Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Extruder

  • co-rotating twin screw extruder
  • co-rotating twin-screw extruder
  • corotating twin-screw extruder
  • screw extruder
  • single screw extruder
  • single-screw extruder
  • twin screw extruder
  • twin-screw extruder

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to establish conditions for the texturization of soy protein isolate and peanut flour mixture using a single-screw extruder. The effects of feed moisture, screw-speed, and barrel temperature on the characteristics of the texturized products were studied. Feed moisture was the most important factor affecting the texture. Feeding ingredients with 22% moisture had the highest water absorption and expansion indices, and Hunter L value (P < 0.05). When the screw speed was above 180 RPM, the meat analog had a 12% decrease in the expansion index and a 5% decrease in moisture content (P < 0.05). When the barrel temperature was increased to 165C, there was a 12% decrease in the water absorption index, and a 23% decrease in the expansion index of the meat analogs (P < 0.05). Overall, an acceptable meat analog could be successfully produced with 22% moisture in the raw ingredient, screw speed at 140 RPM, and barrel temperatures at 150, 155, and 160C for the three temperature zones respectively. [source]

    Evaluating Energy Consumption and Efficiency of a Twin-Screw Extruder

    M. Liang
    ABSTRACT: Using the results from twin-screw extrusion of corn meal, both energy consumption and extruder efficiency were found to be significantly correlated with screw speed and specific feeding load (SFL). An increase in the SFL decreased the total specific mechanical energy, but increased the extruder efficiency. SFL influenced the extruder efficiency more than the screw speed. Increasing the screw speed from 300 to 450 rpm at a constant SFL level increased the extruder efficiency by 6 to 11%, whereas an increase of SFL from 0.0026 to 0.0038 kg rev 1 raised the extruder efficiency by 30%. Of the mechanical energy consumed per unit mass of extrudate, over 98% were used for shearing or viscous dissipation and less than 1.5% were for pumping during twin-screw extrusion of corn meal. [source]

    Mapping approach for 3D laminar mixing simulations: application to industrial flows

    O. S. Galaktionov
    Abstract The computationally efficient mapping technique is applied to model laminar mixing in the transport section of the co-rotating twin screw extruder. The technique uses coarse grain values to describe the mixture and exploits temporal and spatial periodicity of the flow. The mapping approach yields adequate description of the concentration fields and residence time distributions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Using Rheology to Achieve Co-Extrusion of Cement-Based Materials with Graded Cellular Structures

    Yunbo Chen
    Co-extrusion involves simultaneous extrusion of multiple layers and can be used to produce functionally graded materials whose layers have different properties. Rheological control is vital for successful co-extrusion. During extrusion, flow in the barrel and die land in a ram extruder should be plug-like, while the paste should be sheared and uniformly elongated in the die entry region. In the barrel of the extruder, the paste flow velocity field was inferred by direct observation of the paste left in the barrel, and evidence for plug flow in the barrel was seen only at low-extrudate velocities. In the die land, the Benbow nonlinear model was employed to assess the paste flow behavior, and plug flow was achieved only when the shear stress applied to the paste by the die land wall was smaller than its yield stress. For co-extrusion, a simple method using thin-walled tubes was found to be effective to prepare layered feedrods. Functionally graded cellular structures of cement-based materials were successfully co-extruded by using a low-extrudate velocity when the paste had decreasing shear viscosity from inner to outer layers. [source]

    Effect of extrusion parameters on flavour retention, functional and physical properties of mixtures of starch and d -limonene encapsulated in milk protein

    Sri Yuliani
    Summary The purpose of this research was to investigate the retention of flavour volatiles encapsulated in water-insoluble systems during high temperature,short time extrusion process. A protein precipitation method was used to produce water-insoluble capsules encapsulating limonene, and the capsules were added to the extruder feed material (cornstarch). A twin-screw extruder was used to evaluate the effect of capsule level of addition (0,5%), barrel temperature (125,145 °C) and screw speed (145,175 r.p.m.) on extruder parameters (torque, die pressure, specific mechanical energy, residence time distribution) and extrudate properties [flavour retention, texture, colour, density, expansion, water absorption index, water solubility index (WSI)]. Capsule level had a significant effect on extrusion conditions, flavour retention and extrudate physical properties. Flavour retention increased with the increase in capsule level from 0% to 2.5%, reached a maximum value at capsule level of 2.5% and decreased when the capsule level increased from 2.5% to 5%. The die pressure, torque, expansion ratio, hardness and WSI exhibited the opposite effect with the presence of capsules. [source]

    Effects of extrusion conditions on quality of cassava bran/cassava starch extrudates

    Jorge Minoru Hashimoto
    Summary Blends of cassava bran and cassava starch were processed in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology was used to determine the effect of the concentration of cassava bran (10,50%), barrel temperature (150,210 °C), feed moisture (16,20%) and screw speed (120,180 r.p.m.) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates. All the independent variables were significant (P < 0.05) for radial expansion. The water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) were affected by bran level, screw speed and temperature, while only moisture and temperature influenced specific volume. The maximum radial expansion was found when all the independent variables were at their lowest levels. Lowest-density extrudates (highest specific volume) were obtained at 16,18% moisture and 180,200 °C. An increase in bran level increased the WAI but decreased the WSI when the temperature was higher than 170 °C . Screw speed had a slight effect on those responses, decreasing water absorption and increasing water solubility when changed from 120 to 180 r.p.m. [source]

    Quantification of dynamic mixing performance of single screws of different configurations by visualization and image analysis

    A. C.-Y.
    Abstract The visualization and image analysis techniques developed by the authors for the study of quantifying the dynamic quality of mixing of a single-screw extruder were employed to investigate the mixing performance of screws of different configurations. The mixing quality was quantified by calculating the variances of the light intensity of the bitmap files cropped from the films taken at the screw length of 15D and 17D of a 45-mm screw diameter single-screw extruder. Temperature and screw speed were the two variables studied. While temperature and back pressure were found to have little effect on the mixing quality, screw speed was demonstrated to be a major factor responsible for the mixing fluctuation observed during extrusion. In fact, screw speed and mixing fluctuation appeared to have a relationship that the higher the screw speed, the bigger the fluctuation (i.e., poorer quality of mixing). The experimental results also revealed that the secondary flight of a barrier screw might be essential to improve the quality of mixing. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:1,15, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20142 [source]

    Rheology and thermal properties of polypropylene modified by reactive extrusion with dicumyl peroxide and trimethylol propane triacrylate

    Feng-Hua Su
    Abstract Trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were used to modify polypropylene (PP) by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder. The effects of TMPTA concentration on oscillatory shear rheology, melt elongational rheology, and thermal properties were comparatively evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the grafting reaction took place and TMPTA had been grafted onto the PP backbone. Differential scanning calorimetric results showed that the crystallization temperatures of modified PPs were higher than those of the initial and degraded PPs. The rheological characteristics such as higher storage modulus (G,) at low frequency, increased degree of shear thinning, a plateau in tan ,,, plot, and upturning at high viscosity in the Cole,Cole plots proved that the long-chain branches have been added to the linear PP molecule. The melt elongational rheology showed that the modified PPs exhibit improved melt strength and increased elongational viscosity in the presence of TMPTA and DCP, which further confirmed the existence of long-chain branching (LCB) in their backbone. According to the analytical results from oscillatory shear rheology and elongational rheology, it can be inferred that the LCB level in modified samples increases with an increase in TMPTA concentration. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:16,25, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20146 [source]

    Cohesive-driven particle circulation in the solids conveying zone of a single-screw extruder

    Michael R. Thompson
    Abstract Aspects of heat transfer within the solids conveying zone of a single-screw extruder were studied by using a specially constructed drum testing apparatus. Experiments were conducted with linear low-density polyethylene, polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP) samples by examining their transient temperature profile while the heated drum was stationary or moving. In accordance with classic solids conveying theory, the granular beds of PP and PS remained as plugs while the drum rotated. In such cases, the dominant modes of heat transfer for these systems are conduction through the contact area of a particle and conduction through the interstitial gas. An exception to this behavior was found with PE, in which the bed temperature increased more rapidly while the drum rotated. Visual observations of the bed showed that the particles circulated in the presence of shear and that this complex flow pattern increased in velocity as the drum temperature approached the onset temperature for melting the PE material. With strong correlation between the rate of circulation and the temperature rise in the bed, the movement of particles was assumed to act in a convective heat transfer mode bringing about more uniform heating of the polymer. The circulation phenomenon was attributed to dominant adhesive forces at the particle,drum interface overcoming the cohesive strength of the bulk. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 27:74,88, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20121 [source]

    Thermoplastic silicone elastomer lubricant in extrusion of polypropylene wood flour composites

    Velichko Hristov
    Abstract A possibility of using a thermoplastic silicone elastomer (TPSE) for reduction of surface defects in the extrusion of wood-filled metallocene polypropylene (mPP) has been investigated in this work. A capillary rheometer and a single-screw extruder have been utilized to study the effect of the additive on the extrudate distortions. Maleated syndiotactic metallocene polypropylene was also used as an adhesion promoter in mPP/wood flour composites. At loadings of 50 wt% wood flour in the mPP, the extrudates come out of the die with significant tearing and surface roughness. The surface rupture mechanism is similar to that of sharkskin in neat polymers; however, the defect is much more exaggerated in the case of wood fiber-filled composites. It was found that TPSE at low concentrations (1 wt%) was able to reduce or even completely eliminate extrudate surface tearing. Increasing the extrusion speed yielded better results. Addition of a coupling agent also provides improvement in the extrudate appearance. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 26:100,108, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20090 [source]

    Rheological properties and processability of chemically modified poly(ethylene terephthalate- co -ethylene isophthalate)

    Masayuki Yamaguchi
    Abstract Rheological properties and extrusion processability have been evaluated for poly(ethylene terephthalate- co -ethylene isophthalate) (P(ET-EI)) modified by a styrene-acrylate-based copolymer with glycidyl functionality in an extruder. Adding a small amount of the modifier enhances melt elasticity to a great extent. Consequently, modified P(ET-EI) exhibits excellent processability without sagging, that is, downward deformation of extrudates by gravitational force. Considering that molecular weight and its distribution hardly change, which is confirmed by GPC measurements, generation of long-chain branches is responsible for the rheological properties and thus the processability. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 25:236,241, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20078 [source]

    Mixing immiscible blends in an intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder

    Ramesh Potluri
    Abstract Domain size of 10% dispersed polystyrene in polyethylene was followed in a 34-mm intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder. Variables studied included the effects of barrel temperature, screw speed, viscosity ratio of dispersed-to-continuous phase, and parallel melt versus preblended solids feeds. After steady state was achieved, die samples were quenched for later photomicrographing. The extruder was then stopped and quenched, with subsequent pulling of the screws. From 7 to 12 additional samples were taken along the 18/1 L/D extruder for determination of the mechanism of dispersion and dispersed phase domain size by optical microscopy. At low temperatures, the polystyrene tended to fracture with sharp edges. The fine particles formed in the initial breakup underwent no further size reduction. At higher temperatures, fractured segments had rounder edges, but the size of the small domains remained constant throughout the axial length. There was some evidence of flocculation and coalescence prior to exit through the die. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 25: 81,89, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20065 [source]

    Modeling of transport phenomena and melting kinetics of starch in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder,

    Lijun Wang
    A mathematical model was developed to simulate fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting kinetics of starch in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder (TSE). The partial differential equations governing the transport phenomena of the biomaterial in the extruder were solved by a finite element scheme. For validating the model, the predicted product pressure, bulk temperature at the entrance of the die, and minimum residence time of the biomaterial in the extruder were compared with experimental data. Standard errors of product pressure, bulk temperature at the die entrance, and minimum residence time were about 8.8, 2.8, and 17.3%. Simulations were carried out to investigate profiles of product pressure, bulk temperature, and melt fraction within the extruder during extrusion. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 25: 22,40, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20055 [source]

    Influence of the length of the plasticating system on selected characteristics of an autothermal extrusion process

    Janusz W. Sikora
    Abstract The presented paper aims to determine the influence of the length of the plasticating system on the course of an autothermal extrusion process. Three special screws were used, of the relationship of the length of the operating part to diameter of the screw L/D = 20, 25, and 30, with a tip for intensive shearing and mixing, assigned for polyethylene processing, and five screw rotation frequencies were applied. The conducted research consisted of the measurement, during the extrusion, of the factors studied directly and in the calculation, and on their basis, the values characterizing this process. It is stated that the change of the length of the plasticating system in a significant way influences the dependences determining polymer flow rate, temperature and pressure of the processed polymer, extrusion velocity, specific energy consumption, and energy efficiency of the extruder; that is, the whole characteristic of an autothermal extrusion process. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 24:21,28, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/.adv20021 [source]

    Physical characterization of starch extrudates as a function of melting transitions and extrusion conditions

    Stéphanie Blanche
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between starch melt transition characteristics, extrusion conditions, and final product properties. Cornstarch was extruded using a corotating twin-screw extruder at varying moisture content, medium/high screw configuration, and 300/400-rpm screw speeds. Extrudates were evaluated for bulk density, expansion ratio, cell structure, bending strength, thermal and pasting properties. Temperature change (,T) was defined as the temperature difference between the native starch melting temperature and its melt temperature just behind the die during extrusion at a given moisture content. ,T was significantly affected by starch moisture content and mechanical shearing, which controlled the melting behavior of the starch in the barrel. Amylose,lipid complex formation during extrusion increased as ,T increased and leveled off at ,T of about 20°C. Pasting peak viscosity of the starch extrudates decreased as ,T increased and leveled off at ,T of about 15°C. Within the same range of mechanical shearing intensity, extrudate bulk density and bending strength decreased linearly as ,T increased. Extrudate expansion was negatively correlated to bulk density. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 23: 277,290, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20017 [source]

    Rheological properties of LDPE processed by conventional processing machines

    Masayuki Yamaguchi
    Abstract The impact of applied processing history and the postprocessing annealing on the rheological properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been studied employing various kinds of conventional processing machines. Processing by a corotating twin-screw extruder (Co-TSE) and an internal batch mixer depressed the drawdown force, one of the elastic properties of a melt, to a great extent, even though molecular weight and the polydispersity did not change. On the other hand, the sample processed by a two-roll mill exhibited the drawdown force as high as the original pellets, which is owing to the intermittent stress history instead of the relentless one in the Co-TSE and the internal batch mixer. Furthermore, the effect of screw configuration in the Co-TSE has also been investigated. It was found that the processing by conveying screws depressed the drawdown force and melt fracture more than that by kneading blocks as long as the torque and the residence time are the same. The large, abrupt, and frequent change in flow direction in the Co-TSE with kneading blocks prohibits the molecular orientation, which leads to disentanglement associated with long-chain branches. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 22: 179,187, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.10047 [source]

    Effect of screw element type in degradation of polypropylene upon multiple extrusions

    Sebastião V. Canevarolo
    Abstract The screw profile of a twin-screw extruder can be designed to contain kneading and conveying elements inducing different levels of degradation in the polymer melt. In this work, the level of degradation in polypropylene has been measured after multiple extrusions,for various screw profiles,using size exclusion chromatography and IR spectroscopy. The average molecular weight and the polydispersity have been reduced and the carbonyl and unsaturation indexes increase as the number of extrusions and the aggressivity of the screw profile increase. The kneading element with 90° caused the greater level of degradation. On the other hand, the addition of left-hand conveying elements reduces the level of degradation because of the extra volume of molten polymer held in the screw, reducing the viability of oxygen inside the barrel. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 243,249, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.10028 [source]

    Rubber toughening of glass fiber reinforced nylon-6,6 with functionalized block copolymer SEBS-g-MA

    George P. Karayannidis
    Abstract The toughening of glass fiber reinforced nylon-6,6 (PA-6,6) by using the functionalized triblock copolymer styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene, grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) was examined. Blends containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5 wt% copolymer were prepared by melt blending in a single-screw extruder. Emphasis was given to the study of mechanical properties in comparison with morphology and thermal properties of the aforementioned samples. Although the amount of SEBS-g-MA that was added in PA-6,6 was not enough to produce a super-tough material, a significant increase in the resistance to crack propagation and impact strength was observed in all blends. This behavior was proportional to the amount of SEBS-g-MA that was added for samples having up to 10%, rubber, while additional amounts seem to have no further effect. A small decrease in tensile strength was also observed. From FTIR spectroscopy and DSC analysis it was shown that the grafting extent of SEBS-g-MA to PA-6,6 was very low. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 153,163, 2002; Published online in Wiley Interscience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.10023 [source]

    Investigation of the gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch

    Roberta C. R. Souza
    Abstract The gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the gelatinization temperature as a function of the water content. Plasticized corn starch was processed in single- and twin-screw extruders to produce thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties of the films obtained in the twin-screw extruder with the addition of different quantities of water were evaluated. Dynamic mechanical analysis applied to thermoplastic starch samples obtained with 33% (w/w) total plasticizers showed two transitions, attributed to the presence of two phases in the starch,glycerol,water system. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 17,24, 2002; DOI 10.1002/adv.10007 [source]

    Distributive mixing profiles for co-rotating twin-screw extruders

    Gifford Shearer
    Distributive mixing was experimentally measured during polymer melt blending along the length of a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. A mixing limited interfacial reaction between two reactive polymer tracers was employed to gain direct evidence of the generation of interfacial area. Model reactions were performed to validate this novel experimental method. In particular, the conversion was a direct indicator of the interfacial area available for the reaction. Specially designed sampling ports were used to obtain polymer samples along the length of the extruder during its continuous operation. The mixing capabilities of conveying sections and kneading blocks were compared over a wide range of operating conditions. In conveying sections, distributive mixing was controlled by the fully filled fraction. The mixing in kneading blocks depended on the combination of the operating conditions and the stagger angle. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 20: 169,190, 2001 [source]

    In-line analysis of the influence of monomeric and oligomeric hindered amine on the hydrolysis of polycarbonate in a PC/ABS blend

    Vipin V. Rajan
    Abstract The polycarbonate/polyacrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) blends lose mechanical properties when exposed to outdoor conditions. This is due to the ultraviolet (UV) induced photo-oxidation of the PC phase and the polybutadiene portion of the ABS. It is known that ABS can be stabilised against terrestrial light by the use of hindered amine in combination with a UV absorber. However, such hindered amine cannot be used when PC is present in a multi component polymer blend. The hydrolysis of PC is accelerated when a small amount of hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) is incorporated in the resin and is exposed to elevated temperature. In this article the effect of monomeric and oligomeric hindered amine on the hydrolysis of PC during the compounding of PC/ABS blend in a twin screw extruder at 240°C is observed by means of in-line UV-vis spectroscopy. Tinuvin 765 was used as monomeric hindered amine and Tinuvin 622 as oligomeric hindered amine. The molecular weight of the compounded sample was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the rheological properties were observed using an online viscometer. It was found that the extent of hydrolysis induced by the oligomeric hindered amine is less compared to monomeric amine. It was also observed that polymeric hindered amine imparts better dispersion of the ABS phase into the polymer blend. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Reactive grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto polypropylene

    Emma-Louise Burton
    Abstract This work explored the melt-phase grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene on a closely intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder (16-mm screws, 40 : 1 length/diameter ratio). The modification of the base polypropylene to produce GMA-grafted polypropylene was achieved via peroxide-induced hydrogen abstraction from the polypropylene followed by the grafting of the GMA monomer or by the grafting of styrene followed by copolymerization with the GMA. In this study, both the position and order of the reactant addition were investigated as a route to improving graft yields and reducing side reactions (degradation). For the peroxide,GMA system, adding GMA to the melt before the peroxide resulted in significant improvements in the graft levels because of the improved dispersion of GMA in the melt. The addition of a comonomer (styrene) was explored as a second route to improving the graft yield. Although the addition of the comonomer led to a considerable rise in the level of grafted GMA, altering the order of the reactant addition was not found to contribute to an increase in the grafted GMA levels. However, variable levels of grafted styrene were achieved, and this may play an important role in the development of grafted polymers to suit specific needs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Flammability and mechanical properties of wood flour-filled polypropylene composites

    M. B. Abu Bakar
    Abstract Polypropylene (PP) composites filled with wood flour (WF) were prepared with a twin-screw extruder and an injection-molding machine. Three types of ecologically friendly flame retardants (FRs) based on ammonium polyphosphate were used to improve the FR properties of the composites. The flame retardancy of the PP/WF composites was characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vertical burn testing (UL94-V), and limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurements. The TGA data showed that all three types of FRs could enhance the thermal stability of the PP/WF/FR systems at high temperatures and effectively increase the char residue formation. The FRs could effectively reduce the flammability of the PP/WF/FR composites by achieving V-0 UL94-V classification. The increased LOI also showed that the flammability of the PP/WF/FR composites was reduced with the addition of FRs. The mechanical property study revealed that, with the incorporation of FRs, the tensile strength and flexural strength were decreased, but the tensile and flexural moduli were increased in all cases. The presence of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) resulted in an improvement of the filler,matrix bonding between the WF/intumescent FR and PP, and this consequently enhanced the overall mechanical properties of the composites. Morphological studies carried out with scanning electron microscopy revealed clear evidence that the adhesion at the interfacial region was enhanced with the addition of MAPP to the PP/WF/FR composites. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Mechanical properties and flammability of polycarbonate alloys containing nanosize additives

    Zhiyi Zhang
    Abstract Different organic,inorganic composite particles [montmorillonite/poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), SiO2/PBA/PMMA, and CaCO3/PBA/PMMA] were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Furthermore, polycarbonate (PC) alloys were prepared via the doping of these composite particles into PC with a twin-screw extruder. The structure, mechanical properties, and flammability of the PC alloys were studied in detail. Although the tensile modulus of PC decreased a little, the flexibility and impact resistance were improved by the addition of these composite particles. This result was attributed to the fact that the composite particles were well dispersed in the PC matrix, with a cocontinuous phase formed between the particles and PC. In addition, the combustion behavior of the PC alloys, compared with that of the pure PC, resulted from a ceramic-like char that formed on the surface of the PC alloys during burning. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile,butadiene,styrene)/montmorillonite nanocomposites and degradation studies during extrusion reprocessing

    E.-K. Karahaliou
    Abstract In this study, the preparation of organically modified montmorillonite/poly(acrylonitrile,butadiene,styrene) (ABS) nanocomposites was studied by melt blending in a twin-screw extruder. The composite material was subjected to a series of five extrusion cycles, and the effect of reprocessing on the material's structural properties was investigated. More specifically, chemical changes were studied with attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared analysis, the thermal response was recorded by differential scanning calorimetry experiments, and the thermal stability was detected with thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the rheological properties of these blends were investigated via melt flow index tests as a measure of their processability during melt mixing and molding processes. Furthermore, the mechanical strength of the obtained mixtures was explored, and the observed interactions were interpreted in terms of the influence of each component on the functional properties of the final mixture. This attempt enriched our knowledge about the recycling of ABS, with the additional aspect of the use of collected data from more complex systems, that is, composite materials, where the montmorillonite nanoparticles play a role in the interactions initiated by repeated processing. The experimental results of this study show that the reprocessing of ABS/montmorillonite induced oxidation products, but the rheological, mechanical, and thermal properties and the thermal and color stabilities of the composites remained almost stable. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Poly(butylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposite compatibilized with poly(ethylene- co -glycidyl methacrylate).


    Abstract Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/clay nanocomposite was prepared by blending PBT and commercial modified montmorillonite clays via a extruder by using poly(ethylene- co -glycidyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) as a compatibilizer (PBT/PEGMA/Clay). PEGMA and clay were also blended with PBT to prepare PBT/PEGMA and PBT/Clay, respectively. The morphology was investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The clays were aggregated together and phase separation was observed in PBT/Clay. The clays were exfoliated in PBT/PEGMA/Clay. The equilibrium melting temperature was estimated by linear and nonlinear Hoffman-Weeks relation. The influence of the PEGMA and clay on the PBT crystallizable ability was also investigated by Avrami model and undercooling (difference between crystallization and equilibrium melting temperature). Hoffman-Lauritzen relation was used to estimate chain fold surface free energy. The exfoliated silicates cause a large number nucleus center to enhance the crystallization in PBT/PEGMA/Clay. The presence of PEGMA can react with the PBT and an increase in viscosity would reduce molecular mobility and crystallization in PBT/PEGMA. The aggregated clays have a confinement effect on the segmental motion of PBT and hinder the crystallization in PBT/Clay. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Studying and increasing light stability of rotomolding grade of polyethylene

    E. Feyz
    Abstract This article covers the state-of-the-art light stabilizer for rotational molding and the influence of synergistic effects between light and thermal stabilizers, which improve physical and mechanical properties. Different formulations of polyethylene (PE) with light stabilizer, thermal stabilizer, and acid scavenger have been produced in twin-screw extruder. To study the light stability, sheets that produced by injection-molding machine have been put in weather-ometer instrument for 1000 h. After and before that, physical and mechanical properties have been evaluated. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Crystallization, orientation morphology, and mechanical properties of biaxially oriented starch/polyvinyl alcohol films

    Jing Wang
    Abstract Biaxially oriented starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared by stretching starch/PVA blend precursor films that were fabricated by extrusion casting via a twin-screw extruder. Investigations on crystallization, orientation morphology, and mechanical properties of extrusion cast and stretched starch/PVA films were carried out by using differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and tensile testing. The fresh extrusion-cast starch/PVA films, which were almost amorphous, can crystallize spontaneously when aged at room condition. A good compatibility between starch and PVA was obtained by extrusion-casting technology. The well-developed molecular orientation, which did not occur along the machine direction during the extruding process, was observed in stretched film samples. Stretching unaged films can induce crystallization and the orientation of crystalline structures during stretching, resulting in the changes in diffraction peaks of WAXD patterns. The effect of stretch ratio and the orientation distribution in the plane of the film on mechanical properties of stretched films was studied, and the equal biaxially oriented films were found to exhibit in-plane isotropy. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotube-reinforced thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites

    Sang Ki Park
    Abstract Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) nanocomposites reinforced with carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotube (c-MWCNT) were prepared through melt compounding in a twin screw extruder. The thermal stability of TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites increased with even a small amount of c-MWCNT added. The rheological properties of the TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites were depended on the c-MWCNT contents. The contents of c-MWCNT have a slight effect on the complex viscosity of TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites due to the high-shear thinning of TLCP. The storage modulus of TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites was increased with increasing c-MWCNT content. This result can be deduced that the nanotube,nanotube interactions were more dominant, and some interconnected or network-like structures were formed in the TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites. Incorporation of very small amount of c-MWCNT improved the mechanical properties of TLCP/c-MWCNT nanocomposites, and this was attributed to the reinforcement effect of c-MWCNT with high aspect ratio and their uniform dispersion through acid treatment in the TLCP matrix. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Effects of screw configurations on the grafting of maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene in reactive extrusion

    Hui Fang
    Abstract The effects of screw configurations, that is, the staggering angles and disc widths of the kneading blocks, on grafting reactive extrusion for maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene were investigated in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Samples were collected from three positions along the screw and the die exit. The grafting degree (GD) of the specimens was evaluated by titration. It was found that the kneading block configurations had a significant influence on the grafting reactive extrusion. In addition, another three groups of extrusion experiments were performed to explore the intrinsic relationship between the GD, the degree of fill in the screw channel, the residence time distribution (RTD), and the mixing intensity in various screw configurations. The experimental results indicated that the location of the melting endpoint significantly affected the position at which the reaction began; the degree of fill, RTD, and mixing performance of the screw played important roles in the grafting reaction. The reverse kneading blocks with a narrow disc width, which had a high degree of fill and good mixing capacity, enhanced the increase in GD along the screw during the reactive extrusion. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]