacle to the normalization of relations between the two countries. Theoretically, there are three ways in which the intrinsic value of the disputed islands might be substantially depreciated and the instrumental value of closer bilateral ties appreciated: (1) major concessions from Russia, which are highly unlikely, (2) the emergence of a security or strategic of common concern to Tokyo and Moscow prompting the two sides to offer mutual concessions on the territorial issue or indefinitely postpone its resolution, and (3) a substantial expansion of economic, cultural, and social ties between the Japanese and the Russians, dramatically improving Japanese attitudes toward Russia. This study explores the third possibility, with a particular focus on developments at the subnational level, the level that has been largely ignored by students of Russian-Japanese relations. Namely, the study examines relations between Hokkaido and the Russian Far East since the 1960s and asks: Do the same logic and dynamic that operate at the national level apply at the regional level? Does the intrinsic importance of the territorial dispute prevail over considerations of economic and other tangible values at the subnational level as it does at the national level? The paper concludes that while Hokkaido has not deviated from the Japanese government,s official position on the territorial issue,that all the islands belong to Japan, the dispute has not prevented the provincial administration, municipal governments, or nongovernmental organizations in Hokkaido from launching and sustaining initiatives to cement closer ties with their northern neighbors, with growing economic and human ties playing important roles in the process. [source]

    Northeast Asia's Forgotten Worry: Russia's Far East

    PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2001
    Tom Wuchte
    First page of article [source]

    South Africa's export trade in asbestos: Demise of an industry

    John S. Harington DSc
    Abstract Background South Africa's export of each of its three types of asbestos, crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile, and the total amounts to 84 countries in metric tonnes is examined over a 24-year period, 1980,2003. Methods For convenience, the countries are divided into nine world regional groups, Europe, Eastern Europe, North America with the Caribbean, South America, Africa, Middle East, Far East, South Asia, and Oceania. Results The three greatest importing countries of total asbestos in metric tonnes were all in the Far East region, ranging from Japan, South Korea to Thailand, and followed by USA and Italy. All exports to all countries diminished steadily as the South African trade came virtually to an end by 2003, due to ever increasing international pressure. Conclusion The export trade has changed significantly since 1960 from being dominantly to European countries to being directed in recent years to the Far East, with serious implications for asbestos-related ill-health in those countries. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:524,534, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The ,greening' of global project financing: the case of the Sakhalin-II offshore oil and gas project

    This article responds to a plea for economic geographers to play greater attention to the world's resource peripheries. The article presents a detailed case study of oil and gas development offshore of Sakhalin in the Russian Far East. The study serves to illustrate the complexity of resource peripheries and to demonstrate how a critical approach to resource geographies aids economic geographic theorization of globalization. The case study focuses on how the ,greening' of global project financing has created a means by which environmental non-governmental organizations hold the international oil companies to account. The article describes the transnational advocacy network that has developed to protest against the Sakhalin-II project. The key issues are identified and the response of the operator, Sakhalin Energy, is considered. Finally, the recent actions of the Russian Government in relation to the environmental impacts of the Sakhalin-II project are examined. The article concludes by assessing the ways in which the Sakhalin case demonstrates the complex processes that construct resource peripheries and how such analyses contribute to the development of a truly global economic geography. Le ,verdissement' du financement de projets à l'échelle mondiale: Le cas du projet pétrolier et gazier en mer Sakhaline-2 Cet article plaide pour l'engagement des géographes économiques dans l'étude des régions ressources périphériques. L'article présente une étude de cas détaillée de l'exploitation des réserves de pétrole et de gaz au large de l'île russe de Sakhaline à l'extrémité Est de la Russie. L'étude a pour but d'illustrer la complexité des régions ressources périphériques et de démontrer comment une démarche critique dans le champ de la géographie des ressources contribue à la théorisation de la mondialisation en géographie économique. L'étude de cas porte sur la façon dont le , verdissement , du financement de projets à l'échelle mondiale a permis aux organismes environnementaux non gouvernementaux de demander des comptes aux sociétés pétrolières internationales. L'article présente un portrait du réseau transnational de défense mis sur pied dans le but de protester contre le projet énergétique Sakhaline-2. Les principaux enjeux sont abordés ainsi que la réponse apportée par l'opérateur du projet Sakhalin Energy. On termine par un examen des actions récentes menées par le gouvernement russe dans le dossier des impacts environnementaux du projet Sakhaline-2. Un bilan du cas de Sakhaline, présenté en conclusion, démontre les processus complexes par lesquels les régions ressources périphériques sont créées et comment de telles analyses sont une contribution au développement d'une géographie économique rayonnante à l'échelle mondiale. [source]

    Variability of the Northern Hemisphere polar stratospheric cloud potential: the role of North Pacific disturbances

    Yvan J. Orsolini
    Abstract The potential of the Arctic stratosphere to sustain the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) is a key factor in determining the amount of ozone destroyed each winter, and is often measured as a ,PSC volume'. The latter quantity has been shown to closely follow a near-linear compact relationship with winter-averaged column ozone loss, and displays a high variability from monthly to decadal time-scales. We examine the connection between meteorological conditions in the troposphere and the variability of lower polar stratospheric temperatures over the last four decades, and specifically, conditions leading to a high PSC volume. In addition to the well-established connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the polar vortex, we demonstrate the large influence of precursory disturbances over the North Pacific and the Far East, the region of maximum climatological upward wave activity flux. Namely, very high monthly PSC volume (in the top 12%) predominantly follows the development of positive tropospheric height anomalies over the Far East, which lead to a weakening of the background planetary wave trough, and lessened upward wave activity flux into the stratosphere. Precursory anomalies over the Far East are reminiscent of East Asian monsoon amplification episodes. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Evolution and dynamics of summertime blocking over the Far East and the associated surface Okhotsk high

    Hisashi Nakamura
    Abstract Time evolution and dynamics of an upper-level blocking ridge over the Far East and the associated surface high over the Sea of Okhotsk that give rise to abnormal summertime coolness over eastern Japan are investigated through a composite analysis applied to distinct surface high events. The formation mechanism and vertical structure of the blocking differ fundamentally between May and July, attributable to seasonal changes in the jet structure, storm-track activity over the Far East and the land,sea thermal contrast within the Okhotsk region. In May, forcing from migratory eddies is strong enough for precursory anticyclonic anomalies retrograding slowly over the North Pacific to develop into a blocking ridge. The ridge remains equivalent barotropic under the weak land,sea thermal contrast in the Okhotsk region. In contrast, the eddy forcing is no longer the primary factor for the blocking formation in July, in the presence of the weakened and split westerlies. Rather, the propagation of a stationary Rossby wave packet that has emanated from precursory anticyclonic anomalies over northern Europe stagnates over the Far East, and the subsequent local breaking of the packet leads to the blocking formation. In a particular case in July 1993, a wave packet involved in blocking formation could be traced back as far upstream as the east coast of North America over the two previous weeks. Acting on the strong thermal contrast in July between the cool sea surface and a warm land mass to the west, the anomalous surface easterlies induced by the blocking ridge can build up a cold surface anticyclone through cold advection, rendering the blocking anomalies distinctly baroclinic. Copyright © 2004 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Comparative phylogeography of four Apodemus species (Mammalia: Rodentia) in the Asian Far East: evidence of Quaternary climatic changes in their genetic structure

    The phylogeography of four Apodemus species (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus peninsulae, Apodemus latronum, and Apodemus draco) was studied in the Far East of Asia, based on sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. The results obtained show the existence of many different genetic lineages within the studied Apodemus species, suggesting the isolation and differentiation of populations in multiple refuge areas. Higher genetic diversities in some regions such as Yunnan, Sichuan (China), and eastern Russia suggest these areas are potential refuges for these species. The existence of such complex genetic structures could be linked to the presence of many biogeographic barriers (Himalaya Mountains, Tien-shan Mountains, Altai Mountains, Tibetan Plateau, Gobi desert, Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, Dzungaria basin, and others) in these regions, which were probably reinforced during the Quaternary climate changes. These barriers also played an important role concerning the low dispersal abilities of the two studied Apodemus species adapted to forest habitats (A. latronum and A. draco) with respect to colonizing regions other than China. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 797,821. [source]

    Systematics and biogeography of Klasea (Asteraceae,Cardueae) and a synopsis of the genus

    Klasea, traditionally treated as a section in Serratula, is now widely accepted at the generic level. A classification of the genus is presented here, accommodating the 46 species in ten sections based on nuclear ribosomal DNA external and internal transcribed spacer sequence data and morphology. New combinations for five species and ten subspecies are published, and a new hybrid species is described. The genus ranges from the Iberian Peninsula and north Africa through southern and eastern Europe, west and central Asia to the Himalayas, and the Far East of Russia and China. The ancestral area is in west Asia, most probably eastern Anatolia and northern and western Iran. In this region, representatives of all sections are present. The largest section Klasea diversified most likely in the mountains of central Asia. A key to all Klasea species is provided. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 435,464. [source]

    Manifestation of Coats' disease by age in Taiwan

    Chien-Hsiung Lai MD
    Abstract Background:, To compare the differences in clinical manifestation of Coats' disease between younger and older patients in the Far East. Methods:, Coats' disease cases diagnosed at one Taiwanese hospital from July 1986 to June 2004 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 30; 32 eyes). Patients were stratified into groups according to the initial diagnosis of Coats' disease at the age of <20 years (Group Y) or ,20 years (Group O). The clinical manifestations of Coats' disease in Group Y (19 eyes) and Group O (13 eyes) were compared. Results:, A higher proportion of female patients was noted in Group O (P = 0.046). Diseases were generally limited geographically, with 14 eyes (73.7%) manifesting involvement greater than 6 clock hours in Group Y and four eyes (30.8%) in Group O. The involved area including retinal telangiectasia and exudates was smaller in Group O (P = 0.016). Patients without posterior pole involvement were associated with better visual outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1,40.1, P = 0.044). Conclusion:, Coats' disease manifestation was different between different age groups. Treatment is important to prevent disease progression. Visual prognosis is associated with posterior pole involvement. [source]

    One-dimensional thermal modelling of Acadian metamorphism in southern Vermont, USA

    T. R. Armstrong
    One-dimensional thermal (1DT) modelling of an Acadian (Devonian) tectonothermal regime in southern Vermont, USA, used measured metamorphic pressures and temperatures and estimated metamorphic cooling ages based on published thermobarometric and geochronological studies to constrain thermal and tectonic input parameters. The area modelled lies within the Vermont Sequence of the Acadian orogen and includes: (i) a western domain containing garnet-grade pre-Silurian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from the eastern flank of an Acadian composite dome structure (Rayponda,Sadawga Dome); and (ii) an eastern domain containing similar, but staurolite- or kyanite-grade, rocks from the western flank of a second dome structure (Athens Dome), approximately 10 km farther east. Using reasonable input parameters based on regional geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, the thermal modelling produced plausible P,T paths, and temperature,time (T ,t) and pressure,time (P,t) curves. Information extracted from P,T ,t modelling includes values of maximum temperature and pressure on the P,T paths, pressure at maximum temperature, predicted Ar closure ages for hornblende, muscovite and K-feldspar, and integrated exhumation and cooling rates for segments of the cooling history. The results from thermal modelling are consistent with independently obtained pressure, temperature and Ar cooling age data on regional metamorphism in southern Vermont. Modelling results provide some important bounding limits on the physical conditions during regional metamorphism, and indicate that the pressure contemporaneous with the attainment of peak temperature was probably as much as 2.5 kbar lower than the actual maximum pressure experienced by rocks along various particle paths. In addition, differences in peak metamorphic grade (garnet-grade versus staurolite-grade or kyanite-grade) and peak temperature for rocks initially loaded to similar crustal depths, differences in calculated exhumation rates, and differences in 40Ar/39Ar closure ages are likely to have been consequences of variations in the duration of isobaric heating (or ,crustal residence periods') and tectonic unroofing rates. Modelling results are consistent with a regional structural model that suggests west to east younging of specific Acadian deformational events, and therefore diachroneity of attainment of peak metamorphic conditions and subsequent 40Ar/39Ar closure during cooling. Modelling is consistent with the proposition that regional variations in timing and peak conditions of metamorphism are the result of the variable depths to which rocks were loaded by an eastward-thickening thrust-nappe pile rooted to the east (New Hampshire Sequence), as well as by diachronous structural processes within the lower plate rocks of the Vermont Sequence. [source]

    Cenozoic uplift of southwest England,

    Rob Westaway
    Abstract The uplift history of southwest England is inferred using a composite dataset including marine and fluvial terraces and karstic data. The estimated post-Mid-Pliocene uplift increases eastward from ,130,m in west Cornwall and ,135,m in south Devon to ,150,m in the Hampshire Basin. The post-Early-Pleistocene uplift likewise increases eastward, from ,55,m in west Cornwall to ,60,m in south Devon and ,80,m in Hampshire. Landscape and thermochronological evidence also indicates Eocene uplift, caused by the British Tertiary Igneous Province magmatism; this component tapers eastward from ,300,m in west Cornwall to ,50,m in south Devon, with subsidence in east Devon. This uplift accompanied magmatic underplating; the mafic layer added to the basal crust thins eastward from ,6,km in west Cornwall to ,2,km in south Devon, evidently tapering to zero farther east. The laterally variable crustal properties caused by this variation in underplating have affected the post-Mid-Pliocene uplift; the study region is thus intermediate, in terms of crustal strength and landscape evolution, between central-southern England, with no underplating, and Ireland, where ,10,km thick underplating has resulted in extreme Late Cenozoic landscape stability. The Eocene mantle-plume-related uplift is distinct from the post-Mid-Pliocene phase which, the modelling indicates, has been driven by surface processes and, thus, by climate change. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tree Community Change across 700 km of Lowland Amazonian Forest from the Andean Foothills to Brazil

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2008
    Nigel C. A. Pitman
    ABSTRACT We describe patterns of tree community change along a 700-km transect through terra firme forests of western Amazonia, running from the base of the Andes in Ecuador to the Peru,Brazil border. Our primary question is whether floristic variation at large scales arises from many gradual changes or a few abrupt ones. Data from 54 1-ha tree plots along the transect support the latter model, showing two sharp discontinuities in community structure at the genus level. One is located near the Ecuador,Peru border, where the suite of species that dominates large areas of Ecuadorean forest declines abruptly in importance to the east. This discontinuity is underlain by a subterranean paleoarch and congruent with a change in soil texture. A second discontinuity is associated with the shift from clay to white sand soils near Iquitos. We hypothesize that the first discontinuity is part of an edaphic boundary that runs along the Andean piedmont and causes a transition from tree communities preferring richer, younger soils near the base of the Andes to those preferring poorer, older soils farther east. Because the floristic changes observed at this discontinuity are conserved for large distances to the east and west of it, the discontinuity is potentially key for understanding floristic variation in western Amazonia. The significant floristic turnover at the Ecuador,Peru border suggests that the only large protected area in the region,Ecuador's Yasuní National Park,is not adequate protection for the very diverse tree communities that cover vast areas of northern Peru. RESUMEN Describimos cambios en la comunidad de árboles a lo largo de un transecto de 700 km que atraviesa los bosques de tierra firme de la Amazonía occidental, desde la base de los Andes en Ecuador hasta la frontera Perú-Brasil. Nuestra pregunta principal es si la variación florística a grandes escalas es generada a base de muchos cambios graduales o en unos pocos cambios abruptos. Datos de 54 parcelas de árboles de 1 ha a lo largo del transecto apoyan el segundo modelo, mostrando dos discontinuidades bien definidas en la estructura de la comunidad a nivel de género. Una discontinuidad está localizada cerca de la frontera Ecuador-Perú, donde el grupo de especies que domina grandes áreas de la Amazonía ecuatoriana declina abruptamente en importancia hacia el este. Esta discontinuidad está asociada con un paleoarco subterráneo y es congruente con cambios en la textura del suelo. Una segunda discontinuidad está asociada con un cambio de suelos arcillosos a suelos de arena blanca cerca de Iquitos. Sugerimos que la primera discontinuidad es parte de un limite edáfico que corre a lo largo del piedemonte andino y causa una transición de comunidades de árboles que prefieren suelos más fértiles y jóvenes cerca de los Andes, a aquellos que prefieren suelos más pobres y antiguos hacia el este. Ya que los cambios florísticos observados en esta discontinuidad se conservan por grandes distancias hacia el este y oeste, la discontinuidad es potencialmente clave para entender la variación florística en la Amazonía occidental. El importante recambio florístico en la frontera Ecuador-Perú sugiere que la única gran área protegida en la región,el Parque Nacional Yasuní en Ecuador,no presta protección adecuada a las muy diversas comunidades de árboles en el norte del Perú. [source]