Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Faults

  • active fault
  • actuator fault
  • alpine fault
  • basement fault
  • bounding fault
  • chelungpu fault
  • earthquake fault
  • extensional fault
  • major fault
  • master fault
  • normal fault
  • quaternary fault
  • reverse fault
  • sensor fault
  • slip fault
  • stacking fault
  • strike-slip fault
  • thrust fault
  • transform fault
  • trending fault

  • Terms modified by Faults

  • fault activity
  • fault belt
  • fault block
  • fault current
  • fault detection
  • fault diagnosis
  • fault displacement
  • fault estimation
  • fault growth
  • fault isolation
  • fault length
  • fault line
  • fault model
  • fault plane
  • fault reconstruction
  • fault rock
  • fault segment
  • fault slip
  • fault system
  • fault tolerance
  • fault tree analysis
  • fault type
  • fault zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    Martin Stanton
    First page of article [source]


    D.A. Karlsen
    This paper considers the principles of deciphering basin-scale hydrocarbon migration patterns using the geochemical information which is present in trapped petroleum. Petroleum accumulations in subsiding basins can be thought of as "data archives" within which stored information can help us to understand aspects of hydrocarbon formation and migration. This information can impart a time-resolved picture of hydrocarbon migration in a basin in response to processes associated with progressive burial, particularly in the context of the occurrence and periodic activity of faults. This review, which includes a series of tentative models of migration-related processes in the extensional Halten Terrace area, offshore mid-Norway, illustrates how we can use information from the migrating mobile hydrocarbon phase to improve our knowledge of the static geological system. Of particular importance is the role of sub-seismic heterogeneities and faults in controlling migration processes. We focus on how the secondary migration process can be enhanced in a multi-source rock basin such as the Halten Terrace, thereby increasing prospectivity. [source]

    Interactive editing of digital fault models

    Jordan Van Aalsburg
    Abstract We describe an application to interactively create and manipulate digital fault maps, either by tracing existing (paper) fault maps created from geological surveys, or by directly observing fault expressions and earthquake hypocenters in remote sensing data such as high-resolution (,100k × 100k elevation postings) digital elevation models with draped color imagery. Such fault maps serve as input data to finite-element-method simulations of fault interactions, and are crucial to understand regional tectonic processes causing earthquakes, and have tentatively been used to forecast future seismic events or to predict the shaking from likely future earthquakes. This fault editor is designed for immersive virtual reality environments such as CAVEs, and presents users with visualizations of scanned 2D fault maps and textured 3D terrain models, and a set of 3D editing tools to create or manipulate faults. We close with a case study performed by one of our geologist co-authors (Yikilmaz), which evaluates the use of our fault editor in creating a detailed digital fault model of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, one of the largest, seismically active strike-slip faults in the world. Yikilmaz, who was directly involved in program development, used our fault editor both in a CAVE and on a desktop computer, and compares it to the industry-standard software package ArcGIS. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Discontinuity in fish assemblages across an elevation gradient in a southern Appalachian watershed, USA

    J. L. Robinson
    This region is noted for extreme topographical relief, high cumulative annual rainfall and many rare and endemic plants and animals. The study area encompasses a portion of the Blue Ridge Escarpment and the associated Brevard Fault Zone. We hypothesise that major waterfalls and cascade complexes have acted to limit invasion and colonisation by fishes from downstream. This hypothesis is supported by longitudinal fish assemblage patterns in our study streams. Fish species richness in Toxaway River increased from 4 to 23 between Lake Toxaway and Lake Jocassee, a distance of 10 river km. We found similar discontinuities in neighbouring Horsepasture River and Bearwallow Creek. We found no instances of species replacement along this elevation gradient, and the trend in increased diversity downstream showed discontinuities coincident with sharp elevation breaks. With regard to theories posited to explain community formation in headwater stream fish communities (especially in those characterised by high topographical relief), we suggest coloniser ,access' may be more important than other factors including competitive interactions. Resumen 1. En este estudio examinamos patrones en los ensamblajes de peces de los ríos Toxaway y Horsepasture, dos ríos de elevada altitud de Carolina del Norte (USA). Esta región se caracteriza por rupturas topografías extremas, gran cantidad de lluvia anual y numerosos endemismos animales y vegetales. El estudio incluye una porción de la región del Blue Ridge Escarpment y la zona asociada de Brevard Fault. 2. Nuestra hipótesis es que los complejos sistemas de cataratas han limitado la invasión y la colonización de los peces desde las localidades aguas abajo. Los patrones longitudinales de los ensamblajes de peces fueron consistentes con esta hipótesis. La riqueza de las especies de peces en el río Toxaway incrementó desde 4 a 23 especies en una distancia de 10 Km de río, entre los lagos Taxoway y Jocasee. Encontramos discontinuidades similares en los vecinos ríos Horsepasture y Bearwallow. No encontramos ningún caso de re-emplazamiento de especies a lo largo del gradiente de altitud y la tendencia a incrementar la diversidad aguas abajo mostró discontinuidades que coincidieron con rupturas de altitudes. 3. Al considerar teorías que explican la formación de comunidades en zonas altas de ríos (especialmente en regiones caracterizadas por rupturas topografías), sugerimos que el acceso para los colonizadores puede ser más importante que otros factores incluyendo interacciones competitivas. [source]

    Palynological evidence for late Holocene environmental change on the Gimhae fluvial plain, Southern Korean peninsula: Reconstructing the rise and fall of Golden Crown Gaya State

    Sangheon Yi
    This paper presents the results of detailed studies of palynomorphs recovered from two cores collected near the Yeanri burial mound on the Gimhae fluvial plain. Two local pollen zones were recognized on the basis of variations in the palynofloral assemblage: a lower Pollen Zone I, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus assemblage, and an upper Pollen Zone II, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus -Gramineae assemblage. The palynological and molluscan analyses indicate that the depositional environments changed from a lower intertidal flat of a shallow bay environment to an upper intertidal flat in a shallow bay (before 1280 ± 110 14C yr B.P.), and finally to a fluvial plain similar to that of today. This environmental change may have resulted from uplift along the Yangsan Fault. Afterward, the exposed area was modified by human activities, as indicated by a sudden increase in grassland herbaceous pollen grains. The loss of this bay likely had a dramatic effect on the Golden Crown Gaya State (3rd,7th centuries A.D.), which used it as a major port for regional trade, and may explain why it eventually merged with the Shilla State. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The influence of poorly interconnected fault zone flow paths on spring geochemistry

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2008
    Abstract Thermal springs commonly occur along faults because of the enhanced vertical permeability afforded by fracture zones. Field and laboratory studies of fault zone materials document substantial heterogeneities in fracture permeabilities. Modeling and field studies of springs suggest that spatial variations in permeability strongly influence spring locations, discharge rates and temperatures. The impact of heterogeneous permeability on spring geochemistry, however, is poorly documented. We present stable isotope and water chemistry data from a series of closely spaced thermal springs associated with the Hayward Fault, California. We suggest that substantial spatial variations observed in ,18O and chloride values reflect subsurface fluid transport through a poorly connected fracture network in which mixing of subsurface waters remains limited. Our measurements provide insight into the effect of fracture zone heterogeneities on spring geochemistry, offer an additional tool to intuit the nature of tectonically induced changes in fault zone plumbing, and highlight the need to consider local variations when characterizing fracture zone fluid geochemistry from spring systems with multiple discharge sites. [source]

    An exhumed palaeo-hydrocarbon migration fairway in a faulted carrier system, Entrada Sandstone of SE Utah, USA

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2001
    I. R. Garden
    Abstract The Moab Anticline, east-central Utah, is an exhumed hydrocarbon palaeo-reservoir which was supplied by hydrocarbons that migrated from the Moab Fault up-dip towards the crest of the structure beneath the regional seal of the Tidwell mudstone. Iron oxide reduction in porous, high permeability aeolian sandstones records the secondary migration of hydrocarbons, filling of traps against small sealing faults and spill pathways through the Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone. Hydrocarbons entered the Entrada Sandstone carrier system from bends and other leak points on the Moab Fault producing discrete zones of reduction that extend for up to 400 m from these leak points. They then migrated in focused stringers, 2,5 m in height, to produce accumulations on the crest of the anticline. Normal faults on the anticline were transient permeability barriers to hydrocarbon migration producing a series of small compartmentalized accumulations. Exsolution of CO2 as local fault seals were breached resulted in calcite cementation on the up-dip side of faults. Field observations on the distribution of iron oxide reduction and calcite cements within the anticline indicate that the advancing reduction fronts were affected neither by individual slip bands in damage zones around faults nor by small faults with sand: sand juxtapositions. Faults with larger throws produced either sand: mudstone juxtapositions or sand: sand contacts and fault zones with shale smears. Shale-smeared fault zones provided seals to the reducing fluid which filled the structural traps to spill points. [source]

    The Ridgeway Conglomerate Formation of SW Wales, and its implications.

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    The end of the Lower Old Red Sandstone?
    Abstract The Devonian Old Red Sandstone Ridgeway Conglomerate Formation crops out in Pembrokeshire, SW Wales. It was deposited as part of a dryland alluvial fan, axial fluvial valley deposystem. It conformably overlies the mid Lochkovian Freshwater West Formation and probably predates deposition of the Lower Cosheston Group Mill Bay Formation indicating an Early Devonian (latest Lochkovian to earliest Pragian) age, rather than a Middle Devonian age as suggested by previous workers. It therefore represents the youngest preserved formation of the Milford Haven Group south of the Ritec Fault. The Formation thickens drastically into the Ritec Fault, indicating its control on sedimentation. The half-graben topography initiated deposition of a hangingwall alluvial fan that was sourced from a southerly Lower Palaeozoic/Precambrian provenance within the present-day Bristol Channel. The Formation is heterolithic in nature, with deposits on the fan reflecting a mixture of processes. Conglomerates were deposited primarily by laterally extensive sheetfloods, and as bars in low-relief, laterally accreted channels. Sandstones were also predominantly deposited by sheetfloods. Gritty mudrocks in comparison demonstrate deposition by cohesive debris flows. The fan prograded northward and interfingered with a low-gradient, high-sinuosity fluvial channel system dominated by inclined and non-inclined heterolithic stratification. Thinly laminated mudstone and sandstone interbeds were deposited in ephemeral fan-toe and axial valley lakes that may have developed during sub-humid climatic episodes. The lacustrine heterolithic association has associated matgrounds and possible ,algal roll-up' structures. Calcretized peetee structures and root traces comprise a lake margin calcrete association. Fan gravels prograded into the axial fluvial valley during periods of increased sediment flux that may represent semi-arid conditions and/or episodes of tectonic activity. Calcretes of varying development were established in both the fan and axial valley zones. Calcretes with lower stages of development are more proximal to the Ritec Fault reflecting decreased soil residence times and high deposition rates within the axial valley. More strongly developed soil profiles on the fan may indicate sequence boundaries associated with low sediment flux, or increased soil residence time due to active fan-channel migration (the pedofacies concept). Groundwater calcretes have sharp-based and layer-bound calcrete profiles. Gully-bed cements are locally developed within the fan gravels. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sedimentation and tectonics: the marine Silurian,basal Lower Old Red Sandstone transition in southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Robert D. Hillier
    Abstract Both regional and localized tectonic events controlled deposition within the Wenlock and early Ludlow of SW Wales. Estuarine deposits within north,south-tending incised valleys dominate the youngest (Homerian) Gray Sandstone Group, valley incision being probably related to changing base-levels associated with Avalonia/Laurentian collision. Available accommodation space was outpaced by sediment supply, with the Red Cliff Formation (Late Ludfordian) defining a conformable transition from marine to Old Red Sandstone (ORS) deposition within the Marloes Peninsula. Sedimentation was dominated by fine-grained pedified siliciclastics, with subordinate fine-grained ephemeral sheet-flood sandstones. Local palaeocurrents indicate sediment transport from the south and west, though long-distance transport from a distant Laurentian provenance is assumed. A probable tectonically generated sequence boundary marks the base of petrographically distinctive, multi-storey pebbly sandstones of the Albion Sands Formation, deposited within the hangingwall valley of the active east,west-trending Wenall Fault. Sediment accommodation space was controlled by proximity to the tip-point of this important growth fault within the Lower ORS. Debris-flow-dominated fans, shed from both the hangingwall and footwall of the Wenall Fault, deposited the Lindsway Bay Formation, an exotic-clast conglomerate unit sourced predominantly from the south and west. It is uncertain as to whether movement along the Wenall Fault was caused by collision-related transtension, or rifting associated with the southern margin of Avalonia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Variable alluvial sandstone architecture within the Lower Old Red Sandstone, southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Brian P. J. Williams
    Abstract Sandstone bodies within the Lower Old Red Sandstone (ORS) in southern Pembrokeshire exhibit variability in architecture, sediment grade and composition both spatially and temporally. Four architectural styles are observed, namely decimetre- to metre-thick sheets, metre-thick multi-storey amalgamations, inclined-heterolithic units and ribbon geometries. Sandstone bodies in the Freshwater East Formation are sheet-like, heterolithic units several metres thick. An association with lingulids and wave ripples alludes to a marine influence, possibly estuarine tidal flats or storm washovers. Within the Moor Cliffs Formation, the most common sandstone bodies are centimetre- to metre-thick sheets with high width-to-depth ratios. Fine-grained sandstones represent sheet-flood deposition on unconfined, planar surfaces, whereas coarser-grained sandstones constitute distinctive amalgamations of discrete flood events, reflecting either a change in provenance or tectonic influence. Clear incision of coarse-grained, multi-storey units within the Inter-Tuff Moor Cliffs Formation reflects a change in relative sea-level, possibly tectonically induced. The base of the Conigar Pit Sandstone Member (CPSM) is marked by a distinctive, exotic-clast conglomerate defining the base to heterolithic, lateral-accretion bedsets and sandstone sheets. This association defines a significant influx of coarse-grained sediment post-Chapel Point Calcrete formation, an interval of presumed topographic stability across the Anglo-Welsh Basin. This influx must reflect rejuvenation of source regions, with changes in base-level reflecting either eustatic or tectonic influences. Commonly observed in the CPSM are fine-grained, inclined-heterolithic bedsets recording deposition by highly sinuous rivers with flashy discharge. Up-sequence within the CPSM are metre-thick, multi-storey amalgamations of predominatly trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstone. It is likely that these units are genetically related to contemporaneous decimetre-thick sandstone sheets, the latter being ,splay' events marginal to the main channel axis. The interbedding of multi-storey sandstones and fine-grained laterally accreted units reflects changes in provenance, slope and/or climate. Thickness variations within the Lower ORS detail significant thickening of all units northward into the Benton Fault. It seems likely that this thickening reflects variable accommodation space development associated with active growth along this and other WNW,ESE-trending faults, and migration of channel belts toward the footwall. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Localized ductile thrusting north of the Variscan Front, Ross Island, southwest Ireland

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Paul A. M. Nex
    Abstract Two thrusts occur on Ross Island: the Head of Ross Thrust and the more southerly Ross Island Thrust. These lie to the north of the Killarney,Mallow Fault (KMF), the boundary frequently interpreted as the Variscan Front. The Ross Island Thrust, exposed in outcrop and in seven borehole cores, has emplaced dark blue,grey limestones of the Courceyan Ballysteen Formation over pale grey,brown Rockfield Limestone Formation of Chadian,Holkerian age. These lithologies at Ross Island exhibit a continuum of deformation at both the micro- and macro-scale, beginning with the generation of a spaced cleavage, formed during layer parallel shortening, that was subsequently rotated into parallelism with fold axial planes. Extensional microstructures are predominant in thin section and are associated with attenuation of the fold limb. Calcite veins are also attenuated and lie parallel to a mylonitic fabric close to the thrust plane. Lithological boundaries, the prominent pressure solution cleavage and the southerly dipping limb of an asymmetrical antiform are all parallel and form a composite planar anisotropy. This has controlled the location of the ductile Ross Island Thrust, which formed during the attenuation and shearing of a common fold limb. Ductile thrusts within the limestones at Ross Island contrast with the reactivation of basin-margin extensional faults further to the south along the major KMF. The Ross Island Thrust is considered to result from deformation ahead of the major northerly propagating Variscan décollement thrust and does not necessitate a continuous décollement structure north of the KMF. Mineralization at Ross Island exhibits remobilization associated with the formation of a pressure-solution cleavage and probably pre-dates thrusting. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Earthquake effects on the Anatolian Motorway, Turkey

    GEOLOGY TODAY, Issue 2 2009
    Hayrettin Koral
    On 12 November 1999, the Anatolian earthquake in Turkey damaged a partially completed motorway viaduct. The viaduct, which is some 2.3 km long, passes over the Düzce Fault as the route starts its ascent into the Turkish plateau. The Düzce Fault is a northern offshoot of the main North Anatolian Fault (NAF) Zone, and cuts the viaduct at an acute angle of 15 degrees. Movements along the NAF have been identified as the prime cause of the earthquake. Alternatives to a viaduct crossing had been considered in the feasibility stage, but were ruled out because of the rugged landslide-influenced terrain and requirements for an even motorway ascent grade. The relative displacement of around 120 equally spaced piers identified the nature of the ground displacements and gave an indication as to the likely areas of foundation damage. This article examines the damage caused to the viaduct during the earthquake. [source]

    Passive seismic imaging with directive ambient noise: application to surface waves and the San Andreas Fault in Parkfield, CA

    Philippe Roux
    SUMMARY This study deals with surface waves extracted from microseismic noise in the (0.1,0.2 Hz) frequency band with passive seismic-correlation techniques. For directive noise, we explore the concept of passive seismic-noise tomography performed on three-component sensors from a dense seismic network. From the nine-component correlation tensor, a rotation algorithm is introduced that forces each station pair to re-align in the noise direction, a necessary condition to extract unbiased traveltime from passive seismic processing. After rotation is performed, the new correlation tensor exhibits a surface wave tensor from which Rayleigh and Love waves can be separately extracted for tomography inversion. Methodological aspects are presented and illustrated with group-speed maps for Rayleigh and Love waves and ellipticity measurements made on the San Andreas Fault in the Parkfield area, California, USA. [source]

    Tectonic deformation around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis: constraints from the Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data of the Shan-Thai Block

    Kenji Tanaka
    SUMMARY Lower to Middle Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at four localities in the Lanpin-Simao fold belt of the Shan-Thai Block to describe its regional deformational features. Most of the samples revealed a characteristic remanent magnetization with unblocking temperatures around 680 °C. Primary natures of magnetization are ascertained through positive fold test. A tilt-corrected formation-mean direction for the Jingdong (24.5°N, 100.8°E) locality, which is located at a distance of 25 km from the Ailaoshan,Red River Fault, revealed northerly declination with steep inclination (Dec./Inc. = 8.3°/48.8°, ,95= 7.7°, N= 13). However, mean directions obtained from the Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E), West Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E) and South Mengla (21.4°N, 101.6°E) localities indicate an easterly deflection in declination; such as Dec./Inc. = 61.8°/46.1°, ,95= 8.1° (N= 7), Dec./Inc. = 324.2°/,49.4°, ,95= 6.4° (N= 4) and Dec./Inc. = 51.2°/46.4°, ,95= 5.6° (N= 13), respectively. The palaeomagnetic directions obtained from these four localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for the Shan-Thai Block. When combined with geological, geochronological and GPS data, the processes of deformation in the Shan-Thai Block is described as follows: Subsequent to its rigid block clockwise rotation of about 20° in the early stage of India,Asia collision, the Shan-Thai Block experienced a coherent but southward displacement along the Red River Fault prior to 32 Ma. This block was then subjected to a north,south compressive stresses during the 32,27 Ma period, which played a key role in shaping the structure of Chongshan-Lancang-Chiang Mai Belt. Following this some local clockwise rotational motion has occurred during the Pliocene-Quaternary time in central part of the Shan-Thai Block as a result of internal block movements along the reactivated network of faults. [source]

    Interseismic Plate coupling and strain partitioning in the Northeastern Caribbean

    D. M. Manaker
    SUMMARY The northeastern Caribbean provides a natural laboratory to investigate strain partitioning, its causes and its consequences on the stress regime and tectonic evolution of a subduction plate boundary. Here, we use GPS and earthquake slip vector data to produce a present-day kinematic model that accounts for secular block rotation and elastic strain accumulation, with variable interplate coupling, on active faults. We confirm that the oblique convergence between Caribbean and North America in Hispaniola is partitioned between plate boundary parallel motion on the Septentrional and Enriquillo faults in the overriding plate and plate-boundary normal motion at the plate interface on the Northern Hispaniola Fault. To the east, the Caribbean/North America plate motion is accommodated by oblique slip on the faults bounding the Puerto Rico block to the north (Puerto Rico subduction) and to the south (Muertos thrust), with no evidence for partitioning. The spatial correlation between interplate coupling, strain partitioning and the subduction of buoyant oceanic asperities suggests that the latter enhance the transfer of interplate shear stresses to the overriding plate, facilitating strike-slip faulting in the overriding plate. The model slip rate deficit, together with the dates of large historical earthquakes, indicates the potential for a large (Mw7.5 or greater) earthquake on the Septentrional fault in the Dominican Republic. Similarly, the Enriquillo fault in Haiti is currently capable of a Mw7.2 earthquake if the entire elastic strain accumulated since the last major earthquake was released in a single event today. The model results show that the Puerto Rico/Lesser Antilles subduction thrust is only partially coupled, meaning that the plate interface is accumulating elastic strain at rates slower than the total plate motion. This does not preclude the existence of isolated locked patches accumulating elastic strain to be released in future earthquakes, but whose location and geometry are not resolvable with the present data distribution. Slip deficit on faults from this study are used in a companion paper to calculate interseismic stress loading and, together with stress changes due to historical earthquakes, derive the recent stress evolution in the NE Caribbean. [source]

    The source process of the 2001 July 26 Skyros Island (Greece) earthquake

    Zafeiria Roumelioti
    SUMMARY The spatial and temporal distribution of slip during the 2001 July 26 Skyros (Greece) earthquake Moment magnitude (M 6.5) is investigated using broadband data recorded at regional distances. The applied method involves estimation of the source time functions of the examined event through an empirical Green's function approach and inversion of their shapes to estimate kinematic source parameters. Our test inversions to statistically identify the fault plane, together with the distribution of aftershocks clearly indicate sinistral strike-slip faulting. In view of the fact that the Skyros epicentre lies near the western termination of the dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) into the Aegean Sea, this sinistral strike-slip motion, for the first time instrumentally identified, has great tectonic significance. The best values searched through the inversion are 0.7 s for the rise time, and 2.4 km s,1 for the rupture velocity. Most of the slip appears to be concentrated in a relatively small area around the hypocentre, while a smaller slip patch was found at relatively large depth (18,24 km). At least two of the large aftershocks following the main event also occurred at the deeper part of the fault. Smaller amounts of slip are distributed in a wider area with dimensions similar to those inferred from the aftershock distribution studies and the empirical relations applicable to Greece. [source]

    Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of Cretaceous rocks in the Gongju Basin, Korea: implication of clockwise rotation

    Seong-Jae Doh
    Summary Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies have been carried out for Cretaceous non-marine sedimentary rocks (Gongju Group) and volcanic rocks in the Gongju Basin, located along the northern boundary of the Ogcheon Belt, Korea. K,Ar age dating for the volcanic rocks was also performed. It is found that the Gongju Group was remagnetised during the tilting of the strata with the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) direction of at 30 per cent untilting of the strata with a maximum value of precision parameter (k), while the volcanic rocks are revealed to acquire primary remanence with the direction of after the tilt-correction. The K,Ar ages of the volcanic rocks range from 81.8 ± 2.4 to 73.5 ± 2.2 Ma, corresponding to the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. Electron microscope observations of samples from the Gongju Group show authigenic iron-oxide minerals of various sizes distributed along the cleavage of chlorite and in the pore spaces, indicating that the strata acquired the chemical remanent magnetisation due to the formation of secondary magnetic minerals under the influence of fluids. The palaeomagnetic pole positions are at Lat./Long. = 69.6°N/224.3°E (dp= 3.5°, dm= 5.2°) calculated for the 30 per cent tilt-corrected direction of the Gongju Group and at for the volcanic rocks. Based on the results of this study, it is interpreted that the volcanic rocks acquired the primary magnetisation almost at the same time as the remagnetisation of the Gongju Group in the Late Cretaceous. Comparisons of Cretaceous palaeomagnetic poles from the Korean Peninsula with those from Eurasia implies that the Korean Peninsula underwent clockwise rotation of 21.2°± 5.3° for the middle Early Cretaceous, 12.6°± 5.4° for the late Early Cretaceous, and 7.1°± 9.8° for the Late Cretaceous with respect to Eurasia, due to the sinistral motion of the Tan-Lu Fault. [source]

    Analyses of the stress field in southeastern France from earthquake focal mechanisms

    Emmanuel Baroux
    Summary Owing to the apparent deformation field heterogeneity, the stress regimes around the Provence block, from the fronts of the Massif Central and Alpine range up to the Ligurian Sea, have not been well defined. To improve the understanding of the SE France stress field, we determine new earthquake focal mechanisms and compute the present-day stress states by inversion of the 89 available focal mechanisms around the Provence domain, including 17 new ones calculated in the current study. This study provides evidence of six distinct deformation domains around the Provence block, with different tectonic regimes. On a regional scale, we identify three zones characterized by significantly different stress regimes: a western one affected by an extensional stress (normal faulting) regime; a southeastern one characterized by a compressional stress (reverse to strike-slip faulting) regime with NNW- to WNW-trending ,1; and a northeastern one, namely the Digne nappe front, marked by a NE-trending compression. Note that the Digne nappe back domain is controlled by an extensional regime that is deforming the western Alpine core. This extensional regime could be a response to buoyancy forces related to the Alpine high topography. The stress regimes in the southeast of the Argentera Massif and around the Durance fault are consistent with a coherent NNW-trending ,1, implying a left-lateral component of the active reverse oblique slip of the Moyenne Durance Fault. In the Rhone Valley, an E-trending extension characterizes the tectonic regime, implying a normal component of the present-day N,^mes fault displacement. This study provides evidence for short-scale variation of the stress states, which arises from abrupt changes in the boundary force influences on upper crustal fragments (blocks). These spatial stress changes around the Provence block result from the coeval influence of forces applied at both its extremities, namely in the northeast the Alpine front push, and in the southeast the northward African plate drift. In addition to these boundary forces, the mantle plume under the Massif Central influences the western block boundary. [source]

    UniFAFF: a unified framework for implementing autonomic fault management and failure detection for self-managing networks

    Ranganai Chaparadza
    Today's network management, as known within the Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security (FCAPS) management framework, is moving towards the definition and implementation of ,self-managing' network functions, with the aim of eliminating or drastically reducing human intervention in some of the complex aspects or daunting tasks of network management. The fault management plane of the FCAPS framework deals with the following functions: fault detection, fault diagnosis, localization or isolation, and fault removal. Task automation is at the very heart of self-managing (autonomic) nodes and networks, meaning that all functions and processes related to fault management must be automated as much as possible within the functionalities of self-managing (autonomic) nodes and networks, in order for us to talk about autonomic fault management. At this point in time there are projects calling for implementing new network architectures that are flexible to support on-demand functional composition for context- or situation-aware networking. A number of such projects have started, under the umbrella of the so-called clean-slate network designs. Therefore, this calls for open frameworks for implementing self-managing (autonomic) functions across each of the traditional FCAPS management planes. This paper presents a unified framework for implementing autonomic fault management and failure detection for self-managing networks, a framework we are calling UniFAFF. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Role of southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of Zagros Orogenic Belt, Iran

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2009
    Ramin Arfania
    Abstract Geological studies indicate that the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone, located in the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt, is subdivided transversally into the Esfahan,Sirjan Block with typical Central Iranian stratigraphic features and the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane consisting of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic metamorphic rocks. The Main Deep Fault (Abadeh Fault) is a major lithospheric fault separating the two parts. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt on the basis of geological evidence. The new model implies that Neo-Tethys 1 came into being when the Central Iran Microcontinent split from the northeastern margin of Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. During the Late Triassic a new spreading ridge, Neo-Tethys 2, was created to separate the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane from Afro,Arabian Plate. The Zagros sedimentary basin was formed on a continental passive margin, southwest of Neo-Tethys 2. The two ophiolitic belts of Naien,Shahrebabak,Baft and Neyriz were developed to the northeast of Neo-Tethys 1 and southwest of Neo-Tethys 2 respectively, related to the sinking of the lithosphere of the Neo-Tethys 1 in the Late Cretaceous. It can be concluded that deposition of the Paleocene conglomerate on the Central Iran Microcontinent and Pliocene conglomerate in the Zagros Sedimentary Basin is directly linked to the uplift generated by collision. [source]

    Stress behavior from fault data sets within a transtensional zone, South Central Cordillera, Luzon, Philippines: Implications for mineral occurrences

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
    Mario A. Aurelio
    Abstract The structural signature in the area between the Baguio mineral district and Ansagan, Tuba, Benguet in the South Central Cordillera, northern Luzon, Philippines, is dominated by northeast- to ENE-trending faults, contained within a NNW,SSE-trending transtensional strip. This 50-km-long, 25-km-wide elongated tectonic zone is bounded to the west by the Pugo Fault and to the east by the Tebbo Fault, both being branches of the Philippine Fault System. Detailed structural geological (particularly microtectonic) analysis of fracture and mineral vein systems indicates strong conformity with the regional structural direction. Computed extensional stress axis ,3 directions are oriented N150° on average, sub-parallel to the strike of the bounding faults. The existence of known mineral deposits and prospects within the tectonic strip implies an intimate relationship between transtension and mineral occurrence. [source]

    Fault configuration produced by initial arc rifting in the Parece Vela Basin as deduced from seismic reflection data

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
    Mikiya Yamashita
    Abstract The Parece Vela Basin (PVB), which is a currently inactive back-arc basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, was formed by separation between the Izu-Ogasawara Arc (IOA) and the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Elucidating the marks of the past back-arc opening and rifting is important for investigation of its crustal structure. To image its fault configurations and crustal deformation, pre-stack depth migration to multichannel seismic reflection was applied and data obtained by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology and Metal Mining Agency of Japan and Japan National Oil Corporation (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation). Salient results for the pre-stack depth-migrated sections are: (i) deep reflectors exist around the eastern margin of KPR and at the western margin of IOA down to 8 km depth; and (ii) normal fault zones distributed at the eastern margin of the KPR (Fault zone A) and the western margin of the IOA (Fault zone B) have a total displacement of greater than 500 m associated with synrift sediments. Additional normal faults (Fault zone C) exist 20 km east of the Fault zone B. They are covered with sediment, which indicates deposition of recent volcanic products in the IOA. According to those results: (i) the fault displacement of more than 500 m with respect to initial rifting was approximately asymmetric at 25 Ma based on PSDM profiles; and (ii) the faults had reactivated after 23 Ma, based on the age of deformed sediments obtained from past ocean drillings. The age of the base sediments corresponds to those of spreading and rotation after rifting in the PVB. Fault zone C is covered with thick and not deformed volcanogenic sediments from the IOA, which suggests that the fault is inactive. [source]

    In situ hydraulic tests in the active fault survey tunnel, Kamioka Mine, excavated through the active Mozumi-Sukenobu Fault zone and their hydrogeological significance

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2006
    Tsuyoshi Nohara
    Abstract The spatial hydrogeological and structural character of the active Mozumi-Sukenobu Fault (MSF) was investigated along a survey tunnel excavated through the MSF in the Kamioka Mine, central Japan. Major groundwater conduits on both sides of the MSF are recognized. One is considered to be a subvertical conduit between the tunnel and the surface, and the other is estimated to be a major reservoir of old meteoric water alongside the MSF. Our studies indicate that part of the MSF is a sub-vertical continuous barrier that obstructs younger meteoric water observed in the south-eastern part of the Active Fault Survey Tunnel (AFST) and water recharge to the rock mass intersected by the north-western part of the AFST. The MSF might be a continuous barrier resulting in the storage of a large quantity of older groundwater to the northwest. The observations and results of in situ hydraulic tests indicate that the major reservoir is not the fault breccia associated with the northeast,southwest trending faults of the MSF, but the zone in which blocks of fractured rocks occur beside high angle faults corresponding to X shears whose tectonic stress field coincides with the present regional stress field and antithetic Riedel shears of the MSF. The results from borehole investigations in the AFST indicate that secondary porosity is developed in the major reservoir due to the destruction of filling minerals and fracture development beside these shears. The increase in hydraulic conductivity is not directly related to increased density of fractures around the MSF. Development of secondary porosity could cause the increase in hydraulic conductivity around the MSF. Our results suggest that minor conduits of the fracture network are sporadically distributed in the sedimentary rocks around the MSF in the AFST. [source]

    Thematic Section: The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and behavior of the Chelungpu Fault

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2005
    Wonn Soh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Fault rock analysis of the northern part of the Chelungpu Fault and its relation to earthquake faulting of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2005
    Kohtaro UjiieArticle first published online: 3 MAR 200
    Abstract The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan (Mw = 7.6) produced a surface rupture along the north,south-striking Chelungpu thrust fault with pure dip-slip (east side up) and left lateral strike-slip displacements. Near-field strong-motion data for the northern part of the fault illustrate a distinct lack of the high-frequency seismic radiation associated with a large slip (10,15 m) and a rapid slip velocity (2,4 m/s), suggesting a smooth seismic slip associated with low dynamic frictional resistance on the fault. A drillhole was constructed at shallow depths in the possible fault zones of the northern part of the Chelungpu Fault, which may have slipped during the 1999 earthquake. One of the zones consists of a 20-cm-thick, unconsolidated fault breccia with a chaotic texture lacking both discrete slip surfaces (e.g. Riedel shears) and grain crushing. Other possible fault zones are marked by the narrow (less than a few centimeters) gouge zone in which clayey material intrudes into the damaged zone outside of the gouge zone. These characteristic fault rock textures suggest that the slip mechanisms at shallow levels during the earthquake involved either granular flow of initially unconsolidated material or slip localization under elevated pore pressure along the narrow clayey gouge zone. Because both mechanisms lead to low dynamic frictional resistance on the fault, the rapid seismic slip in the deep portions of the fault (i.e. the source region of strong-motion radiation) could have been accommodated by frictionless slip on the shallow portions of the fault. The combination of strong-motion data and fault rock analysis suggests that smooth slip associated with low dynamic friction occurred on both the deep and shallow portions of the fault, resulting in a large slip between the source region and the surface in the northern region. [source]

    Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and evolution of the Eupchon Fault, southeast Korea

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2004
    Young-Seog Kim
    Abstract The Korean peninsula is widely regarded as being located at the relatively stable eastern margin of the Asian continent. However, more than 10 Quaternary faults have recently been discovered in and reported from the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. One of these, the Eupchon Fault, was discovered during the construction of a primary school, and it is located close to a nuclear power plant. To understand the nature and characteristics of the Quaternary Eupchon Fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the discovery site. The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20°E/40°SE) with approximately 4 m displacement, and a series of branch faults, cutting unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging-wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, which are very similar to those seen in thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zones are observed, indicating that the fault system propagates upward and terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show a preferred orientation of long axes, indicating the fault trace. The unconformity surface between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites or Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced by this fault with a reverse movement sense. The stratigraphic relationship shows normal slip sense at the lower part of the section, indicating that the fault had a normal slip movement and was reversely reactivated during the Quaternary. The inferred length of the Quaternary thrust fault, based on the relationship between fault length and displacement, is 200,2000 m. The current maximum horizontal compressive stress direction in this area is generally east-northeast,west-southwest, which would be expected to produce oblique slip on the Eupchon Fault, with reverse and right-lateral strike-slip components. [source]

    Evolution of an accretionary complex along the north arm of the Island of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2004
    Yusuf Surachman Djajadihardja
    Abstract Seismic reflections across the accretionary prism of the North Sulawesi provide excellent images of the various structural domains landward of the frontal thrust. The structural domain in the accretionary prism area of the North Sulawesi Trench can be divided into four zones: (i) trench area; (ii) Zone A; (iii) Zone B; and (iv) Zone C. Zone A is an active imbrication zone where a decollement is well imaged. Zone B is dominated by out-of-sequence thrusts and small slope basins. Zone C is structurally high in the forearc basin, overlain by a thick sedimentary sequence. The subducted and accreted sedimentary packages are separated by the decollement. Topography of the oceanic basement is rough, both in the basin and beneath the wedge. The accretionary prism along the North Sulawesi Trench grew because of the collision between eastern Sulawesi and the Bangai,Sula microcontinent along the Sorong Fault in the middle Miocene. This collision produced a large rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi Island. Rotation and northward movement of the north arm of Sulawesi may have resulted in southward subduction and development of the accretionary wedge along North Sulawesi. Lateral variations are wider in the western areas relative to the eastern areas. This is due to greater convergence rates in the western area: 5 km/My for the west and 1.5 km/My for the east. An accretionary prism model indicates that the initiation of growth of the accretionary prism in the North Sulawesi Trench occurred approximately 5 Ma. A comparison between the North Sulawesi accretionary prism and the Nankai accretionary prism of Japan reveals similar internal structures, suggesting similar mechanical processes and structural evolution. [source]

    Mass movements caused by recent tectonic activity: The 1999 Chi-chi earthquake in central Taiwan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2003
    Wen-Neng Wang
    Abstract The Chi-chi earthquake (MS = 7.7), which occurred in September 1999, seriously damaged central Taiwan. Approximately 2 years later (July 2001), the Toraji typhoon brought a heavy rainstorm (650 mm rain/day) and triggered widespread landslides in central Taiwan and parts of eastern Taiwan. Approximately 10 000 Chi-chi earthquake-induced landslides and 6000 Toraji typhoon-related mass movements were delineated in an area of 2400 km2 using Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT; French earth resource satellite) images. The landslide distribution could be closely related to the distribution of peak ground acceleration registered during the Chi-chi earthquake. The study area was composed of Tertiary sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, whose age and induration increased eastward. The earthquake-induced landslides were mostly distributed in the region between the Chelungpu Fault and the Lishan Fault to the east, whereas they were few in the region east of the Lishan Fault. The Toraji typhoon in 2001 severely damaged both regions that had been shattered by the Chi-chi earthquake in 1999. The occurrence of earthquake-induced landslides can be correlated with epicentral distance, and their occurrence has more influence from the rock type than from the ground motion. [source]

    In situ stress measurements in a borehole close to the Nojima Fault

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3-4 2001
    Hiroaki Tsukahara
    AbstractIn situ stress was measured close to the fault associated with the 1995 Kobe Earthquake (Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; January 1995; M7.2) using the hydraulic fracturing method. The measurements were made approximately 2 years after the earthquake. The measured points were approximately 40 m from the fault plane at depths of about 1500 m. The maximum and the minimum horizontal compressive stresses were 45 MPa and 31 MPa, respectively. The maximum compressive stress and the maximum shear stress are very small in comparison with those of other seismically active areas. The azimuth of the maximum horizontal compressive stress was estimated from the observed azimuths of well bore breakouts at depths between 1400 m and 1600 m and was found to be N135° (clockwise). The maximum stress axis is perpendicular to the fault strike, N45°. These features are interpreted in terms of a small frictional coefficient of the fault. The shear stress on the fault was released and dropped almost to zero during the earthquake and it has not yet recovered. Zero shear stress on the fault plane resulted from the perpendicular orientation of one of the principal stress to the fault plane. [source]

    Stresses at sites close to the Nojima Fault measured from core samples

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3-4 2001
    Kiyohiko Yamamoto
    Abstract The Nojima Fault in Awaji, Hyogo prefecture, Japan, was ruptured during the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (MJMA = 7.2). Toshima is located close to the fault segment, in which a large dislocation has been observed on the Earth's surface. Ikuha is near the southern end of the buried fault that extends from the surface rupture. Stresses are measured on core samples taken at depths of 310 m, 312 m and 415 m at Toshima and a depth of 351 m at Ikuha. The measured stresses show that both sites are in the field of a strike,slip regime, but compression dominates at Toshima. Defining the relative shear stress as the maximum shear stress divided by the normal stress on the maximum shear plane, the relative shear stress ranges from 0.42 to 0.54 at Toshima and is approximately 0.32 at Ikuha. While the value at Ikuha is moderate, those at Toshima are comparably large to those in areas close to the inferred fault of the 1984 Nagano-ken Seibu earthquake. Value amounts greater than 0.4 suggest that there are areas of large relative shear stress along faults, thus having the potential to generate earthquakes. Provided that the cores are correctly oriented, the largest horizontal stresses at shallow depths are in the direction from N113°E to N139°E at Toshima and N74°E at Ikuha, indicating that the fault does not orient optimally for the stress field at both sites. The slip is known to be predominant in the right-lateral strike,slip component. Although this slip may appear contradictory to the stress field at Toshima, the slip direction is found to be parallel to the measured stresses resolved on the fault plane for the first approximation. The ratio of shear stress to normal stress on the fault plane is roughly estimated to be greater than zero and smaller than 0.3 near Toshima. [source]