Fagus Sylvatica (Fagu + sylvatica)

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Terms modified by Fagus Sylvatica

  • Fagu sylvatica l.

  • Selected Abstracts

    Phytogeographical evidence for post-glacial dispersal limitation of European beech forest species

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2009
    Wolfgang Willner
    The post-glacial migration of European beech Fagus sylvatica has been addressed by many studies using either genetic or fossil data or a combination of both. In contrast to this, only little is known about the migration history of beech forest understorey species. In a review of phytosociological literature, we identified 110 plant species which are closely associated with beech forest. We divided the distribution range of European beech forests into 40 geographical regions, and the presence or absence of each species was recorded for each region. We compared overall species numbers per region and numbers of narrow-range species (species present in <10 regions). A multiple regression model was used to test for the explanatory value of three potential diversity controls: range in elevation, soil type diversity, and distance to the nearest potential refuge area. A hierarchical cluster analysis of the narrow-range species was performed. The frequency of range sizes shows a U-shaped distribution, with 42 species occurring in <10 regions. The highest number of beech forest species is found in the southern Alps and adjacent regions, and species numbers decrease with increasing distance from these regions. With only narrow-range species taken into consideration, secondary maxima are found in Spain, the southern Apennines, the Carpathians, and Greece. Distance to the nearest potential refuge area is the strongest predictor of beech forest species richness, while altitudinal range and soil type diversity had little or no predictive value. The clusters of narrow-range species are in good concordance with the glacial refuge areas of beech and other temperate tree species as estimated in recent studies. These findings support the hypothesis that the distribution of many beech forest species is limited by post-glacial dispersal rather than by their environmental requirements. [source]

    Long-term succession in a Danish temperate deciduous forest

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2005
    Richard H. W. Bradshaw
    Forest successional trajectories covering the last 2000 yr from a mixed deciduous forest in Denmark show a gradual shift in dominance from Tilia cordata to Fagus sylvatica and a recent increase in total forest basal area since direct management ceased in 1948. The successions are reconstructed by combining a fifty-year record of direct tree observations with local pollen diagrams from Draved Forest, Denmark. Five of the seven successions record a heathland phase of Viking Age dating from 830 AD. The anthropogenic influence is considerable throughout the period of study even though Draved contains some of the most pristine forest stands in Denmark. Anthropogenic influence including felling masks the underlying natural dynamics, with the least disturbed sites showing the smallest compositional change. Some effects of former management, such as loss of Tilia cordata dominance, are irreversible. Artificial disturbance, particularly drainage, has accelerated and amplified the shift towards Fagus dominance that would have occurred on a smaller scale and at a slower rate in the absence of human intervention. [source]

    Soil water dynamics along a tree diversity gradient in a deciduous forest in Central Germany

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Inga Krämer
    Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether soil water dynamics differ along a tree species diversity gradient. The 12 study plots in the Hainich National Park, Germany, were composed of up to 11 tree species. Fagus sylvatica formed the monospecific plots. Mixed forest plots consisted of a variable admixture of other broad-leaved deciduous tree species such as Tilia spp., Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, and Acer pseudoplatanus. Volumetric soil water content and soil water potential were measured for about two and a half years. Overall patterns of soil water dynamics were similar in all study plots. However, during a desiccation period in summer 2006, significant correlations between soil water in the upper soil and tree species diversity of the 12 study plots were observed. At the beginning of this period, soil water was extracted at higher rates in the species-rich plots than in the beech-dominated plots. However, later during the desiccation period, when atmospheric evaporative demand was higher, only the beech-dominated stands were able to increase soil water extraction. In plots of high tree species diversity, soil water reserves were already low and soil water extraction reduced. Possible explanations for high water extraction rates in mixed species plots at the beginning of the desiccation period include species-specific characteristics such as high maximum water use rate of some species, enhanced exploitation of soil water resources in mixed stands (complementarity effect), and additional water use of the herb layer, which increased along the tree species diversity gradient. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Methane oxidation kinetics differ in European beech and Norway spruce soils

    D. M. Degelmann
    Summary Coniferous forest soils often consume less of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) than deciduous forest soils. The reasons for this phenomenon have not been resolved. It might be caused by differences in the diffusive flux of CH4 through the organic layer, pH or different concentrations of potentially inhibitory compounds. Soil samples were investigated from three adjacent European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Germany. Maximal CH4 oxidation velocities (Vmax(app)) and Michaelis Menten constants (KM(app)), retrieved from intact soil cores at constant CH4 concentrations, temperature and matric potential, were twice as great in beech as in spruce soils. Also atmospheric CH4 oxidation rates measured in homogenized soil samples displayed the same trend. Greatest atmospheric CH4 oxidation rates were detected in the Oa horizon or in the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil. In contrast to the beech soils, the Oa horizon of the spruce soils consumed no CH4. A differential effect due to divergent diffusive flux through the litter layer was not found. pH and ammonium concentration were similar in samples from both forest soil types. Ethylene accumulation in all soils was negligible under oxic conditions. These collective results suggest that the different atmospheric CH4 uptake by beech and spruce soils is caused by different CH4 oxidizing capacities of methanotrophic communities in the Oa horizon and top mineral soil. [source]

    Early infection of Fagus sylvatica by Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Summary Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto is the most important damaging agent in Scots pine stands planted on the former agricultural lands in Poland. The routine action in pine stands which have lost stability because of H. annosum root rot is to change stand management, including species conversion. In many cases, the Fagus sylvatica is used for this purpose. This study was the first assessment of widespread infection by H. annosum in young F. sylvatica plantations. Disease symptoms included atrophy and yellowing of leaves, wilting and the presence of pathogen sporocarps around the root collars of young trees. Heterobasidion annosum s. s. was observed on both 4- and 17-year-old beech. Based on annual increments, the disease could be present for 3,4 years before tree death. A high incidence of H. annosum in pine stumps of previous stands (80,100%) and dry periods in recent years may be the main reasons for such common infection of F. sylvatica. This work also showed that mice and frost were not the main killing factors F. sylvatica in plantations. [source]

    Spatial patterns and environmental factors affecting the presence of Melampsorella caryophyllacearum infections in an Abies alba forest in NE Spain

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    A. Solla
    Summary The presence of trunk swellings caused by the rust fungus Melampsorella caryophyllacearum was systematically surveyed in an Abies alba forest (Irati, NE Spain), using 1237 circular plots (diameter = 18 m). The relationship between fungal presence and several abiotic (aspect, elevation, distance to the nearest river and slope) and biotic factors (basal area of A. alba and/or Fagus sylvatica, shrub, fern and herb cover) was assessed through correlation and ordination analyses. Additionally, the spatial pattern of the presence of diseased trees was described using Ripley's K function. Southern-aspect plots had a significantly lower presence of diseased trees than plots-oriented north, east and west. Plots with diseased trees were located at a significantly lower elevation, and at a shorter distance to the river than plots without infections. Plots with diseased trees had almost twice the average A. alba basal area, and less average F. sylvatica basal area than plots without diseased trees. However, similar mean values of slope and shrub, fern and herb cover were found in both types of plots. The disease showed spatial aggregation in patches with a mean radius of ca. 900 m. The implications of the results for disease management are discussed. Résumé La présence de renflements sur les troncs causés par l'agent de la rouille, Melampsorella caryophyllacearum, a étéétudiée de façon systématique dans une forêt d'Abies alba (Irati, NE Espagne), en utilizant 1237 placettes circulaires (diamètre de 18 m). Les relations entre la présence du champignon et divers facteurs abiotiques (orientation, altitude, distance à la rivière la plus proche, pente) et biotiques ( surface terrière de A. alba et/ou Fagus sylvatica, abondance de la couverture herbacée et abondance d'arbustes et fougères) ont étéétudiées par analyses de corrélation et d'ordination. D'autre part, la structure spatiale de la présence d'arbres infectés a été décrite en utilizant la fonction K de Ripley. Les placettes exposées au sud présentent moins fréquemment des arbres malades que celles exposées au nord, à l'est ou à l'ouest. Les placettes avec des arbres malades sont situées à une altitude significativement plus faible et à une distance plus faible d'une rivière que les placettes sans infections, et elles présentent une surface terrière 2 fois plus forte en moyenne pour A. alba, et plus faible pour F. sylvatica, que les placettes non-infectées. Toutefois, des valeurs moyennes équivalentes pour la pente, la couverture herbacée et l'abondance d'arbustes et fougères, sont observées pour les deux types de placettes. La maladie montre une agrégation spatiale en foyers d'un rayon moyen de 900 m. Les résultats sont discutés dans une perspective de gestion de la maladie. Zusammenfassung Das Vorkommen von durch den Rostpilz Melampsorella caryophyllacearum verursachten Stammdeformationen wurde in einem Abies alba - Wald (Irati, NO-Spanien) auf 1237 kreisförmigen Probeflächen (Durchmesser 18 m) systematisch erfasst. Die Beziehung zwischen dem Pilzvorkommen und mehreren abiotischen (Exposition, Meereshöhe, Distanz zum nächsten Fluss, Hangneigung) und biotischen Faktoren (Deckungsgrad von A. alba und/oder Fagus sylvatica, Strauch-, Farn- und Krautschicht) wurden durch Korrelations- und Ordinations-Analysen überprüft. Zudem wurden räumliche Muster der befallenen Bäume mit Hilfe von Ripley's K-Funktion beschrieben. In südexponierten Probeflächen kamen signifikant weniger erkrankte Bäume vor als in nach Norden, Osten und Westen orientierten Standorten. Flächen mit Befall lagen in signifikant geringerer Meereshöhe und kürzerer Distanz zum nächsten Fluss als solche ohne Befall. Zudem hatten sie beinahe die doppelte Basalfläche mit A. alba und eine durchschnittliche geringere Basalfläche mit F. sylvatica. Die durchschnittlichen Werte für die Strauch-, Farn- und Krautschicht sowie die Hangneigung unterschieden sich jedoch nicht in den Flächen mit und ohne Befall. Erkrankte Bäume waren räumlich aggregiert mit einem mittleren Radius von ca. 900 m. Die Bedeutung dieser Befunde für das Krankheitsmanagement wird diskutiert. [source]

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 as a causative agent of cotyledon rot on European beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    A. M. Hietala
    Summary Rhizoctonia solani was frequently isolated in the Italian Alps from nursery-grown European beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings displaying symptoms of cotyledon rot. Koch's postulates were verified and mode of infection of the associated isolates was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy. Population structure of the pathogen was investigated by scoring the anastomosis reaction type in pairings between different isolates from the same seedbed. One pathogen genotype showed a large distribution area within the seedbed, this implying that the inoculum had been building up in the seedbed over a longer time period. Hyphal anastomosis tests and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA indicated that the pathogen belongs to AG 2-1 of R. solani. ITS sequence analysis indicates that the isolates from beech are closely related to R. solani isolates causing a disease on tulip. The striking similarities between the two diseases are discussed. Résumé Rhizoctonia solani a fréquemment été isolé de semis de hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) présentant des symptômes de pourriture des cotylédons dans une pépinière forestière des Alpes italiennes. Les postulats de Koch ont été vérifiés et le mode d'infection étudié par microscopie optique et électronique à balayage. La structure de la population de l'agent pathogène a étéétudiée en examinant les réactions d'anastomoses dans les confrontations par paires des isolats d'un même lit de semences. Un génotype particulier s'est avéré largement distribué dans le lit de semence, suggérant soit une accumulation de l'inoculum pendant une longue période soit que ce génotype est capable de reproduction homocaryotique, favorisant sa dispersion. Les tests d'anastomose et l'analyse de la séquence de la région ITS de l'ADN ribosomal indiquent que l'agent pathogène appartient au groupe AG 2-1 de R. solani. L'analyse de la séquence de l'ITS montre que les isolats de hêtre sont proches d'isolats de R. solani pathogènes sur tulipe. Les ressemblances frappantes entre les deux maladies et la gestion de la maladie sur hêtre sont discutées. Zusammenfassung In einer Forstbaumschule in den italienischen Alpen wurde Rhizoctonia solani häufig aus Buchenkeimlingen (Fagus sylvatica) mit Symptomen einer Kotyledonenfäule isoliert. Die Koch'schen Postulate wurden erfüllt und die Art der Infektion der beteiligten Isolate wurde licht- und rasterelektronen-mikroskopisch untersucht. Die Populationsstruktur des Pathogens wurde anhand der Reaktionstypen (Anastomosierungsverhalten) in Paarungsversuchen mit den unterschiedlichen Isolaten aus demselben Saatbeet untersucht. Ein Kompatibilitätstyp war innerhalb des Saatbeetes weit verbreitet, was darauf hindeutet, dass sich das Inokulum über einen längeren Zeitraum dort angereichert hatte und/oder der Genotyp homokaryotisch fruchtet, was seine Ausbreitung fördert. Die Anastomosierungstests und die ITS-Sequenzanalyse der ribosomalen DNA ergaben, dass der Erreger zu der AG 2-1 Gruppe R. solani gehört. Die ITS-Sequenzen deuten darauf hin, dass die Isolate von Buche mit den R. solani, Isolaten verwandt sind, die an Tulpen pathogen sind. Die auffallende Ähnlichkeit der beiden Krankheiten und das Management der Erkrankung an Buche wird diskutiert. [source]

    The effect of nitrogen fertilization on fungistatic phenolic compounds in roots of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies)

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    L. Tomova
    Summary The effect of nitrogen fertilization on fungistatic phenolic compounds in fine roots of beech and Norway spruce growing in afforestation plots was analysed. The plots were situated at two sites in Switzerland on acidic soil with low base saturation. For 9 years, the trees have been treated with dry ammonium nitrate to give 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 kg N ha,1 year,1, respectively. The phenolic compounds responded differently to fertilization. Fine roots of beech showed a significant decrease of (,)-epicatechin and piceatannol with increasing nitrogen fertilization. The concentration of protocatechuic acid was increased with fertilization. Roots of fertilized Norway spruce showed significantly decreased concentrations of 4-hydroxyacetophenone and piceatannol. The mycelial growth of three isolates each of Heterobasidion annosum s.l. and Cylindrocarpon destructans was tested on agar media containing various phenolic compounds in concentrations found in fine roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). All three H. annosum isolates were inhibited by p-coumaric acid and (,)-epicatechin. Two isolates were inhibited by another four phenolic compounds (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, piceatannol and protocatechuic acid), one by (+)-catechin. Two of three C. destructans isolates were inhibited by all phenolic compounds except for (+)-catechin which affected only one isolate, one isolate did not respond at all. Résumé L'effet d'une fertilisation azotée sur les composés phénoliques fongistatiques des racines fines de Hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) et d'Epicea (Picea abies) a été analysé dans des parcelles de reboisement. Ces parcelles sont situées dans deux localités de Suisse sur sol acide, avec un faible taux de saturation en bases. Pendant neuf ans, les arbres ont été traités par apports secs de nitrate d'ammonium à raison de 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 kg N par hectare et par an, respectivement. La réponse des composés phénoliques à la fertilisation est variable. Les racines fines de hêtres ont montré une baisse significative d'épicatèchine (,) et de piceatannol avec l'augmentation de la fertilisation azotée. Les concentrations d'acide protocatéchique ont augmenté avec la fertilisation. Les racines d'épicèas fertilisés ont montré une baisse significative des concentrations de 4-hydroxyacétophénone et de piceatannol. La croissance mycélienne de trois isolats de chacune des espèces H .annosum s.l. et Cylindrocarpon destructans a été testée sur milieu agar contenant les différents composés phénoliques aux concentrations trouvées dans les racines fines d'épicèas (Picea abies) et de hêtres (Fagus sylvatica). Les trois isolats d'Heterobasidion annosum s.l. ont été inhibés par l'acide p-coumarique et l'épicatèchine (,). Deux isolats ont été inhibés par quatre autres composés phénoliques (acide p-hydroxybenzoïque, 4-hydroxyacétophénone, piceatannol et acide protocatéchique) et un par la catéchine (+). Deux des trois isolats de Cylindrocarpon destructans ont été inhibés par tous les composés phénoliques à l'exception de la catéchine (+) pour l'un des deux, le dernier isolat ne répondant à aucun composé. Zusammenfassung In einer Aufforstungs-Versuchsfläche wurde der Einfluss einer Stickstoffdüngung auf die fungistatischen phenolischen Verbindungen in Feinwurzeln von jungen Buchen und Fichten untersucht. Die Versuchsflächen befanden sich an zwei Standorten in der Schweiz mit sauren, basenarmen Bodenverhältnissen. Die Bäume wurden über neun Jahre mit 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 und 160 kg N ha,1 a,1 in Form von Ammoniumnitrat gedüngt. Die phenolischen Verbindungen reagierten unterschiedlich auf die Düngung. Die Feinwurzeln von Buchen zeigten mit zunehmender Stickstoffdüngung eine signifikante Abnahme von (,) Epicatechin und Piceatannol, während die Konzentration von Protocatechinsäure durch die Düngung erhöht wurde. Die Feinwurzeln gedüngter Fichten wiesen ebenfalls signifikant tiefere Konzentrationen von 4-Hydroyacetophenon und Piceatannol auf. In in-vitro-Tests wurde das Myzelwachstum von allen drei geprüften Isolaten von Heterobasidion annosum s. l. durch die in den Wurzeln gefundenen Konzentrationen von p-Coumarinsäure und (,)Epicatechin gehemmt. Zwei Pilzisolate zeigten zudem eine Hemmung durch vier weitere in den Wurzeln gefundene phenolische Verbindungen, nämlich p-Hydroxybenzoesäure, 4-Hydroxyacetophenon, Piceatannol und Protocatechinsäure, und eines wurde auch durch (+)-Catechin gehemmt. Bei zwei von drei geprüften Isolaten von Cylindrocarpon destructans wurde das Myzelwachstum durch alle untersuchten phenolischen Verbindungen gehemmt, mit Ausnahme von (+)-Catechin, welches sich nur auf ein Isolat negativ auswirkte. Ein Isolat von C. destructans reagierte auf keine der genannten Substanzen. [source]

    Biscogniauxia nummularia: pathogenic agent of a beech decline

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    G. Granata
    Summary Decline of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Sicily and Calabria (Italy) was observed to be associated with the ascomycete Biscogniauxia nummularia. This fungus is naturally present in beech stands and to date has not been considered a primary pathogenic agent. Artificial inoculations were performed to assess its pathogenicity on beech and to determine if Sicilian and Calabrian isolates differ in virulence. Biscogniauxia nummularia played an evident primary pathogenic role under the environmental conditions studied. Virulence of the isolates was variable and did not depend neither on the geographic origin nor the environmental conditions at the sites where pathogenicity testing was performed. Résumé Le champignon ascomycète Biscogniauxia nummularia a été observé en association avec un dépérissement du hêtre européen (Fagus sylvatica) en Sicile et en Calabre (Italie). Ce champignon est naturellement présent dans les hêtraies et n'était pas considéré jusqu'à présent comme un agent pathogène primaire. Des inoculations artificielles ont été réalisées pour évaluer son pouvoir pathogène sur hêtre et déterminer si les isolats de Sicile et de Calabre présentent des différences de virulence. Dans les conditions de l'étude, B. nummularia prèsente clairement un rôle pathogène primaire. Les isolats ont une virulence variable, qui ne peut pas être reliée à l'origine géographique ou aux conditions environnementales des sites d'étude du pouvoir pathogène. Zusammenfassung Der Ascomycet Biscogniauxia nummularia wurde im Zusammenhang mit dem Absterben von Buchen (Fagus sylvatica) in Sizilien und Kalabrien (Italien) beobachtet. Der Pilz stellt eine natürliche Komponente von Buchenwäldern dar und wurde bis anhin nicht als ein primäres Pathogen eingestuft. Die Pathogenität von B. nummularia wurde mittels Infektionsversuchen an Buchen neu beurteilt, und die Virulenz von sizilianischen und kalabrischen Isolaten verglichen. Unter den getesteten Umweltbedingungen wirkte B. nummularia als primäres Pathogen. Die Virulenz der Isolate war unterschiedlich, hing aber weder von der Herkunft der Isolate noch den Umweltbedingungen an den Versuchsstandorten ab. [source]

    Biomass, nutrient and pigment content of beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings infected with Phytophthora citricola, P. cambivora, P. pseudosyringae and P. undulata

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    F. Fleischmann
    Summary Fagus sylvatica saplings were infected with Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae and Phytophthora undulata to study the influence of these root pathogens on total belowground and aboveground biomass, on the nutrient distribution within plants, on the concentration of plastid pigments, including tocopherol and on components of the xanthophyll cycle. Phytophthora citricola and P. cambivora infection significantly reduced total biomass of beech when compared with control plants and finally most of these plants died at the end of the experiment. However, beech invaded by the other two Phytophthora spp. did not differ from control plants and none of them was killed. Fine root length as well as the number of root tips of all infected beeches were reduced between 30 and 50%. The excellent growth of beech infected with P. pseudosyringae and P. undulata when compared with control plants was correlated with a strong increase of important root efficiency parameters. Phytophthora citricola and P. cambivora caused a significant reduction in nitrogen concentration of leaves in comparison with control and other infected plants, whereas this nutrient was slightly increased in fine and coarse roots. Furthermore, the phosphorus and potassium concentrations in leaves were impaired after infection with P. citricola. However, foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg were not affected by the different Phytophthora spp., whereas fine and coarse roots were significantly enriched with Ca in beech infected with P. citricola or P. cambivora. The concentrations of , -tocopherol and xanthophyll cycle pigments were increased in plants infected by P. citricola and P. cambivora, indicating that several reactive oxygen species might be formed in leaves during infection. Résumé Des plants de Fagus sylvatica ont été infectés par Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae et Phytophthora undulata pour étudier l'effet de ces pathogènes racinaires sur la biomasse totale aérienne et racinaire, la distribution des éléments minéraux dans les plantes et la concentration en pigments des plastes, tocophérol et composants du cycle des xanthophylles. L'infection par P. citricola et P. cambivora a entraîné une réduction significative de la biomasse totale par rapport aux plantes témoins et la plupart des plants infectés sont morts au cours de l'expérience. Par contre, les hêtres infectés par les deux autres espèces de Phytophthora ne différent pas des témoins et aucune mortalité n'a été observée. Chez tous les hêtres infectés, une réduction de 30 à 50% de la longueur de racines fines et du nombre d'extrémités racinaires a été observée. La très bonne croissance des plants infectés par P. pseudosyringae et P. undulata par rapport aux témoins est associée à une forte augmentation de paramètres importants d'efficience racinaire. P. citricola et P. cambivora ont causé une réduction significative de la concentration foliaire en azote par rapport aux plantes témoins et aux autres plantes infectées, alors que la concentration était légèrement augmentée dans les fines et grosses racines. De plus, la concentration foliaire en phosphore et potassium a été altérée après infection par P. citricola. Les concentrations foliaires en Ca et Mg n'ont pas été affectées par les différentes espèces de Phytophthora, les fines et grosses racines étant significativement enrichies en Ca chez les plants infectés par P. citricola ou P. cambivora. La concentration en , -tocophérol et pigments du cycle des xanthophylles a augmenté dans les plants infectés par P. citricola et P. cambivora, suggérant la formation de plusieurs espèces actives de l'oxygène dans les feuilles pendant l'infection. Zusammenfassung Buchensämlinge wurden mit Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora pseudosyringae und mit Phytophthora undulata infiziert, um den Einfluss dieser Wurzelpathogene auf die oberirdische und unterirdische Biomasse, auf die Nährstoffverteilung innerhalb verschiedener Pflanzenorgane, sowie auf die Gehalte unterschiedlicher Photosynthesepigmente und Komponenten des Xanthophyll- Zyklus studieren zu können. Die Infektion mit P. citricola und P. cambivora führte zu einer deutlich reduzierten Gesamtbiomasse und am Versuchsende waren die meisten Pflanzen abgestorben. Dagegen überlebten alle mit P. pseudosyringae oder P. undulata infizierten Buchen und sie zeigten keine Unterschiede in ihren Biomassen verglichen mit Kontrollpflanzen bzw. übertrafen diese sogar. Die Feinwurzellänge und die Anzahl ihrer Wurzelspitzen war bei allen Phytophthora infizierten Pflanzen zwischen 30 und 50% im Vergleich zu denen der Kontrollen reduziert. Das ausgezeichnete Wachstum der P. pseudosyringae und P. undulata infizierten Pflanzen ging mit stark gesteigerten Wurzeleffizienzparametern einher. Die P. citricola und P. cambivora Infektion führte zu reduzierten Stickstoffgehalten in den Blättern. Die Gehalte in den Wurzeln waren jedoch leicht erhöht. Zudem wurden reduzierte Gehalte an Phosphor und Kalium in den Blättern gemessen. Die Calcium und Magnesium- Konzentrationen der Blätter unterschieden sich nicht von denen der Kontrollen. Allerdings wurde eine Calcium-Anreicherung in den Fein- und Grobwurzeln infizierter Pflanzen gemessen. Weiterhin zeigten wir, dass die Konzentrationen von , -Tocopherol und Pigmenten des Xanthophyll-Zyklus in Blättern P. citricola und P. cambivora infizierter Pflanzen erhöht waren, was möglicherweise auf die Bildung reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies hindeutet. [source]

    Rapid climate change-related growth decline at the southern range edge of Fagus sylvatica

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    Abstract Studies on Fagus sylvatica show that growth in populations toward the southern limit of this species' distribution is limited strongly by drought. Warming temperatures in the Mediterranean region are expected to exacerbate drought where they are not accompanied by increases in precipitation. We studied levels of annual growth in mature F. sylvatica trees over the last half-century in the Montseny Mountains in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Our results show significantly lower growth of mature trees at the lower limit of this species' distribution when compared with trees at higher altitudes. Growth at the lower Fagus limit is characterized by a rapid recent decline starting in approximately 1975. By 2003, growth of mature trees had fallen by 49% when compared with predecline levels. This is not an age-related phenomenon, nor is it seen in comparable populations at higher altitudes. Analysis of climate-growth relationships suggests that the observed decline in growth is a result of warming temperatures and that, as precipitation in the region has not increased, precipitation is now insufficient to ameliorate the negative effects of increased temperatures on tree growth. As the climate-response of the studied forest is comparable with that of F. sylvatica forests in other southern European regions, it is possible that this growth decline is a more widespread phenomenon. Warming temperatures may lead to a rapid decline in the growth of range-edge populations and a consequent retreat of the species distribution in southern Europe. Assessment of long-term growth trends across the southern range edge of F. sylvatica therefore merits further attention. [source]

    A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain)

    Josep Peñuelas
    Abstract Shifts in plant species and biome distribution in response to warming have been described in past climate changes. However, reported evidence of such shifts under current climate change is still scarce. By comparing current and 1945 vegetation distribution in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, NE Spain), we report here a progressive replacement of cold-temperate ecosystems by Mediterranean ecosystems. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest has shifted altitudinally upwards by ca. 70 m at the highest altitudes (1600,1700 m). Both the beech forests and the heather (Calluna vulgaris) heathlands are being replaced by holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest at medium altitudes (800,1400 m). This beech replacement has been observed to occur through a progressive isolation and degradation of beech stands. In ,isolated' (small and surrounded by holm oaks) beech stands, beech trees are 30% more defoliated, beech recruitment is 41% lower, and holm oak recruitment is three times higher than in ,continental' (large and continuous) beech stands. The progressively warmer conditions, complemented by the land use changes (mainly the cessation of traditional land management) are the apparent causes, providing a paradigmatic example of global change affecting distributions of plant species and biomes. [source]

    6000 years of forest dynamics in Suserup Skov, a seminatural Danish woodland

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Gina E. Hannon
    Abstract 1The history of a forest stand over the last 6000 years has been reconstructed by studying pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from a small, wet hollow in Suserup Skov on the island of Sjælland in eastern Denmark. 2The earliest recorded forest was Tilia -dominated but contained an intimate mixture of many different tree species that included Acer campestre, A. platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Corylus avellana, Frangula alnus, Fraxinus excelsior, Malus sylvestris, Populus tremula, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Salix spp., Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. The preserved fruits of T. platyphyllos confirm its hitherto doubtful status as a native member of the Danish flora. 3The present-day woodland developed after a period of intensive anthropogenic disturbance between , 600 bc and ad 900, during which time open canopy conditions prevailed at Suserup. Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior are the dominant trees at present, together with some Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra.4,Charcoal was present in the sediments from most time periods except at the Ulmus decline. In the last 1000 years of the sequence , the period of Fagus dominance , charcoal counts were consistently low. 5Pinus sylvestris was a natural component of this primarily deciduous forest, and the last macrofossil find dates from c. ad 900. Macrofossil Pinus cone scales recorded c. ad 1800 originate from planted individuals. Prior to Fagus dominance, the forest had an open structure partly caused by frequent, low-intensity fires associated with the presence of Pinus sylvestris. 6The replacement of Tilia by Fagus in this forest was catalysed by human activity. If the forest had not been so disturbed, the rich diversity of trees would most probably have persisted up to the present time, with only a moderate-sized Fagus population. [source]

    Flow Velocity Effect on Leaf Litter Breakdown in Tufa Depositing System (Plitvice Lakes, Croatia)

    Anita Belan
    Abstract Considerable amount of riparian leaf litter is annually supplied to the cascade Plitvice Lakes and trapped on tufa barriers where it decays together with aquatic macrophytes. These barriers are the sites of heavy calcite precipitation that can widely differ in terms of current velocity. We conducted a leafbag experiment at sites differing in flow velocity and tufa deposition rate. Decomposition of Petasites spp. and Fagus sylvatica was higher under high current (0.80 m/s) and high tufa deposition areas than in low current (< 0.20 m/s) and low tufa deposition areas (k = 0.085 vs. 0.021 for Petasites spp. and 0.009 vs. 0.002 for Fagus sylvatica). We concluded that although tufa deposition could interfere with decomposition by obstructing physical abrasion and also restricting microbial conditioning, thin calcite crusts developed on the surface of the leaves made them more fragile and thus accelerated their decomposition. High current velocity probably magnified this effect by supporting higher tufa deposition and coarser type of tufa fabrics. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Response of beech (Fagus sylvatica) to elevated CO2 and N: Influence on larval performance of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lep., Lymantriidae)

    M. W. Henn
    Two-year-old beech seedlings were kept from germination to bioassays with Lymantriadispar under the following conditions: ambient CO2/low N, elevated CO2/low N, ambient CO2/elevated N, and elevated CO2/elevated N. The effect of these growing conditions of the trees on the performance of the defoliator L. dispar was studied 2 years after initiating the tree cultivation. The developmental success of third-instar larvae of L. dispar was characterized by the weight gained, percentage of weight gain, relative growth rate (RGR), relative consumption rate (RCR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food into body substance (ECI). Contrary to our expectations, additional N-fertilization did not increase and elevated CO2 did not delay larval growth rate. However, the environmental treatments of the beech seedlings were found to affect the larval performance. Larvae consumed significantly higher amounts of foliage (RCR) on beech trees under controlled conditions (ambient CO2 and low N) compared to those under elevated CO2 and enhanced N. The opposite was true for ECI. The lowest efficacy to convert consumed food to body substance was observed under control conditions and the highest when the larvae were kept on beech trees grown under elevated CO2 and additional N-fertilization. These opposite effects resulted in the weight gain-based parameters (absolute growth, percentage of growth, and RGR) of the gypsy moth larvae remaining unaffected. The results indicate that the gypsy moth larvae are able to change their ECI and RCR to obtain a specific growth rate. This is discussed as an adaptation to specific food qualities. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Towards an understanding of the Holocene distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Thomas Giesecke
    Abstract Aim, Understanding the driving forces and mechanisms of changes in past plant distribution and abundance will help assess the biological consequences of future climate change scenarios. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether modelled patterns of climate parameters 6000 years ago can account for the European distribution of Fagus sylvatica at that time. Consideration is also given to the role of non-climatic parameters as driving forces of the Holocene spread and population expansion of F. sylvatica. Location, Europe. Methods, European distributions were simulated using a physiologically-based bioclimatic model (STASH) driven by three different atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) outputs for 6000 years ago. Results, The three simulations generally showed F. sylvatica to have potentially been as widespread 6000 years ago as it is today, which gives a profound mismatch with pollen-based reconstructions of the F. sylvatica distribution at that time. The results indicate that drier conditions during the growing season 6000 years ago could have caused a restriction of the range in the south. Poorer growth conditions with consequently reduced competitive ability were modelled for large parts of France. Main conclusions, Consideration of the entire European range of F. sylvatica showed that no single driving force could account for the observed distributional limits 6000 years ago, or the pattern of spread during the Holocene. Climatic factors, particularly drought during the growing season, are the likely major determinants of the potential range. Climatic factors are regionally moderated by competition, disturbance effects and the intrinsically slow rate of population increase of F. sylvatica. Dynamic vegetation modelling is needed to account for potentially important competitive interactions and their relationship with changing climate. We identify uncertainties in the climate and pollen data, as well as the bioclimatic model, which suggest that the current study does not identify whether or not climate determined the distribution of F. sylvatica 6000 years ago. Pollen data are better suited for comparison with relative abundance gradients rather than absolute distributional limits. These uncertainties from a study of the past, where we have information about plant distribution and abundance, argue for extreme caution in making forecasts for the future using equilibrium models. [source]

    A test of the indirect facilitation model in a temperate hardwood forest of the northern French Alps

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    Jean-Philippe Pages
    Summary 1We tested the hypothesis that the more frequent occurrence of tree seedlings below the adult trees than in canopy openings might be explained by indirect facilitation. In a temperate hardwood forest, we compared the performance of five target tree seedlings (Picea abies, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus petraea), transplanted with or without a herbaceous competitor (Molinia caerulea), either within the forest or into experimentally created gaps. 2We quantified changes in understorey biomass, light penetration and available forms of soil nitrogen during three growing seasons. 3Photosynthetic photon flux density and total biomass of Molinia were significantly higher in the gap treatment than within the forest. Total available nitrogen was higher in the gaps in the absence of Molinia, but higher in the forest in the presence of Molinia. 4Quercus survival was very low within the forest because of fungal infection, whereas survival was very high for the four other tree species in all combinations of the two treatments. 5Although the competitive effect of Molinia on the growth of the tree seedlings was much greater in the gap treatment, seedling growth was lower within the forest. We conclude that the tree canopy imposed strong light competition, and that this direct negative influence was much greater than any indirect positive effect of increased availability of nutrients to tree seedlings, due to reduced nutrient uptake by Molinia. 6Target species responses to treatments were similar, despite strong differences in nitrogen requirements between species. This may be due to the overwhelming negative influence of the tree canopy in our experiment. [source]

    Spatial variability of O layer thickness and humus forms under different pine beech,forest transformation stages in NE Germany

    Oliver Bens
    Abstract Spatial variability of humus layer (O layer) thicknesses can have important impacts upon soil water dynamics, nutrient storage and availability, as well as plant growth. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the impact of forest-transformation practices on the spatial variability of O layer thicknesses. The study focused on the Kahlenberg forest area (NE Germany) with stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) of different age structures that form a transformation chronosequence from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. Topsoil profiles including both, the O layer and the uppermost humic mineral soil horizon were excavated at intervals of 0.4 m along 15,20 m long transects, and spatial variability of O layer thicknesses was quantified by variogram analysis. The correlation lengths of total O layer thickness increased in the sequence consisting of pure pine stand (3.1 m) , older mixed stand (3.7 m) , pure beech stand (4.5 m), with the exception of the younger mixed stand, for which no correlation lengths of total O layer thickness could be determined. The degree of spatial correlation, i.e., the percentage of the total variance which can be described by variograms, was highest for the two monospecies stands, whereas this percentage was distinctly lower for the two mixed stands. A similar minimum for the two mixed stands was observed for the correlation lengths of the Oh horizon. These results suggest that the spatial structures of forest-transformation stands may be interpreted in terms of a disturbance (in the form of the underplanting of beech trees). After this disturbance, the forest ecosystem requires at least 100 y to again reach relative equilibrium. These findings are in line with the results of other soil-related investigations at these sites. Räumliche Variabilität der Humuslagenmächtigkeit und Humusformen in verschiedenen Stadien des Waldumbaus von Kiefer zu Buche in NO-Deutschland Die räumliche Variabilität der Humusauflagenmächtigkeit kann einen bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Bodenwasserdynamik, Nährstoffspeicherung und -verfügbarkeit sowie das Pflanzenwachstum haben. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Auswirkungen von Waldumbaumaßnahmen auf die räumliche Verteilung der Auflagehumusmächtigkeiten zu untersuchen. Im Forstrevier Kahlenberg, mit Beständen von Kiefer (Pinus sylvestris) und Buche (Fagus sylvatica) unterschiedlichen Alters, welche eine Transformations-Chronosequenz von einem Kiefern-Reinbestand hin zu einem reinen Buchenbestand darstellen, wurden Humusprofile entlang von 15,20 m langen Transekten in Abständen von 0,4 m aufgenommen. Die räumliche Variabilität der Mächtigkeiten der Auflagehumushorizonte wurde durch Variogramm-Analysen quantifiziert. Die Korrelationslängen der Mächtigkeiten des gesamten Auflagehumus stiegen in der Reihenfolge reiner Kiefernbestand (3,1 m) , älterer Mischbestand (3,7 m) , reiner Buchenbestand (4,5 m) an. Aus dieser Reihe fällt der jüngere Mischbestand heraus; für ihn konnten keine Korrelationslängen ermittelt werden. Der Grad der räumlichen Korrelation, d. h. der Anteil der gesamten Varianz, der durch Variogramme beschrieben wird, ist für die beiden Reinbestände am höchsten, während er für die beiden Mischbestände deutlich geringer ist. Ein ähnliches Minimum für die beiden Mischbestände ergibt sich, wenn nur die Korrelationslängen der Oh-Mächtigkeiten betrachtet werden. Diese Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die räumlichen Strukturen von Waldumbaubeständen im Sinne einer Störung gedeutet werden können (wobei die Umbaumaßnahme und der Unterbau mit Buchen die Störung darstellt). Diese Störung dauert offenbar mindestens 100 a an. Dieser Befund stimmt mit den Ergebnissen aus Studien zu weiteren relevanten Bodeneigenschaften an Forststandorten im nordostdeutschen Tiefland überein. [source]

    The umbric epipedon in the N Apennines, Italy,an example from the Vallombrosa Forest

    Guido Sanesi
    Abstract The umbric epipedon is a diagnostic surface horizon recognized by both the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. It is mainly characterized by a dark color, a moderate to high content of OM, and a base saturation of less than 50%. In the N Apennines, Central Italy, forest soils over 600,700 m a.s.l. often have this epipedon. This paper stresses the morphological, chemical, and biological properties of the epipedon, specifically in the Vallombrosa Forest, where considerable work has been done in the last decade. Here, the umbric epipedon forms on sandstone, in high forests of Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, and Castanea sativa. It does not have homogeneous properties throughout its thickness and often is divided into two distinct genetic horizons, A1 and A2. The A1 horizon is thinner, darker, and richer in OM, more base-saturated, and biologically more active than the underlying A2 horizon. The mean residence time of the bulk OM amounts to about a century in the A1 horizon, versus half a millennium in the A2. In both A1 and A2 horizons, the non-humic fraction prevails in the OM; this could account for the high susceptibility of the umbric epipedon to degrade when the forest is clear-cut or undergoes extensive uprooting due to windstorms or heavy snow loads. Significant discrepancies between the two A horizons have been found in regard to the microbial community. Umbric epipedons which developed under different tree species show minor differences, mainly concerning the microbial community. [source]

    Soil biochemical and chemical changes in relation to mature spruce (Picea abies) forest conversion and regeneration

    Zheke Zhong
    Abstract To investigate soil changes from forest conversion and regeneration, soil net N mineralization, potential nitrification, microbial biomass N, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, and other chemical and biological properties were examined in three adjacent stands: mature pure and dense Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) (110 yr) (stand I), mature Norway spruce mixed with young beech (Fagus sylvatica) (5 yr) (stand II), and young Norway spruce (16 yr) (stand III). The latter two stands were converted or regenerated from the mature Norway spruce stand as former. The studied soils were characterized as having a very low pH value (2.9 , 3.5 in 0.01 M CaCl2), a high total N content (1.06 , 1.94,%), a high metabolic quotient (qCO2) (6.7 , 16.9 g CO2 kg,1 h,1), a low microbial biomass N (1.1 , 3.3,% of total N, except LOf1 at stand III), and a relatively high net N mineralization (175 , 1213 mg N kg,1 in LOf1 and Of2, 4 weeks incubation). In the converted forest (stand II), C,:,N ratio and qCO2 values in the LOf1 layer decreased significantly, and base saturation and exchangeable Ca showed a somewhat increment in mineral soil. In the regenerated forest (stand III), the total N storage in the surface layers decreased by 30,%. The surface organic layers (LOf1, Of2) possessed a very high net N mineralization (1.5 , 3 times higher than those in other two stands), high microbial biomass (C, N), and high basal respiration and qCO2 values. Meanwhile, in the Oh layer, the base saturation and the exchangeable Ca decreased. All studied substrates showed little net nitrification after the first period of incubation (2 weeks). In the later period of incubation (7 , 11 weeks), a considerable amount of NO3 -N accumulated (20 , 100,% of total cumulative mineral N) in the soils from the two pure spruce stands (I, III). In contrast, there was almost no net NO3 -N accumulation in the soils from the converted mixed stand (II) indicating that there was a difference in microorganisms in the two types of forest ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass N, mineral N, net N mineralization, L-asparaginase, and L-glutaminase were correlated and associated with forest management. Chemische und biochemische Veränderungen der Bodeneigenschaften durch Verjüngung und Waldumbau eines Fichtenaltbestandes Um die durch den Waldumbau und die Regeneration bedingten Standortsveränderungen zu untersuchen, wurden die Netto-Stickstoffmineralisierung, die potenzielle Nitrifikation, der mikrobiell gebundene Stickstoff (Nmic), L-Asparaginase, L-Glutaminase sowie weitere chemische und biologische Parameter an drei benachbarten Standorten untersucht: Standort I, reiner Fichtenaltbestand (Picea abies (L.) Karst ,110 Jahre); Standort II, Fichtenaltbestand mit Buchenunterbau (Fagus sylvatica , 5 Jahre); Standort III, reine Fichtenaufforstung (16 Jahre). Die Standorte II und III entstanden infolge des Waldumbaus aus reinen Fichtenaltbeständen. Die untersuchten Böden sind gekennzeichnet durch sehr niedrige pH-Werte (pH(H2O) 3, 7 , 4, 2, pH (CaCl2) 2, 9 , 3, 5), hohe Gesamtstickstoffgehalte (1, 06 , 1, 94,%), hohe metabolische Quotienten (6, 7,16, 9g CO2 kg,1 h,1), geringe Nmic -Gehalte (1, 1 , 3, 3,% des Gesamt-N, ausgenommen LOf1 von Standort III) und eine relativ hohe N-Nettomineralisation (175 , 1213 mg N Kg,1 in LOf1 und Of2, nach 4 Wochen Inkubation). Am Standort II nahm das C,:,N-Verhältnis und der qCO2 im LOf1 -Horizont deutlich ab, wohingegen der Gehalt an austauschbarem Ca sowie die Basensättigung im Mineralboden geringfügig zunahmen. Am Standort III nahm der N-Vorrat (Auflagehumus + Mineralboden 0 , 10,cm) um 30,% ab. In den LOf1 - und Of2 -Lagen des Auflagehumus dieses Standortes traten eine hohe N-Nettomineralisation (1, 5- bis 3fach höher als in den Standorten I und II), hohe Gehalte an mikrobiell gebundenem C und N, eine erhöhte Basalatmung sowie erhöhte qCO2 -Werte auf. In den Oh-Lagen hingegen nahm die Basensättigung ab. Alle untersuchten Standorte zeigten in der ersten Periode der Inkubation (0 bis 2 Wochen) eine geringe Netto-Nitrifikation. An den Standorten I und III fand in der späteren Periode (7. bis 11. Woche) eine Anreicherung an NO3 (20 , 100,% des gesamten mineralischen N-Vorrates) statt. Im Gegensatz dazu wurde am Standort II keine NO3 -N- Anreicherung festgestellt. Dies deutet auf einen Unterschied in der Zusammensetzung der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften in den zwei verschiedenen Forstökosystemen hin. Nmic, N-Nettomineralisation, L-Asparaginase und L-Glutaminase korrelieren miteinander und zeigen eine enge Beziehung zu den Bewirtschaftungsformen. [source]

    Indirect facilitation and competition in tree species colonization of sub-Mediterranean grasslands

    Georges Kunstler
    Abstract: Questions: In the absence of herbivores, what is the importance of shrub facilitation for the colonization of grasslands by Fagus sylvatica and Quercus pubescens? Is there an indirect facilitative effect of shrubs on tree seedlings by limiting herb competition? Location: Causse du Larzac, southern Massif Central, France. Methods: We conducted field experiments on the facilitative role of shrubs in seedling emergence and survival, in relation to potential negative effects of shading and the presence of herbs. The effects of shade and herbs on allocation and root morphology were analysed in a pot experiment. Results: According to these experiments, the establishment of both tree species was facilitated by shrubs, but the two species differed in the processes underlying this facilitation. Shade directly facilitates the emergence rate of both species. Shade also indirectly facilitates Fagus survival by limiting herb competition. No indirect facilitation of Quercus survival was detected. These differences reflect variation in the tolerance of herb competition by seedlings of the two species. The tolerance of herb competition by Quercus seedlings allows regeneration over a wide area under each shrub and some regeneration events in grasslands at low grazing intensity. In contrast, for Fagus, only a narrow area under each shrub is suitable; regeneration is zero in grassland. The high tolerance of herb competition by Quercus seedlings may result from the avoidance of root competition. Conclusions In grasslands with severe drought stress, and almost obligatory shrub facilitation for tree seedling regeneration, the tolerance of herb competition may alter the precise role of facilitation in the colonization process. [source]

    Tree rings show competition dynamics in abandoned Castanea sativa coppices after land-use changes

    Patrick Fonti
    Abstract Questions: As a consequence of socio-economic changes, many Castanea sativa coppices have been abandoned and are now developing past their usual rotation length. Do we have to expect changes in stand structure and composition of abandoned Castanea sativa coppice invaded by other species? Is a tree ring-based approach adequate to early recognise changes in inter-specific competitive interaction? Location: Lowest alpine forest belt of the southern Swiss Alps. Methods: We selected a 60-year old abandoned Castanea sativa coppice stand with sporadic Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris mixed in. Using tree-ring based indices we analysed differences in the species-specific response to competition. Analyses were performed by comparing how subject dominant trees (10 Castanea, 5 Fagus, 5 Quercus) have differently faced competition from their immediate Castanea coppice neighbourhood, taking into account the changes over time and space. Results: Although no species appears yet to have made a difference in the surrounding coppice mortality, there are species-specific differences in growth dominance, which indicate potential successional processes. Castanea sativa growth dominated in the early stages of stand development. However, after approximately 30,35 yr Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris became much more dominant, indicating a change in competitive potential that does not favour Castanea sativa. Conclusions: Without interventions this coppice will develop into a mixed stand. A tree-ring based approach allows an early recognition of forthcoming changes in stand composition and structure and is likely to be an important tool for forest landscape management. [source]

    Disturbance history of a European old-growth mixed-species forest,A spatial dendro-ecological analysis

    Bernhard E. Splechtna
    Abstract Question: We were interested if and how variation in frequency and/or size of disturbances affect the dynamics of a montane old-growth forest in Central Europe. Location: The forest, co-dominated by Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Abies alba, is located in Lower Austria and represents one of the few sizable virgin forests in Central Europe. Methods: We extracted cores from 100 trees using systematic grid sampling (grid cell size 10 m × 10 m) on each of four 1-ha plots distributed across the old-growth remnant of 300 ha. We inferred disturbance events from rapid early growth and release events. For defining release criteria, we applied the boundary line method. We investigated the spatial structure of current age and gap distributions and past disturbance events in grid cells, using a pair density statistic. Results: The disturbance histories indicate decades with peaks and also extended periods without disturbance. Some peaks occurred synchronously at three of the four plots (1910s, 1930s, 1960s and 1980s). Peaks and gaps in the disturbance chronologies widely agreed with peaks and gaps in the age distributions. Most disturbance events during single decades showed a random spatial distribution. Conclusions: There is considerable variation in disturbance frequency and/or severity over time. Most disturbance events will rather thin the stand than clear larger areas at once. Following scattered disturbance two pathways occur: (1) gap expansion leading to creation of larger gaps, and (2) gap closure by lateral encroachment or by subcanopy trees growing into the canopy. [source]

    Neighbourhood interactions and environmental factors influencing old-pasture succession in the Central Pyrenees

    í Dole
    Abstract. The shrub Buxus sempervirens and the trees Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica have recently recolonized old-pastures in the Central Pyrenees. We mapped all live and dead individuals (> 1.3 m tall) in a large forest plot in Ordesa Valley to examine the importance of density-dependent processes during recolonization. Biotic interactions were inferred from changes in horizontal structure and the influences of neighbours on tree survival. Buxus differentially influenced establishment and survival of tree species, thereby controlling future canopy composition and spatial structure. The rapidly invading Abies formed denser patches on elevated sites less occupied by Buxus, whereas Fagus preferentially established within shrubs. Abies reached densities which led to intense intraspecific competition and high mortality rates among saplings. Self-thinning in Abies led to smaller numbers of regularly spaced survivors, and greater relative dominance of Fagus. Disregarding intraspecific effects and abiotic environment, Abies survival was significantly lower under Buxus shrubs, which suggests that the spatial location and abundance of Abies was constrained by the location of Buxus. Fagus survival was not related to Buxus density, but remained significantly lower in denser Abies patches. The higher mortality of Fagus in denser Abies patches, and the resulting spatial segregation of the species, reflects asymmetric interspecific competition. Inhibition from Buxus shrubs and intraspecific competition prevent invading Abies from dominating and may therefore help in maintaining a mixed Abies-Fagus stand. [source]

    Extensive spatial genetic structure revealed by AFLP but not SSR molecular markers in the wind-pollinated tree, Fagus sylvatica

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Abstract Studies of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) in wind-pollinated trees have shown that SGS is generally weak and extends over relatively short distances (less than 30,40 m) from individual trees. However, recent simulations have shown that detection of SGS is heavily dependent on both the choice of molecular markers and the strategy used to sample the studied population. Published studies may not always have used sufficient markers and/or individuals for the accurate estimation of SGS. To assess the extent of SGS within a population of the wind-pollinated tree Fagus sylvatica, we genotyped 200 trees at six microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and 250 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and conducted spatial analyses of pairwise kinship coefficients. We re-sampled our data set over individuals and over loci to determine the effect of reducing the sample size and number of loci used for SGS estimation. We found that SGS estimated from AFLP markers extended nearly four times further than has been estimated before using other molecular markers in this species, indicating a persistent effect of restricted gene flow at small spatial scales. However, our SSR-based estimate was in agreement with other published studies. Spatial genetic structure in F. sylvatica and similar wind-pollinated trees may therefore be substantially larger than has been estimated previously. Although 100,150 AFLP loci and 150,200 individuals appear sufficient for adequately estimating SGS in our analysis, 150,200 individuals and six SSR loci may still be too few to provide a good estimation of SGS in this species. [source]

    Plant-mediated nitrous oxide emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaves

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2005
    Mari Pihlatie
    Summary ,,Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates from forest ecosystems are based currently on emission measurements using soil enclosures. Such enclosures exclude emissions via tall plants and trees and may therefore underestimate the whole-ecosystem N2O emissions. ,,Here, we measured plant-mediated N2O emissions from the leaves of potted beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings after fertilizing the soil with 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate (15NH415NO3), and after exposing the roots to elevated concentrations of N2O. ,,Ammonium nitrate fertilization induced N2O + 15N2O emissions from beech leaves. Likewise, the foliage emitted N2O after beech roots were exposed to elevated concentrations of N2O. The average N2O emissions from the fertilization and the root exposure experiments were 0.4 and 2.0 µg N m,2 leaf area h,1, respectively. Higher than ambient atmospheric concentrations of N2O in the leaves of the forest trees indicate a potential for canopy N2O emissions in the forest. ,,Our experiments demonstrate the existence of a previously overlooked pathway of N2O to the atmosphere in forest ecosystems, and bring about a need to investigate the magnitude of this phenomenon at larger scales. [source]

    NH3 and NO2 fluxes between beech trees and the atmosphere , correlation with climatic and physiological parameters

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 3 2000
    The dynamic-chamber technique was used to investigate the correlation between NH3 and NO2 fluxes and different climatic and physiological parameters: air temperature; relative air humidity; photosynthetic photon fluence rate; NH3 and NO2 concentrations; transpiration rate; leaf conductance for water vapour; and photosynthetic activity. The experiments were performed with twigs from the sun crown of mature beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) at a field site (Höglwald, Germany), and with 12-wk-old beech seedlings under controlled conditions. Both sets of experiments showed that NO2 and NH3 fluxes depended linearly on NO2 and NH3 concentration, respectively, in the concentration ranges representative for the field site studied, and on water-vapour conductance as a measure for stomatal aperture. The NO2 compensation point determined in the field studies (the atmospheric NO2 concentration with no net NO2 flux) was 1.8,1.9 nmol mol,1. The NH3 compensation point varied between 3.3 and 3.5 nmol mol,1 in the field experiments, and was 3.0 nmol mol,1 in the experiments under controlled conditions. The climatic factors T and PPFR were found to influence both NO2 and NH3 fluxes indirectly, by changing stomatal conductance. Whilst NO2 flux showed a response to changing relative humidity that could be explained by altered stomatal conductance, increased NH3 flux with increasing relative humidity (>50%) depended on other factors. The exchange of NO2 between above-ground parts of beech trees and the atmosphere could be explained exclusively by uptake or emission of NO2 through the stomata, as indicated by the quotient between measured and predicted NO2 conductance of approx. 1 under all environmental conditions examined. Neither internal mesophyll resistances nor additional sinks could be observed for adult trees or for beech seedlings. By contrast, the patterns of NH3 flux could not be explained by an exclusive exchange of NH3 through the stomata. Deposition into additional sinks on the leaf surface, as indicated by an increase in the quotient between measured and predicted NH3 conductance, gained importance in high air humidity, when the stomata were closed or nearly closed and/or when atmospheric NH3 concentrations were high. Although patterns of NH3 gas exchange did not differ between different months or years at high NH3 concentrations (c. 140 nmol mol,1), it must be assumed that emission or deposition fluxes at low ambient NH3 concentration (0.8 and 4.5 nmol mol,1) might vary significantly with time because of variation in the NH3 compensation point. [source]

    Growth,mortality relationships as indicators of life-history strategies: a comparison of nine tree species in unmanaged European forests

    OIKOS, Issue 6 2008
    Jan Wunder
    Forest succession depends strongly on the life history strategies of individual trees. An important strategic element is the ability to survive unfavourable environmental conditions that result in strongly reduced tree growth. In this study, we investigated whether the relationship between growth and mortality differs among tree species and site conditions. We analysed 10 329 trees of nine tree species (Picea abies, Taxus baccata, Fagus sylvatica, Tilia cordata, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Betula spp. and Alnus glutinosa) from unmanaged forests of Europe: the continental Bia,owie,a forest (Poland) and several oceanically influenced Swiss forest reserves. For each species, we calculated a set of flexible logistic regression models with the explanatory variables growth (as measured by relative basal area increment), tree size and site. We selected the species-specific model with the highest goodness-of-fit and calculated its discriminatory power (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC) and calibration measures. Most models achieved at least a good discriminatory power (AUC>0.7) and the AUC ranged from 0.62 to 0.87; calibration curves did not indicate any overfitting. Almost all growth,mortality relationships differed among species and sites, i.e. there is no universal growth,mortality relationship. Some species such as F. excelsior showed reduced survival probabilities for both unfavourable and very good growth conditions. We conclude that the growth,mortality relationships presented here can contribute to the life-history classification of trees and that they should also help to improve projections of forest succession models. [source]

    A protein phosphatase 2A from Fagus sylvatica is regulated by GA3 and okadaic acid in seeds and related to the transition from dormancy to germination

    Mary Paz González-García
    Several gibberellic acid (GA3)-induced cDNA fragments encoding putative serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP) 2A catalytic subunits were obtained by means of differential reverse transcriptase-PCR approach. The full-length clone, named FsPP2A1, isolated from a beechnut cDNA library, exhibited all the features of and homology to members of the PP2A family. By transient expression of FsPP2A1 in tobacco and Arabidopsis cells as a green fluorescent fusion protein, we have obtained evidence supporting the subcellular localization of this protein in both the cytosol and the nucleus. Analysis of FsPP2A1 expression during seed stratification shows that these transcripts increase in the presence of GA3, a treatment proved to be efficient in breaking the dormancy of Fagus sylvatica seeds, but they are almost undetectable in dormant seeds or when dormancy is maintained after treatment with either abscisic acid or the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. The PP inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA) has a clear effect in decreasing both seed germination and FsPP2A1 expression. Furthermore, FsPP2A1 is specifically expressed in seed tissues, not being detected in other vegetative tissues examined. These results show the regulation of this PP by GA3 and OKA in these seeds. Its relationship with the processes taking place during the transition from dormancy to germination is also discussed. [source]

    Evidence that Branch Cuvettes are Reasonable Surrogates for Estimating O3 Effects in Entire Tree Crowns

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    C. Then&
    Abstract: Within the scope of quantifying ozone (O3) effects on forest tree crowns it is still an open question whether cuvette branches of adult trees are reasonable surrogates for O3 responses of entire tree crowns and whether twigs exhibit autonomy in defense metabolism in addition to carbon autonomy. Therefore, cuvette-enclosed branches of mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees were compared with branches exposed to the same and different ozone regimes by a free-air fumigation system under natural stand conditions by means of a vice versa experiment. For this purpose, cuvettes receiving 1 × O3 air were mounted in trees exposed to 2 × O3 and cuvettes receiving 2 × O3 air were mounted in trees exposed to 1 × O3 in the upper sun crown. At the end of the fumigation period in September 2004, leaves were examined for differences in gas exchange parameters, pigments, antioxidants, carbohydrates, and stable isotope ratios. No significant differences in foliar gas exchange, total carbohydrates, stable isotope ratios, pigment, and antioxidant contents were found as a consequence of cuvette enclosure (cuvette versus free-air branches) of the same O3 concentrations besides increase of glucose inside the cuvettes and reduction of the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. No significant ozone effect was found for the investigated gas exchange and most biochemical parameters. The total and oxidized glutathione level of the leaves was increased by the 2 × O3 treatment in the cuvette and the free-air branches, but this effect was significant only for the free-air branches. From these results we conclude that cuvette branches are useful surrogates for examining the response of entire tree crowns to elevated O3 and that the defence metabolism of twigs seems to be at least partially autonomous. [source]