Age-adjusted Incidence (age-adjusted + incidence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Age-adjusted Incidence

  • age-adjusted incidence rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    Epidemiology of conjunctival melanocytic neoplasms

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2008
    T KIVELÄ
    Purpose To summarise the epidemiology of conjunctival melanocytic neoplasms. Methods Review of population-based data on 85 patients with primary conjunctival melanoma (CM) and recently published literature. Results CM accounts for 5-7% of ocular melanoma in Europe. Its age-adjusted incidence has increased 2-fold in North Europe (Finland, from 0.40 to 0.80/million) and North America (USA, from 0.27 to 0.54) during the last 25 y. In both regions, age-adjusted incidence is higher in men. Different rates between regions result from differences in registries, ethnicity and solar radiation. Age-adjusted incidence of CM is 3-fold in non-Hispanic Caucasians and 2-fold in Hispanics relative to Asians, African Americans and American Indians; among non-Hispanic Caucasians it increases 2.5-fold from 48 deg. (e.g. Paris) to 21 deg. (e.g. Mecca) of latitude. CM is rare below 30 y of age (age-specific incidence, 0.06) but increases steadily thereafter (0.48, 1.05 and 1.57 for 30-49, 50-70 and >70 y, respectively). Median age at diagnosis is 58-60 y. Most CM arise in limbal (57-64%) followed by bulbar (12-13%), palpebral (7-9%) and caruncular (3%) conjunctiva. Tumor-specific 5-and 10-y mortality estimates are 14-20% and 29-38%, respectively. Non-limbal location, increasing tumor thickness and local recurrence are consistently associated with higher mortality. Clinically detectable primary acquired melanosis (PAM) and nevus precede or accompany CM in 57-61% and 7-23% of patients, respectively. Median age at diagnosis of PAM is 56 y. The risk of malignant change is not precisely known and depends heavily on subtype of PAM, ranging from 10 to 90%. Conclusion Recent studies provide epidemiological data on CM which are remarkably consistent. The epidemiology of conjunctival nevi and PAM is less precisely known. [source]


    Incidence of Status Epilepticus in Adults in Germany: A Prospective, Population-Based Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2001
    Susanne Knake
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine the incidence and case-fatality rate of status epilepticus (SE) in adults in Hessen, Germany, we performed a prospective, population-based study from July 1997 through June 1999. Methods: All adult patients residing within the zip-code area 35 (area-35) with SE were included. Area-35 had 743.285 adult inhabitants, including 123.353 adult inhabitants of the primary service area of the University Hospital Marburg (PS-area). Patients were reported by 16 hospitals in the area and were prospectively identified and carefully reviewed within 5 days by one of the authors. Based on the crude annual incidence of SE and a rate of underascertainment of 10% determined for the PS-area, the corrected, age-adjusted incidence of SE in area 35, more representative of the population of Germany, was calculated. Results: The crude annual incidence in the PS-area was 15.8/100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.2,21.6]. The calculated, corrected, age-adjusted incidence of SE in area 35 was 17.1/100,000. It was higher for men compared with women (26.1 vs. 13.7) and for those aged 60 years and older (54.5 vs. 4.2/100,000, p < 0.0001). The etiology was mainly remote symptomatic due to cerebrovascular disease. Epilepsy was previously diagnosed in only 50% of the patients. The case-fatality rate was 9.3%. Conclusions: Based on our data, at least 14,000 patients would be affected by SE in Germany, associated with ,1,300 deaths annually. The incidence of SE in Germany is similar to that found in the white United States population. Furthermore, this study confirms the higher incidence of SE in male patients and in the elderly population. This may be due to a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease in these subpopulations. [source]


    Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics in the SNP era

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 7 2003
    V. Mooser
    Summary., In the past pharmacological agents have contributed to a significant reduction in age-adjusted incidence of cardiovascular events. However, not all patients treated with these agents respond favorably, and some individuals may develop side-effects. With aging of the population and the growing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors worldwide, it is expected that the demand for cardiovascular drugs will increase in the future. Accordingly, there is a growing need to identify the ,good' responders as well as the persons at risk for developing adverse events. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that responses to drugs are at least partly under genetic control. As such, pharmacogenetics , the study of variability in drug responses attributed to hereditary factors in different populations , may significantly assist in providing answers toward meeting this challenge. Pharmacogenetics mostly relies on associations between a specific genetic marker like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), either alone or arranged in a specific linear order on a certain chromosomal region (haplotypes), and a particular response to drugs. Numerous associations have been reported between selected genotypes and specific responses to cardiovascular drugs. Recently, for instance, associations have been reported between specific alleles of the apoE gene and the lipid-lowering response to statins, or the lipid-elevating effect of isotretinoin. Thus far, these types of studies have been mostly limited to a priori selected candidate genes due to restricted genotyping and analytical capacities. Thanks to the large number of SNPs now available in the public domain through the SNP Consortium and the newly developed technologies (high throughput genotyping, bioinformatics software), it is now possible to interrogate more than 200 000 SNPs distributed over the entire human genome. One pharmacogenetic study using this approach has been launched by GlaxoSmithKline to identify the approximately 4% of patients who are predisposed to developing a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, an anti-HIV agent. Data collected thus far on the HLA locus on chromosome 6 indicate that this approach is feasible. Extended linkage disequilibrium can be detected readily, even across several haplotype blocks, thus potentially reducing the number of SNPs for future whole-genome scans. Finally, a modest number of cases and controls appears to be sufficient to detect genetic associations. There is little doubt that this type of approach will have an impact on the way cardiovascular drugs will be developed and prescribed in the future. [source]


    Hereditary Breast Cancer: Part I. Diagnosing Hereditary Breast Cancer Syndromes

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Henry T. Lynch MD
    Abstract:, Hereditary breast cancer (HBC) accounts for as much as 10% of the total BC burden. Most of these cases will be found to be due to a BRCA germline mutation. An estimated additional 15,20% of those affected with BC will have one or more first- and/or second-degree relatives with BC. Therefore, when these numbers are combined, familial BC risk accounts for approximately 20,25% of the total BC burden. However, because of the often limited information on family history in the etiologic assessment of BC, this may be an underestimate. Confounding factors include its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, given the association of HBC with a plethora of differing cancer syndromes. Its most common occurrence is its association with ovarian cancer in the so-called hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. More rarely, it occurs in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, caused by a p53 germline mutation, in which markedly early-onset BC is found in association with brain tumors, sarcomas, leukemia, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. Importantly, the age-adjusted incidence of BC in women in the United States fell sharply, by 6.7%, in 2003, when compared with the rate identified in 2002. We postulate that increasing knowledge about the genetics of BC may have partially contributed to the identification of high-risk patients who thereby may have benefited significantly from early diagnosis. [source]


    Epidemiology of conjunctival melanocytic neoplasms

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2008
    T KIVELÄ
    Purpose To summarise the epidemiology of conjunctival melanocytic neoplasms. Methods Review of population-based data on 85 patients with primary conjunctival melanoma (CM) and recently published literature. Results CM accounts for 5-7% of ocular melanoma in Europe. Its age-adjusted incidence has increased 2-fold in North Europe (Finland, from 0.40 to 0.80/million) and North America (USA, from 0.27 to 0.54) during the last 25 y. In both regions, age-adjusted incidence is higher in men. Different rates between regions result from differences in registries, ethnicity and solar radiation. Age-adjusted incidence of CM is 3-fold in non-Hispanic Caucasians and 2-fold in Hispanics relative to Asians, African Americans and American Indians; among non-Hispanic Caucasians it increases 2.5-fold from 48 deg. (e.g. Paris) to 21 deg. (e.g. Mecca) of latitude. CM is rare below 30 y of age (age-specific incidence, 0.06) but increases steadily thereafter (0.48, 1.05 and 1.57 for 30-49, 50-70 and >70 y, respectively). Median age at diagnosis is 58-60 y. Most CM arise in limbal (57-64%) followed by bulbar (12-13%), palpebral (7-9%) and caruncular (3%) conjunctiva. Tumor-specific 5-and 10-y mortality estimates are 14-20% and 29-38%, respectively. Non-limbal location, increasing tumor thickness and local recurrence are consistently associated with higher mortality. Clinically detectable primary acquired melanosis (PAM) and nevus precede or accompany CM in 57-61% and 7-23% of patients, respectively. Median age at diagnosis of PAM is 56 y. The risk of malignant change is not precisely known and depends heavily on subtype of PAM, ranging from 10 to 90%. Conclusion Recent studies provide epidemiological data on CM which are remarkably consistent. The epidemiology of conjunctival nevi and PAM is less precisely known. [source]