Agency

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Agency

  • Anti-Dop agency
  • assurance agency
  • atomic energy agency
  • care agency
  • children agency
  • energy agency
  • environment agency
  • environmental agency
  • environmental protection agency
  • ethical agency
  • european medicine agency
  • federal agency
  • human agency
  • individual agency
  • intelligence agency
  • international agency
  • international atomic energy agency
  • licensing agency
  • medicine agency
  • moral agency
  • national patient safety agency
  • patient safety agency
  • personal agency
  • political agency
  • protection agency
  • public agency
  • quality assurance agency
  • rating agency
  • regulatory agency
  • safety agency
  • self-care agency
  • service agency
  • single agency
  • space agency
  • states environmental protection agency
  • u.s. environmental protection agency
  • united states environmental protection agency
  • women agency
  • world Anti-Dop agency

  • Terms modified by Agency

  • agency conflict
  • agency cost
  • agency model
  • agency policy
  • agency problem
  • agency relationship
  • agency setting
  • agency staff
  • agency theory
  • agency worker

  • Selected Abstracts


    CONFIGURING HISTORICAL FACTS THROUGH HISTORICAL FICTION: AGENCY, ART-IN-FACT, AND IMAGINATION AS STEPPING STONES BETWEEN THEN AND NOW

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2007
    Kent Den Heyer
    Through reading a work of historical fiction, Ursula Hegi's novel Stones from the River, Kent den Heyer and Alexandra Fidyk offer a theoretical consideration of the following questions and their classroom implications: What is the role of historical fiction in enabling the imaginative grappling with historical fact? Or, in what ways does historical fiction enable us to come to terms with the ethical imperatives of learning from the past? What role does agency play in historical imagination? These are questions of ethics. They are, therefore, also questions of education. [source]


    MORAL AGENCY AND THE UNITY OF THE WORLD: THE NEO-CONFUCIAN CRITIQUE OF "VULGAR LEARNING"

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 4 2006
    YOUNGMIN KIM
    [source]


    GENOCIDE AND THE MORAL AGENCY OF ETHNIC GROUPS

    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 3-4 2006
    KAREN KOVACH
    Abstract: Genocide is the deliberate destruction, in whole or in part, of a people. Typically, it is a crime that is committed by a people. In this essay, I propose an analysis of the concept of an ethnic identity group, which is, I argue, the concept of ethnicity at issue in many important discussions of group rights, group acts, and the moral responsibility of group members for the acts of the groups to which they belong. I develop the account of collective agency presupposed by this analysis and explore its implications for assessments of individual moral responsibility for genocide. I argue, further, that among other advantages over culturalist approaches to questions about group rights, the approach that follows from the concept of an ethnic identity group sheds light on the specific moral wrong of genocide. I reply to individualist objections to the idea that ethnic group membership may be morally significant and argue that morally adequate responses to genocide presuppose acknowledgment of the fact that groups act and are acted upon in morally significant ways. [source]


    HUMAN AGENCY AND THE "JOINTS" OF SOCIAL EXPERIENCE: A COMMENTARY ON WAINRYB, BREHL, AND MATWIN

    MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2005
    Bryan W. Sokol
    First page of article [source]


    EUROPEANIZATION AND BUREAUCRATIC AUTONOMY IN THE NEW MEMBER STATES: A CASE STUDY OF THE AGRICULTURAL PAYING AGENCY IN SLOVAKIA

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 4 2009
    MIROSLAV BEBLAVÝArticle first published online: 23 NOV 200
    The paper explores the impact of Europeanization on bureaucratic autonomy in the new EU member states using as a case study the Agricultural Paying Agency in Slovakia. The paper shows that Europeanization had limited sustained impact on the personal autonomy of senior officials; however, it requires and sustains the personal autonomy of an extensive cadre of mid-level and junior civil servants. At the same time, it necessitates and continues to sustain significant change in the way agricultural subsidies are distributed, with a high level of autonomy in implementation and a lower, but still significant, measure of autonomy in policy-making. These conclusions can also generally be supported by evidence from Lithuania and Poland. In addition, the coercive elements of Europeanization interacted with the temporarily high bureaucratic autonomy in Slovakia to ,open' non-coercive channels of Europeanization of agricultural subsidies and beyond. [source]


    DIVINE AGENCY, CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS, AND THE AUTONOMY OF NATURE

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
    WILLIAM E. CARROLL
    First page of article [source]


    CONTOURS OF AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE CHINESE STATE: POLITICAL STRUCTURE, AGENCY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL CHINA

    THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 3 2004
    Frank N. Pieke
    Anthropologists have long been inclined to view China from the perspective of a state-society dichotomy. In this model, the inevitable consequence of economic reform is that , especially at the local level , the state must yield more and more of its power to entrepreneurs, foreign investors, non-state organizations, and local communities. Not only does this approach distort the role of the state in society, but by placing the state above and outside society it also excludes it from the anthropological gaze. This article proposes an anthropology of the Chinese state which does not merely view the state in society, but also investigates the state itself as society. Drawing on fieldwork in northeastern Yunnan province, I illustrate this general point by investigating the changing role of the local state in economic development. This agenda for an anthropology of the Chinese state resonates both with the recent ,reinvention' of the subfield of political anthropology with its focus on governmentality, policy, and rights, and with recent calls by political scientists for the development of an interdisciplinary anthropology of the developmental state. [source]


    AGENCY AND IMPUTATION: COMMENTS ON REATH

    ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Jens Timmermann
    First page of article [source]


    NARRATIVE ARTIFICE AND WOMEN'S AGENCY

    BIOETHICS, Issue 2 2005
    ALINE H. KALBIAN
    ABSTRACT The choice to pursue fertility treatments is a complex one. In this paper I explore the issues of choice, agency, and gender as they relate to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). I argue that narrative approaches to bioethics such as those by Arthur Frank and Hilde Lindemann Nelson clarify judgments about autonomy and fertility medicine. More specifically, I propose two broad narrative categories that help capture the experience of encounters with fertility medicine: narratives of hope and narratives of resistance. This narrative typology captures the inevitable conflict that women feel when they become subjects of fertility medicine. On the one hand, they must remain hopeful; on the other, they must not surrender themselves completely. Nelson's account of counterstories as narratives of resistance helps us see how women can reconcile the experience of a strong desire to have children with the desire to remain authentic and whole. [source]


    Current Status of Surge Research

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2006
    Sally Phillips RN
    The dramatic escalation of bioterrorism and public health emergencies in the United States in recent years unfortunately has coincided with an equally dramatic decline in the institutions and services we rely on for emergency preparedness. Hospitals in nearly every metropolitan area in the country have closed; those that remain open have reduced the number of available beds. "Just in time" supplies and health professional shortages have further compromised the nation's overall surge capacity. Emergency departments routinely operate at capacity. These circumstances make evidence-based research on emergency preparedness and surge capacity both more urgently needed and more complex. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and other government and private agencies have been rapidly widening the field of knowledge in this area in recent months and years. This report focuses primarily on the work of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. [source]


    "Very Bombay": Contending with the Global in an Indian Advertising Agency

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    William Mazzarella
    First page of article [source]


    Authorizing a Disability Agency in Post-Mao China: Deng Pufang's Story as Biomythography

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Matthew Kohrman
    First page of article [source]


    Teacher Identity and Agency in School Worlds: Beyond the All-Good/All-Bad Discourse on Accountability-Explicit Curriculum Policies

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2006
    KRIS SLOAN
    ABSTRACT Drawing on case studies of three elementary school teachers in a diverse urban school setting in Texas, the author explores the varied ways teachers actively read accountability-related curriculum policies and then respond to these policies. Rooted in classroom observations and extensive teacher interviews, the author examines issues of teacher identity and identity formation as a base from which to explore teacher agency vis-ŕ-vis accountability-explicit curriculum policies. His analysis suggests that (1) individual teachers actively read and respond to locally conceived accountability-explicit curriculum policies in varied, perhaps even unique, ways; (2) teacher identities are powerful means through which to understand these varied experiences with and responses to accountability-explicit curriculum policies; and (3) current understandings of teacher agency vis-ŕ-vis accountability-explicit curriculum policies as merely a capacity to resist,as does much of the literature that is critical of accountability,obfuscates important issues of teacher quality and equity. [source]


    Adverse Event Reporting: Lessons Learned from 4 Years of Florida Office Data

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 9 2005
    Brett Coldiron MD, FACP
    Background Patient safety regulations and medical error reporting systems have been at the forefront of current health care legislature. In 2000, Florida mandated that all physicians report, to a central collecting agency, all adverse events occurring in an office setting. Purpose To analyze the scope and incidence of adverse events and deaths resulting from office surgical procedures in Florida from 2000 to 2004. Methods We reviewed all reported adverse incidents (the death of a patient, serious injury, and subsequent hospital transfer) occurring in an office setting from March 1, 2000, through March 1, 2004, from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. We determined physician board certification status, hospital privileges, and office accreditation via telephone follow-up and Internet searches. Results Of 286 reported office adverse events, 77 occurred in association with an office surgical procedure (19 deaths and 58 hospital transfers). There were seven complications and five deaths associated with the use of intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. There were no adverse events associated with the use of dilute local (tumescent) anesthesia. Liposuction and/or abdominoplasty under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation were the most common surgical procedures associated with a death or complication. Fifty-three percent of offices reporting an adverse incident were accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgical Facilities, or American Association for Ambulatory Health Care. Ninety-four percent of the involved physicians were board certified, and 97% had hospital privileges. Forty-two percent of the reported deaths were delayed by several hours to weeks after uneventful discharge or after hospital transfer. Conclusions Requiring physician board certification, physician hospital privileges, or office accreditation is not likely to reduce office adverse events. Restrictions on dilute local (tumescent) anesthesia for liposuction would not reduce adverse events and could increase adverse events if patients are shifted to riskier approaches. State and/or national legislation establishing adverse event reporting systems should be supported and should require the reporting of delayed deaths. [source]


    Long-term review of driving potential following bilateral panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    S. A. Vernon
    Abstract Aim To determine the necessity for repeated Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) visual field testing in people with diabetes who have had bilateral panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted of driving history in a cohort of people with diabetes who had been treated with bilateral PRP for proliferative retinopathy between 1988 and 1990. In addition, all similarly eligible subjects attending the diabetic retinal review clinic over a 12-month period who had had laser between 1991 and 2000 were questioned as to their driving status. Results Forty-five surviving patients from the 1988,1990 cohort were eligible and 25 returned the questionnaire (55%). Eight had never driven and 15 (13 with Type 1 diabetes) still held a valid licence, having passed the DVLA field test on a number of occasions. Neither of the two patients who had stopped driving reported failing the DVLA field test as the reason for stopping. All 12 of the patients directly questioned in the clinic were still driving and had passed at least one repeat DVLA test. Conclusions People with Type 1 diabetes who have no further laser treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy can expect to retain their UK driving licence for at least 15 years following small-burn PRP, provided they maintain sufficient acuity. [source]


    Insulin-treated diabetes and driving in the UK

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2002
    G. Gill
    Abstract Diabetes, and particularly insulin-treated diabetes, has important implications for motor vehicle driving, largely because of its association with potential hypoglycaemia. For this reason, most countries operate some driving restrictions on insulin-treated diabetic patients, as well as systems of intermittent reassessment of hypoglycaemic risk. In the UK, regulations are operated by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), which is an agency of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). They are supported by an Expert Panel which advises the Secretary of State on diabetes-related issues relating to fitness to drive. The patient organization Diabetes UK is also concerned with diabetes and driving issues, largely from a position of lobbying policy-influencers and supporting individual cases. All parties involved with diabetes and driving issues recognize the need for more research on the subject, as the current literature is flawed in design, though no convincing excess of accidents amongst diabetic drivers has been conclusively demonstrated. Currently in the UK, Class 2 vehicles (large trucks and passenger vehicles) are barred to diabetic drivers on insulin. European law has recently extended this to so-called C1 (large vans and small lorries) and D1 (minibuses) vehicles, though the law has recently been revised to allow individual consideration for potential diabetic C1 drivers on insulin treatment. Diabetes and insulin-treated diabetes is an emotive and difficult issue, for which a stronger evidence base is urgently needed. [source]


    Interpersonal Interactions and the Bounds of Agency

    DIALECTICA, Issue 2 2007
    Jesús H. Aguilar
    According to the Causal Theory of Action, actions are causally produced events and causal transitivity seems to apply to all such events. However, strong intuitions support the idea that actions cannot be transitively caused. This is a tension that has plagued this theory's effort to account for action. In particular, it has fueled a serious objection suggesting that this theory of action seriously distorts the attribution of agency when two agents interact with each other. Based on Donald Davidson's analysis of the accordion effect and the nature of actions, I provide an answer to the problem of agential attribution. It is an answer that shows that the Causal Theory of Action can unambiguously attribute agency without resorting to a stipulation or denying that actions can be transitively caused. I then identify the sources of the problematic intuitions in the need to recognize spheres of agential influence and preserve their integrity. [source]


    ,It'll never happen to me': understanding public awareness of local flood risk

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2008
    Kate Burningham
    Following the severe flood events of 1998 and 2000, the United Kingdom's Environment Agency prioritised the need to increase public flood risk awareness. Drawing on data collected during research undertaken for the Environment Agency, this paper contributes to understanding of one aspect of flood awareness: people's recognition that their property is in an area that is potentially at risk of flooding. Quantitative analyses indicate that class is the most influential factor in predicting flood risk awareness, followed by flood experience and length of time in residence. There are also significant area differences. Our qualitative work explores how those defined as ,at risk' account for their lack of awareness or concern about their risk status. We conclude that the problem is often not simply a lack of awareness, but rather, assessments of local risk based on experience that underestimate the impact of rare or extreme events. We underline the importance of engaging with local perspectives on risk and making local people part of ,awareness-raising' processes. [source]


    A rapid screening LC-MS/MS method based on conventional HPLC pumps for the analysis of low molecular weight xenobiotics: application to doping control analysis

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 7 2010
    Monica Mazzarino
    Abstract This study presents a fast multi-analyte screening method specifically developed for the detection of xenobiotics in urine. The proposed method allows the screening of several classes of substance in a single chromatographic method with a run-time of 11 min, inclusive of post-run and reconditioning times. Chromatographic separation is achieved in 7.2 min using a reversed-phase 2.7 µm fused-core particle column, generating a back-pressure not exceeding 400 bar and therefore enabling the use of traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) instruments. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated, by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization, using 20 blank urine samples spiked with 45 compounds prohibited in sport: 11 diuretics, 16 glucocorticoids, 9 stimulants, 5 anti-oestrogens, as well as formoterol, carboxy-finasteride (previously prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 2008), gestrinone and tetrahydrogestrinone. Qualitative validation shows the proposed method to be specific with no significant interference. All of the analytes considered in this study were clearly distinguishable in urine, with limits of detection ranging from 5 ng/mL to 350 ng/mL, significantly below the Minimum Required Performance Levels (MRPL) set by WADA for the accredited sports anti-doping laboratories. All compounds of interest were separated, including synthetic and endogenous glucocorticoids with similar retention times and fragmentation patterns. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Determination of 13C/12C ratios of urinary excreted boldenone and its main metabolite 5,-androst-1-en-17,-ol-3-one

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2010
    Thomas Piper
    Abstract Boldenone (androsta,1,4,dien,17,,ol,3,one, Bo) is an anabolic steroid known to have been used in cattle breeding or equine sport as a doping agent for many years. Although not clinically approved for human application, Bo or its main metabolite 5,-androst-1-en-17,-ol-3-one (BM1) were detected in several doping control samples. For more than 15 years the possibility of endogenous Bo production in human beings has been discussed. This is a challenging issue for doping control laboratories as Bo belongs to the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency and therefore the chance for false positive testing is significant. By GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) it should be possible to analyze the 13C/12C ratio of either Bo or BM1 and to distinguish whether their source is endogenous or exogenous. Therefore a method was developed to determine the 13C/12C ratios of Bo, BM1, pregnanediol, androsterone, etiocholanolone, and testosterone from a single urine specimen. The validity of the method was ensured by repeated processing of urine fortified with 2,50 ng/mL Bo and BM1. The specificity of the method was ensured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determinations. Out of 23 samples investigated throughout the last four years, 11 showed 13C/12C ratios of Bo or BM1 inconsistent with an exogenous origin. Two of these samples were collected from the same athlete within a one-month interval, strongly indicating the chance of endogenous Bo production by this athlete. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Annual Banned-Substance Review

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 4 2010
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    The annual update of the list of prohibited substances and doping methods as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) allows the implementation of most recent considerations of performance manipulation and emerging therapeutics into human sports doping control programmes. The annual banned-substance review for human doping controls critically summarizes recent innovations in analytical approaches that support the efforts of convicting cheating athletes by improved or newly established methods that focus on known as well as newly outlawed substances and doping methods. In the current review, literature published between October 2008 and September 2009 reporting on new and/or enhanced procedures and techniques for doping analysis, as well as aspects relevant to the doping control arena, was considered to complement the 2009 annual banned-substance review. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Temporal indication of cannabis use by means of THC glucuronide determination

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 11-12 2009
    Ute Mareck
    Abstract According to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the use of cannabinoids is forbidden in competition. In doping controls, the detection of cannabinoid misuse is based on the analysis of the non-psychoactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (carboxy-THC). The determination of values greater than 15 ng/mL in urine represents an adverse analytical finding; however, no accurate prediction of the time of application is possible as the half-life of carboxy-THC ranges between three and four days. Consequently the detection of carboxy-THC in doping control urine samples collected in competition might also result from cannabis use in out-of-competition periods. The analysis of the glucuronide of the pharmacologically active delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-gluc) may represent a complementary indicator for the detection of cannabis misuse in competition. An assay for the determination of THC-gluc in human urine was established. The sample preparation consisted of liquid-liquid extraction of urine specimens, and extracts were analysed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Authentic doping-control urine samples as well as specimens obtained from a controlled smoking study were analysed and assay characteristics such as specificity, detection limit (0.1 ng/mL), precision (>90%), recovery (,80%), and extraction efficiency (90%) were determined. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Application of FAIMS to anabolic androgenic steroids in sport drug testing

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 11-12 2009
    Sven Guddat
    Abstract Mass spectrometric identification of anabolic androgenic steroids challenges standard doping-control methods. To reveal a doping offence the presence of prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids at trace levels in the picogram-per-millilitre range must be confirmed as reliable. Human urine samples containing epitrenbolone, metandienone metabolite (17, -hydroxymethyl-17,-methyl-18-norandrost-1,4,13-trien-3-one), stanozolol, 16,-hydroxystanozolol and 4,-hydroxystanozolol were analysed using LC-FAIMS-MS/MS. These substances are prohibited in sport according to World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) regulations. Glucuronides were hydrolysed and prepared by liquid-liquid extraction. Excellent recovery and precision were obtained for all compounds. Linear calibration results for epitrenbolone and metandienone metabolite were obtained and concentration information could be determined in the ranges of reliable response between 750,1200 and 100,600 pg/mL, respectively. Limits of detection were estimated at 25 pg/mL (stanozolol), 50 pg/mL (metandienone metabolite, 16,-hydroxystanozolol), 100 pg/mL (4,-hydroxystanozolol) and 500 pg/mL (epitrenbolone). The assay was applied to doping-control samples. For all analytes, LC-FAIMS-MS/MS resulted in excellent interference removal, which effectively extends the post-dose detection time. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Interpretation of urinary concentrations of pseudoephedrine and its metabolite cathine in relation to doping control

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2009
    K. Deventer
    Abstract Until the end of 2003 a urinary concentration of pseudoephedrine exceeding 25 µg/mL was regarded as a doping violation by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Since its removal from the prohibited list in 2004 the number of urine samples in which pseudoephedrine was detected in our laboratory increased substantially. Analysis of 116 in-competition samples containing pseudoephedrine in 2007 and 2008, revealed that 66% of these samples had a concentration of pseudoephedrine above 25 µg/mL. This corresponded to 1.4% of all tested in competition samples in that period. In the period 2001,2003 only 0.18% of all analysed in competition samples contained more than 25 µg/mL. Statistical comparison of the two periods showed that after the removal of pseudoephedrine from the list its use increased significantly. Of the individual sports compared between the two periods, only cycling is shown to yield a significant increase. Analysis of excretion urine samples after administration of a therapeutic daily dose (240 mg pseudoephedrine) in one administration showed that the threshold of 25 µg/mL can be exceeded. The same samples were also analysed for cathine, which has currently a threshold of 5 µg/mL on the prohibited list. The maximum urinary concentration of cathine also exceeded the threshold for some volunteers. Comparison of the measured cathine and pseudoephedrine concentrations only indicated a poor correlation between them. Hence, cathine is not a good indicator to control pseudopehedrine intake. To control the (ab)use of ephedrines in sports it is recommended that WADA reintroduce a threshold for pseudoephedrine. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 3 2009
    Michael R. Graham
    Abstract The current drastic escalation in obesity may be contributing to the exponential rise in drugs used for image enhancement. Drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are perceived as a viable method of achieving a perfect physique. They are also the most widely abused drugs in sport. The Internet has encouraged the abuse of expensive drugs, particularly human growth hormone (hGH), resulting in increased importation for personal use. The substantial increase in this market has opened up avenues for counterfeiting, estimated as a multi-million pound business. The acute adverse effects from contaminated vials may result in a variety of pathologies including communicable diseases. In 2007, in the UK, a series of intramuscular abscesses, requiring surgical treatment, led us to study samples obtained from the underground market. The analysis of 38 parenteral samples and 19 oral samples of tablets was performed by a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratory, in an attempt to establish the extent of available counterfeit products. Fifty-three per cent (20) of the injectable AAS esters and 21% (4) of the oral tablets were counterfeit. Culture and sensitivity revealed the presence of skin commensal organisms, which may have contributed to the development of the abscesses. Users of AAS and hGH for sport, including bodybuilding, are currently risking their health because of counterfeit and poorly controlled products. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    13C/12C Ratios of endogenous urinary steroids investigated for doping control purposes

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2009
    Thomas Piper
    Abstract In order to detect the misuse of endogenous anabolic steroids such as testosterone by athletes a total of n = 1734 suspicious urine samples were investigated by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry throughout the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The 13C/12C ratio of a target substance (androsterone, a testosterone metabolite) was compared to the 13C/12C ratio of an endogenous reference compound (11,-hydroxyandrosterone). N = 1340 samples were investigated due to elevated testosterone/epitestosterone ratios, with n = 87 (6.5%) exceptional findings regarding their isotopic ratios. An additional n = 164 samples were investigated because of elevated dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations, with n = 2 (1.2%) exceptional findings. The remainder were subjected to isotope ratio analysis because of elevated androsterone levels or because this was requested by sports federations. Significant differences between female and male samples were found for the 13C/12C ratios of androsterone and 11,-hydroxyandrosterone but not for samples taken in or out of competition. A further n = 645 samples originating from other World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories, mainly throughout Europe as well as South America, South Africa and Southeast Asia, were investigated. The 13C/12C ratios of the urinary steroids differ significantly for each geographical region, reflecting the dietary status of the individuals. The system stability over time has been tested by repeated injections of a standard solution and repeated processing of frozen stored blank urine. Despite a drift over time in absolute 13C/12C ratios, no significant change in the difference of 13C/12C (11,-hydroxyandrosterone) minus 13C/12C (androsterone) could be observed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Seismic response analysis on the stability of running vehicles

    EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2002
    Yoshihisa Maruyama
    Abstract The seismometer network of the Japanese expressway system has been enhanced since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Using earthquake information from the instruments, the expressways are closed if the peak ground acceleration (PGA) is larger than or equal to 80cm/s2. The aim of this regulation is to avoid secondary disasters, e.g. cars running into the collapsed sections. However, recent studies on earthquake damage have revealed that expressway structures are not seriously damaged under such-level of earthquake motion. Hence, we may think of relaxing the regulation of expressway closure. But before doing this, it is necessary to examine the effects of shaking to automobiles since the drivers may encounter difficulties in controlling their vehicles and traffic accidents may occur. In this study, a vehicle was modelled with a six-degree-of-freedom system and its responses were investigated with respect to PGA, peak ground velocity (PGV) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) seismic intensity using five ground motion records. It was observed that the response of the vehicle shows a larger amplitude for the record that has larger response spectrum in the long period range compared to other records. However, similar response amplitudes of the vehicle were observed for all the records with respect to the JMA seismic intensity. The response characteristics of the vehicle model may be very useful for decision-making regarding the relaxation of the expressway closure under seismic motion. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Costs of Coercion: African Agency in the Pre-Modern Atlantic World

    ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 3 2001
    Stephen D. Behrendt
    First page of article [source]


    Utilization of a Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for the Analytical Determination of Atrazine

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2005
    Djenaine De, Souza
    Abstract A copper solid amalgam electrode was prepared and used for the voltammetric determination of atrazine in natural water samples by square wave voltammetry. This electrode is a convenient substitute for the hanging mercury electrode since it is selective, sensitive, reliable and inexpensive and presents low toxicity characteristic. The detection limit of atrazine obtained in pure water (laboratory samples) was shown to be lower than the maximum limit of residue established for natural water by the Brazilian Environmental Agency. The relative standard deviation for 10 different measurements was found to be only 3.98% in solutions containing 8.16×10,6,mol L,1 of atrazine. In polluted stream water samples, the recovery measurements were approximately 70.00%, sustaining the applicability of the proposed methodology to the analysis of atrazine in such matrices. [source]


    Scripted Silences, Reticence, and Agency in Anne Askew's Examinations

    ENGLISH LITERARY RENAISSANCE, Issue 1 2006
    JOAN PONG LINTON
    First page of article [source]