HIV/AIDS Care (aid + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A study of dietary advice and care provided to HIV positive patients referred for lipid lowering: as part of a service improvement initiative

N.A. Billing
Background:, Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality in HIV-infected patients. As life expectancy of HIV infected patients has increased, concerns about the long-term effects of treatment grow (Sax, 2006). HIV positive patients have a greater risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ART has been associated with a 26% increase in the rate of MI per year of exposure (DAD Study Group, 2003). The aim of this study was to evaluate provision of dietetic care to patients referred for lipid lowering advice and identify potential areas for service improvement. Methods:, Departmental activity statistics identified 117 new clients referred for lipid lowering advice in the previous 11 months. The biochemical data and dietetic record cards were screened, of the initial sample 30 were excluded as they did not have follow up biochemistry after their dietetic consultation and a further seven were excluded as they were seen primarily for other conditions. The remaining cards (n = 80) had their dietetic record cards audited to check dietary topics discussed, risk factors identified length before follow up and clinical outcomes. Results:, There were 68 men and 12 women in this sample with a mean age of 46 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.4 kg m,2 (3.7 kg m,2). Of the clients referred, only 48.8% of the sample had high density lipoprotein (HDL): cholesterol ratios taken to calculate cardiovascular risk and most patients were seen an average of 30.7 days (35.3 days) after high was identified. Following their dietetic consultation, 77% of clients had a reduction in their cholesterol levels and 61% had a reduction in triglyceride levels. This sample's average percentage change in cholesterol was ,10% (16%) and triglyceride was ,6% (32%). The most popular dietary advice was reducing saturated fat intake (90%), increasing fibre intake (76%), benefits of plant stanols (40%), importance of regular meals (29%), exercise (26%) and benefits of omega three (11%). Additional risk factors identified 11% of clients seen were smokers, however most records (66%) did not have documentation on whether smoking behaviour was discussed. Only 20% of clients had a follow up appointments and not all were seen within 3 months with average time between follow up being 14.9 weeks (13.2 weeks). Discussion:, Improvement in biochemical results were comparable to a study by Henry et al., (1998) which showed that in HIV infected clients receiving ART, diet modification and increased exercise were successful in reducing cholesterol levels by 11% and triglyceride levels by 21%. The level of smoking was considerably lower than other studies (DAD Study Group, 2003) which reported 56% of HIV positive clients to be smokers. A large number of clients were lost to follow up and were not seen within 3 months. Lazzaretti et al., (2007) showed in a randomized trial that seeing patients at regular 3 month intervals for dietary intervention prevented an increase in lipid blood levels in individuals who start ART. Conclusions:, Not all clients are having their cardiovascular risk calculated before referral for dietary advice. Clients are not being seen at regular intervals by dietitians, some are lost to follow up and smoking status is not regularly documented during dietetic consultation. References, Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. (2003) Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med.349, 1993,2003. Friis-Moller, N., Weber, R., Reiss, P., Thiebaut, R., Kirk, O., d'Arminio, M.A. et al. (2003) Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients' association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS17, 1179,1193. Henry, K., Melroe, H., Huebesch, J., Hermundson, J. & Simpson, J. (1998) Atorvastatin and gemfibrozil for protease inhibitor-related lipid abnormalities. Lancet352, 1031,1032. Sax, P.E. (2006)Strategies for management and treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 18, 149,157. Lazzaretti, R., Pinto-Ribeiro, J., Kummer, R., Polanczyk, C. & Sprinz, E. (2007) Dietary intervention when starting HAART prevents the increase in lipids independently of drug regimen: a randomized trial. Oral abstract session: 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: Abstract no.WEAB303. [source]

AIDS care in Nigeria: Are nurses comfortable performing procedures?

Adetoyeje Y Oyeyemi PT DHSc GCS
Nurses' feeling of comfort during care is important to stay on the job and for their choice of specialty of care. This study aimed to assess nurses' level of comfort in providing care to patients living with AIDS and to determine the sociodemographic variables that influence nurses' comfort. Nurses in four hospitals in Nigeria (n = 277) were surveyed using a questionnaire that elicited information on their demographic characteristics, previous AIDS encounter, and their comfort taking vital signs, casually handling, administering enema and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, and in recommending exercise and physical therapy to patients living with AIDS. Nigerian nurses were uncomfortable with resuscitation and also showed discomfort not wearing gloves while handling these patients. Being single and male gender influenced nurses' comfort with vital signs and enema administration. Special orientation to include analysis of common tasks and procedures for new nurses assigned to AIDS units is suggested. [source]

Acceptance and disclosure of HIV status through an integrated community/home-based care program in South Africa


Aim:, To report the outcome of a comparative study among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) served by an integrated community/home-based care (ICHC) programme and those who are not in any home-based care programme in terms of acceptance and disclosure of the HIV status. Background:, One of the major challenges in HIV/AIDS care in developing countries is acceptance and disclosure of a positive HIV status by PLWHAs. Denial and non-disclosure of HIV status hinders prevention efforts as well as access to treatment, care and support for PLWHAs. Methods:, Quantitative data were collected in 2004 from a group of PLWHAs served by the ICHC programme and a group that was not receiving any community/home-based care. Data were compared between the two groups in terms of acceptance and disclosure of HIV status. Findings:, The ICHC was effective in improving acceptance and disclosure of the HIV-positive status by PLWHAs in the programme. PLWHAs in the ICHC programme did not find disclosure of their status difficult, and had disclosed their positive HIV status to more people than those who are not in any programme. PLWHAs in the ICHC programme not only disclosed their positive HIV status within their family network and households, but also disclosed to the community in general, sports group, religious groups and other social networks. Conclusions:, Community/home-based care programmes can serve as catalysts for acceptance and disclosure of a positive HIV status by PLWHAs. [source]

Women and HIV/AIDS: Act Local/Think Global

Deborah Boehm BSN
The numbers of those affected by the HIV virus worldwide are staggering. Emerging research demonstrates a number of lower cost medical approaches that would significantly reduce the rates of transmission of the virus. Nursing plays a critical role in quality-of-life issues at time of diagnosis. Supportive caregiving by compassionate use of vocabulary and knowledgeable resourcing for patients is part of nursing practice in HIV/AIDS care. [source]

Evaluation of a community-based mental health drug and alcohol nurse in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS

J. ALLEN rn ba (hons) m psych (counselling psychology)
There is a growing need for advanced practice mental health and drug and alcohol nursing roles in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, limited publications address these domains. This study evaluated a community-based mental health drug and alcohol nurse role caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (Mental Health D&A Nurse) in a large not-for-profit district nursing organization providing care to people living with HIV/AIDS in an Australian city. Outcomes from a client assessment and 6,8-week follow-up by the Mental Health D&A Nurse are presented as captured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS) and WHOQoL BREF. Mean scores and caseness were analysed, and significant differences were found on the ,impairment' and ,social problems' subscales of the HONOS. Results of semi-structured interviews with clients describe effective and supportive mental health care and health-promoting education following visits by the Mental Health D&A Nurse. These positive findings support continuing implementation of the role within this community setting and indicate that even greater benefits will ensue as the role develops further. Findings are of interest to clinicians and policy makers seeking to implement similar roles in community-based HIV/AIDS care. [source]