Age-adjusted Models (age-adjusted + models)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Short/long heterozygotes at 5HTTLPR and white matter lesions in geriatric depression

David C. Steffens
Abstract Objective We examined the relationship between 5HTTLPR genotype and volume of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain lesions. Method We studied 217 older depressed patients and 141 individuals in the comparison group using a standard brain MRI protocol to calculate lesion volumes. Genotype at 5HTTLPR was determined for each subject. Results In age-adjusted models, the l/s genotype was associated with increased volume of total and white-matter lesions among depressed patients. This relationship lost significance in models controlling for reported hypertension. Conclusions The finding that 5HTTLPR heterozygotes have higher vascular lesion volumes may be related to development of hypertension. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Association Between Sleep and Physical Function in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study

Thuy-Tien L. Dam MD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sleep quality is associated with physical function in older men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Six U.S. centers. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand eight hundred sixty-two community-dwelling men. MEASUREMENTS: Total hours of nighttime sleep (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep latency (SL), and sleep efficiency (SE) measured using actigraphy; sleep stage distribution, respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and hypoxia measured using polysomnography; measures of physical function: grip strength, walking speed, chair stand, and narrow walk. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, <6 or >8 hours TST, SE less than 80%, WASO of 90 minutes or longer, RDI of 30 or greater, and hypoxia were associated with poorer physical function. (Mean grip strength was 2.9% lower and mean walking speed was 4.3% lower in men with WASO ,90 minutes than men with WASO <90 minutes.) After adjusting for potential covariates, differences in grip strength and walking speed remained significantly associated with WASO of 90 minutes or longer, SE less than 80%, and hypoxia but not with TST or RDI of 30 or greater. CONCLUSION: Greater sleep fragmentation and hypoxia are associated with poorer physical function in older men. [source]

Association of the VDR Translation Start Site Polymorphism and Fracture Risk in Older Women,,

Susan P Moffett PhD
Abstract We evaluated the association between the VDR translation start site polymorphism and osteoporotic phenotypes among 6698 older white women. Women with the C/C genotype had lower wrist BMD and an increased risk of wrist and all non-spine/low-trauma fractures. The high frequency of this variant confers a population attributable risk that is similar to several established risk factors for fracture. Introduction: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates bone formation, bone resorption, and calcium homeostasis. A common C to T polymorphism in exon 2 of the VDR gene introduces a new translation start site and a protein that differs in length by three amino acids (T = 427aa, C = 424aa; rs10735810). Materials and Methods: We conducted genetic association analyses of this polymorphism, BMD, and fracture outcomes in a prospective cohort of 6698 white American women ,65 years of age. Incident fractures were confirmed by physician adjudication of radiology reports. There were 2532 incident nontraumatic/nonvertebral fractures during 13.6 yr of follow-up including 509 wrist and 703 hip fractures. Results: Women with the C/C genotype had somewhat lower distal radius BMD compared with those with the T/T genotype (CC = 0.358 g/cm2, CT = 0.361 g/cm2, TT = 0.369 g/cm2, p = 0.003). The C/C genotype was also associated with increased risk of non-spine, low traumatic fractures (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.33) and wrist fractures (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.75) compared with the T/T genotype in age-adjusted models. Further adjustments for distal radius BMD only slightly attenuated these associations. The VDR polymorphism was not associated with hip fracture. The population attributable risk (PAR) of the C/C genotype for incident fractures was 6.1%. The PAR for established risk factors for fracture were: low femoral neck BMD (PAR = 16.3%), maternal history of fracture (PAR = 5.1%), low body weight (PAR = 5.3%), corticosteroid use (PAR = 1.3%), and smoking (PAR = 1.6%). Similar PAR results were observed for wrist fractures. Conclusions: The common and potentially functional VDR translation start site polymorphism confers a modestly increased relative risk of fracture among older white women. However, the high frequency of this variant confers a population attributable risk that is similar to or greater than several established risk factors for fracture. [source]

Tooth loss and cognitive impairment

Hans Joergen Grabe
Abstract Objectives: Chronic subclinical inflammation may elevate the risk of cognitive impairment. Periodontitis is associated with subclinical inflammation and accounts in part for tooth loss. The hypothesis was tested that periodontitis and tooth loss as a proxy of chronic periodontitis is associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly. Subjects and Methods: The population-based Study of Health in Pomerania comprises 1336 subjects (60,79 years). Cognitive impairment was assessed with the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Tobit regression analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: A decreased number of teeth was associated with lower MMSE scores in females (p<0.001) and males (p=0.007) in age-adjusted models. In the fully adjusted models, tooth loss was associated with cognitive impairment in females (p=0.002) but not in males (p=0.825). Conclusions: A significant association between tooth loss and cognitive impairment was found in females that was not accounted for by potential confounders. Former periodontitis may account for this association as periodontitis was frequently the cause for tooth extractions. [source]

Coffee consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

Elizabeth W. Karlson
Objective Recent reports have suggested an association between consumption of coffee or decaffeinated coffee and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although data are sparse and somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, existing studies measured dietary exposures and potential confounders only at baseline and did not consider possible changes in diet or lifestyle over the followup period. We studied whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, total coffee, tea, or overall caffeine consumption was associated with the risk of RA, using the Nurses' Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of 121,701 women. Methods Information on beverage consumption was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was completed every 4 years, from baseline in 1980 through 1998. Among the 83,124 women who completed the FFQ at baseline, the diagnosis of incident RA (between 1980 and 2000) was confirmed in 480 women by a connective tissue disease screening questionnaire and medical record review for American College of Rheumatology criteria. Relationships between intake of various beverages and the risk of RA were assessed in age-adjusted models and in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models including the cumulative average intake of each beverage during the followup period, adjusted for numerous potential confounders. In addition, for direct comparisons with prior reports, multivariate analyses were repeated using only baseline beverage information. Results We did not find a significant association between decaffeinated coffee consumption of ,4 cups/day (compared with no decaffeinated coffee consumption) and subsequent risk of incident RA, in either an adjusted multivariate model (relative risk [RR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.5,2.2) or a multivariate model using only baseline reports of decaffeinated coffee consumption (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6,1.7). Similarly, there was no relationship between cumulative caffeinated coffee consumption and RA risk (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8,1.6 for ,4 cups per day versus none) or between tea consumption and RA risk (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7,1.8 for >3 cups/day versus none). Total coffee and total caffeine consumption were also not associated with the risk of RA. Conclusion In this large, prospective study, we find little evidence of an association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea consumption and the risk of RA among women. [source]