Age Only (age + only)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Individual Differences in the Contribution of Maternal Soothing to Infant Distress Reduction

INFANCY, Issue 3 2007
Laudan B. Jahromi
This study investigates individual differences in the contribution of specific maternal regulatory behaviors to the mother-infant dyad's regulation of infant distress response. Additionally, we examined the stability of infants' stress responses and the stability of specific maternal soothing behaviors. The sample included 128 mother-infant dyads that were observed during an inoculation at 2 and 6 months. The average intensity of infant cry response showed modest stability across age only before controlling for the infant's general state of irritability, and the duration of crying was not stable. Of the 8 specific maternal regulatory behaviors studied, affection, touching, and vocalizing showed the strongest stability across infant age. Finally, an index of the contingency between maternal soothing and infant cry reduction at 2 months predicted shorter cry duration but not cry intensity at 6 months. The results of this study indicate that infants whose mothers showed a greater contribution to reducing their distress at 2 months showed a shorter duration of crying 4 months later. This suggests a possible longitudinal influence of maternal regulation on infants' distress responses. [source]

Differences in age at onset and familial aggregation between clinical types of idiopathic Parkinson's disease

Alexei Korchounov MD
Abstract Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) can be subdivided by its patterns of motor symptoms into tremor-dominant (TDT), akinetic-rigid (ART), and mixed type (MT). Our objective was to determine whether age at onset and family history are different in these three types. In total, 366 patients with PD were assigned in a standardized approach to one of the three subtypes. Age at onset and family history were obtained in all patients and all presumably affected family members were examined. Mean ages at disease onset were similar in all three groups, but distribution of age at onset was markedly different: monophasic in TDT with a peak around 60 years, biphasic in ART with two peaks, one in the middle of the sixth decade (earlier onset, ART-EO), another during the first half of the seventh decade (later onset, ART-LO), and increasing with age only in MT patients A positive family history was significantly associated only with TDT (odds ratio = 5.7) and ART-EO (odds ratio = 7.8), but not with MT or ART-LO patients. Segregation analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission in ART-EO and an autosomal dominant mode of transmission in TDT. 2004 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Heart Rate Variability Declines with Increasing Age and CTG Repeat Length in Patients with Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

Bradley A. Hardin
Background: Cardiac myopathy manifesting as arrhythmias is common in the neurological disease, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with DM1. Methods: In a multicenter study, history, ECG, and genetic testing were performed in DM1 patients. Results: In 289 patients in whom the diagnosis of DM1 was confirmed by a prolonged cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat length the most common ambulatory ECG abnormality was frequent ventricular ectopy (16.3%). The 24-hour time domain parameters of SDNN (SD of the NN interval) and SDANN (SD of the mean NN, 5-minute interval) declined as age and CTG repeat length increased (SDNN: ,8.5 ms per decade, 95% confidence intervals [CI],12.9, ,4.2, ,8.7 ms per 500 CTG repeats, CI ,15.7, ,1.8, r = 0.24, P < 0.001; SDANN: ,8.1 ms per decade, CI ,12.4, ,3.8, ,8.8 ms per 500 CTG repeats, CI ,15.7, ,1.9, r = 0.23, P < 0.001). Short-term frequency domain parameters declined with age only (total power: ,658 ms2 per decade, CI: ,984, ,331, r = 0.23, P < 0.001; low frequency (LF) power ,287 ms2 per decade, CI: ,397, ,178, r = 0.30, P < 0.001; high frequency (HF) power: ,267 ms2 per decade, CI: ,386, ,144, r = 0.25, P < 0.001). The LF/HF ratio increased as the patient aged (0.5 per decade, CI: 0.1, 0.9, r = 0.13, P = 0.03). Conclusions: In DM1 patients a decline in HRV is observed as the patient ages and CTG repeat length increases. A.N.E. 2003; 8(3):227-232 [source]

Premature aging of the immune system in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Martina Prelog
Objective Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune disease of the young. The pathogenesis is not completely understood. Premature aging, associated thymic involution, and compensatory autoproliferation could play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We undertook this study to determine whether patients with JIA demonstrate premature immunosenescence. Methods To test this hypothesis, we measured 3 indicators of aging: the percentages and total counts of peripheral blood naive T cells, the frequency of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in naive T cells, and telomeric erosion and Ki-67 expression as estimates of the replicative history of homeostatic proliferation. Results JIA patients showed an accelerated loss of CD4+,CD45RA+,CD62L+ naive T cells with advancing age and a compensatory increase in the number of CD4+,CD45RO+ memory T cells. JIA patients demonstrated a significantly decreased frequency of TRECs in CD4+,CD45RA+ naive T cells compared with age-matched healthy donors (P = 0.002). TREC numbers correlated with age only in healthy donors (P = 0.0001). Telomeric erosion in CD4+,CD45RA+ naive T cells was increased in JIA patients (P = 0.01). The percentages of Ki-67,positive CD4+,CD45RA+ naive T cells were increased in JIA patients (P = 0.001) and correlated with disease duration (P = 0.003), which was also an independent factor contributing to telomeric erosion (P = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate T cell senescence and disturbed T cell homeostasis may contribute to the development of JIA. In patients with JIA, dysfunction in the ability to reconstitute the T cell compartment should be considered when exploring new therapeutic strategies. [source]

When is profiling possible?

Offense planning, aggression as moderators in predicting offender age from victim age in stranger rape
Debate continues with regard to the possibility of inferring an offender's characteristic features from crime scene details (the process of so-called "offender profiling"). We argue that psychology generally has benefited from appreciating context in predicting behavior. In the same way, profiling would benefit from an appreciation of context in predicting characteristics. This "reverse" process is contingent on various "if,then" relationships. As one example, this paper demonstrates how profiling offender age from victim age is contingent on (i) the level of planning and (ii) the level of aggression displayed during the offense. Eighty-five stranger rape case records formed the data set. Moderated regression analysis revealed that victim age is a significant predictor of offender age only in cases where the offender has (i) shown evidence of planning the attack and/or (ii) acts in a gratuitously aggressive manner. The theoretical bases for these findings may lie in the extent to which offenders disparately plan and target victims and how extreme aggressiveness in stranger rapes may relate to a near-peer proxy for an offender's anger. The implications of the results for the processes and methods involved in offender profiling suggest that certain crime scene factors can have differential moderating effects on predictive outcomes. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Early prediction of neurological outcome by term neurological examination and cranial ultrasound in very preterm infants

P Amess
Abstract Aim: To assess the value of term neurological examination and cranial ultrasound in the early prediction of neurological outcome at 12 months corrected age in a cohort of very preterm infants. Methods: A cohort of 102 preterm infants born at <32 weeks gestation or with a birth weight of <1500 g were assessed using the Hammersmith Term Neurological Examination. They underwent cranial ultrasound examinations according to local guidelines. The Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination was performed at 12 months corrected age. Scores for the term examinations were compared with scores derived from healthy infants born at term and with scores from low-risk preterm infants at term equivalent age. Term neurological scores and cranial ultrasound findings were compared in the prediction of 12-month neurological outcome. Results: Seventy-eight (76.5%) preterm infants had suboptimal total neurological scores at term when compared to healthy infants born at term. However, most went on to have optimal neurological scores at 12 months corrected age. When our cohort was compared with low-risk preterm infants at term equivalent age only 14 (13.7%) scored outside the normal range. Neither system of scoring predicted neurological outcome at 12 months corrected age as reliably as cranial ultrasound (sensitivity 0.83, specificity 0.87). Conclusion: Neurological examination of preterm babies at term may be unreliable in the prediction of neurological outcome at 12 months corrected age. For early prediction of neurological outcome cranial ultrasound examination was found to be more reliable. [source]

Reduced gains in fat and fat-free mass, and elevated leptin levels in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

ML Ahmed
Aim: Bodyweight is an important prognostic indicator in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but the relationships between body composition and clinical outcomes are less clear. We have investigated the role of leptin (a potential satiety factor) and changes in body composition, height and weight with respect to age and clinical outcome. Methods: 143 children (77 boys) with CF and a median age (range) of 5.99 (2.27,17.98) y were followed with annual measurements of height, weight, skinfolds, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), Shwachman score assessment and fasting blood sample. Our control group comprised 40 children (20 boys, 20 girls) aged 8.6,10.2 y at recruitment who were participating in a longitudinal study of growth and puberty. Results: SD scores for height, weight and BMI decreased with age; fat and fat-free mass was lower in both sexes compared to controls. Shwachman score decreased with age in both sexes and was related to fat-free mass in girls, and to both fat-free and fat mass in boys. FEV1 decreased with age only in boys and was related to fat-free mass. Leptin levels by age and by fat mass were higher in CF children compared to controls. Conclusion: Despite improvements in management, contemporary children with CF still gain less body fat and fat-free mass and are shorter than controls. The higher leptin levels we observed may be due to stimulatory effects of inflammatory cytokines and we postulate that they may contribute to the anorexia, poor weight gain and growth of these children. [source]