Age Categories (age + category)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Brief communication: The London atlas of human tooth development and eruption

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
S.J. AlQahtani
Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive evidence-based atlas to estimate age using both tooth development and alveolar eruption for human individuals between 28 weeks in utero and 23 years. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study of archived material with the sample aged 2 years and older having a uniform age and sex distribution. Developing teeth from 72 prenatal and 104 postnatal skeletal remains of known age-at-death were examined from collections held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Natural History Museum, London, UK (M 91, F 72, unknown sex 13). Data were also collected from dental radiographs of living individuals (M 264, F 264). Median stage for tooth development and eruption for all age categories was used to construct the atlas. Tooth development was determined according to Moorrees et al. (J Dent Res 42 (1963a) 490,502; Am J Phys Anthropol 21 (1963b) 205,213) and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Intraexaminer reproducibility calculated using Kappa on 150 teeth was 0.90 for 15 skeletal remains of age <2 years, and 0.81 from 605 teeth (50 radiographs). Age categories were monthly in the last trimester, 2 weeks perinatally, 3-month intervals during the first year, and at every year thereafter. Results show that tooth formation is least variable in infancy and most variable after the age of 16 years for the development of the third molar. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Host age and fitness-related traits in a koinobiont aphid parasitoid

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
H. Colinet
Abstract., 1.,Trade-offs play a key role in species evolution and should be found in host,parasitoid interactions where the host quality may differ between host age categories. 2.,The braconid wasp, Aphidius ervi, is a solitary endoparasitoid that allows its aphid hosts to continue to feed and grow after parasitisation. The hypotheses that host age influences their quality and that female parasitoids exploit their hosts based on that quality were tested under laboratory conditions using no-choice tests. 3.,Aphidius ervi females accepted the aphid Myzus persicae for oviposition and their progeny developed successfully in all host ages. The fitness-related traits of parasitoids did not increase linearly with the host age in which they developed. Host quality was found to be optimal at intermediate host ages and the females preferred to parasitise these hosts. The shortest progeny development time and a more female-biased sex ratio were observed in hosts of intermediate age. 4.,This study suggests the existence of multiple interactive trade-offs occurring during host,parasitoid interactions according to host age related quality. [source]


Foraging Behaviour of Subordinate Great Tits (Parus major).

ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2001
Can Morphology Reduce the Cost of Subordination?
This paper studies the magnitude of the behavioural shift, from forage standing to forage hanging, of subordinate great tits (Parus major) in two different social contexts: feeding solitarily vs. feeding with a dominant conspecific. The aim is to test the hypothesis that differences in morphological design provide subordinates with varying abilities to reduce the presumed costs of subordination. We find that different subordinate individuals change the foraging behaviour, occupying a different niche when an intra-specific competitor is present. Morphology linked to sexual dimorphism, specifically body mass, is the factor responsible for the different magnitudes of change. Lighter subordinates can remain longer than heavier ones at the feeding patch without interrupting their foraging. Thereby, the former reduce the costs of being subordinate more than the latter. Among subordinates, females are lighter than males; they also spend more time feeding in the presence of a dominant conspecific than males do. No differences are found between age categories. We find no relationship between tarsus length and individual ecological plasticity. Our results support the idea that the ecological plasticity due to morphological differences is a mechanism that allows subordinate individuals to overcome costs associated with subordination. [source]


Relationship between cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasia in the early medieval Slavic population at Borovce, Slovakia

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Z. Obertová
Abstract Cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasia were examined in an early medieval (8th to beginning of 12th century AD) skeletal sample of 451 individuals from Borovce, Slovakia. More than 40% of these individuals died before reaching 20 years of age. The relationship between the occurrence of orbital and enamel lesions was analysed by focusing on the age-specific distribution, and on its influence on demographic parameters. Both features were found in 11.2% of the observed skulls. The presence of orbital and dental lesions showed a considerable impact on mortality as well as the life expectancy. Generally, the highest mortality was observed among 0,4 year old individuals. The greatest discrepancy in the demographic parameters, however, appeared between the affected and unaffected individuals aged 10,14 and 15,19 years. In these two age groups the co-occurrence of both lesions was most frequently recorded. These individuals obviously had a history of sickness, and thus could not cope with further bouts of disease and with the increased physiological demands of pubertal growth. The missing correlation in younger age categories can be largely explained by the difficulty of macroscopically examining the permanent dentition, since an interrelationship between the age at hypoplasia development and the occurrence of cribra orbitalia was detected. Several differences between the individuals with enamel defects and both conditions were observed in the distribution of age at hypoplasia formation. According to these results, several factors, such as impaired health status, growth demands and diet, influence the development of enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia in a particular population. It is possible that after reaching a certain threshold, the underlying factors act synergistically in a kind of vicious cycle as the balance between the immune system, metabolism, and exogenous factors such as pathogens and nutrition, is disturbed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Roman Period fetal skeletons from the East Cemetery (Kellis 2) of Kellis, Egypt

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
M. W. Tocheri
Abstract Much can be learned about the religious ideology and mortuary patterns as well as the demographic and health profiles of a population from archaeological human fetal skeletons. Fetal skeletons are rare, however, largely due to poor preservation and recovery, misidentification, or non-inclusion in general burial populations. We present an analysis of 82 fetal/perinatal skeletons recovered from Kellis 2, a Roman Period cemetery dated to the third and fourth centuries AD, located in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Most of the fetal remains were individually wrapped in linen and all were buried among the general cemetery population in a supine, east,west orientation with the head facing to the west. Gestational age estimates are calculated from diaphysis lengths using published regression and Bayesian methods. The overall similarity between the fetal age distributions calculated from the regression and Bayesian methods suggests that the correlation between diaphysis length and gestational age is typically strong enough to avoid the ,regression' problem of having the age structure of reference samples adversely affecting the age distribution of target samples. The inherent bias of the regression methods, however, is primarily reflected in the gestational age categories between 36 and 42 weeks corresponding with the expected increase in growth variation during the late third trimester. The results suggest that the fetal age distribution at Kellis 2 does not differ from the natural expected mortality distribution. Therefore, practices such as infanticide can be ruled out as having a significant effect on the observed mortality distribution. Moreover, the Kellis 2 sample is well represented in each gestational age category, suggesting that all premature stillbirths and neonatal deaths received similar burial rites. The age distribution of the Kellis 2 fetal remains suggests that emerging Christian concepts, such as the ,soul' and the ,afterlife', were being applied to everyone including fetuses of all gestational ages. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Use of the first rib for adult age estimation: a test of one method

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
H. Kurki
Abstract The human first rib is relatively easy to identify and is often preserved, in comparison with elements such as the fourth rib and pubic symphysis. Therefore it is potentially a valuable skeletal element for estimating age in forensic and archaeological contexts. A method of adult age estimation using the first rib (Kunos et al., 1999) is tested on a sample of known age skeletons from the J.C.B. Grant Collection (n,=,29, mean age,=,55.7 years). The high correlation coefficient (r,=,0.69) and moderate coefficient of determination (r2,=,0.47) demonstrate agreement between the known and estimated ages, suggesting that the first rib demonstates morphological changes with age. The inaccuracy and bias are high (all ages inaccuracy,=,10.4 years, bias,=,4.7 years) but comparable to several other age estimation methods in common use. Although the results are not as good for younger age categories (<,50 years: inaccuracy and bias rank ninth of nine age estimation methods), the inaccuracy and bias for the older age categories are relatively low (60,+ years inaccuracy,=,8.9 years, ranks third out of nine; bias,=,,,5.8 years, ranks first out of nine) compared with other age estimation methods. The first rib method is reasonably precise (93% of individuals fall within the limits of agreement of the mean difference between two trials). The first rib method is therefore a useful addition to the methods available for biological profile reconstructions from skeletal remains, especially if it is suspected that the remains represent an older individual. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cardiovascular Disease Is Associated with Greater Incident Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Decline in the Oldest Old: The Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2010
Jason L. Sanders BA
OBJECTIVES: To describe cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and change in DHEAS with age. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars study participants assessed in 2005/06 (N=989, mean age 85.2, 63.5% women, 16.5% African American). MEASUREMENTS: Health characteristics were assessed in 2005/06 according to DHEAS level, mean DHEAS and DHEAS change across age categories were tested, and linear and logistic regression was used to identify factors present in 1996/97 associated with continuous and categorical DHEAS change. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation DHEAS was 0.555 ± 0.414 ,g/mL in 1996/97 and 0.482 ± 0.449 ,g/mL in 2005/06 for women and 0.845 ± 0.520 ,g/mL in 1996/97 and 0.658 ± 0.516 ,g/mL in 2005/06 for men. In 2005/06, DHEAS was lower in women and subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic pulmonary disease and higher for African Americans and subjects with hypertension and high cholesterol. Mean DHEAS change was greater in men (,0.200 ,g/mL) than in women (,0.078 ,g/mL) (P<.001). Each 1-year increase in age attenuated the effect of male sex by 0.01 ,g/mL (P=.009), abolishing the sex difference in DHEAS change by age 79. Presence of CVD before the study period was associated with greater absolute DHEAS change (,=,0.04 ,g/mL, P=.04) and with the fourth quartile of DHEAS change versus the first to third quartiles (odds ratio=1.46, 95% confidence interval=1.03,2.05). CONCLUSION: DHEAS change continues into very old age, is not homogenous, is affected by sex, and is associated with prevalent CVD. Future studies should investigate factors that might accelerate DHEAS decline. [source]


Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
Nils Chr.
Summary 1Small rodents in general and the multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis in particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. 2Demographic estimates from a capture,mark,recapture (CMR) study in Tanzania were used to parameterize a population model for this species. This model incorporated three functional age categories (juveniles, subadults and adults) of both sexes and used density-dependent and density-independent factors, the latter represented by rainfall. 3The model was used to analyse the effect of rodent control on the population dynamics and resulting number of rats. Control measures affecting survival as well as reproduction were considered. 4The model showed that control measures reducing survival will only have long-term effects on population size if they are also applied when rodent densities are low. Control measures applied only when rodent densities are high will not have persistent effects, even at high mortality rates. 5The model demonstrated that control measures reducing reproduction are likely to prevent Mastomys outbreaks, but will keep densities low over a long period only when the contraceptive effect is strong (> 75% reduction). 6Provided that CMR data are available, we recommend developing Leslie-type population models for rodent pests on the basis of CMR-estimated demographic schedules. Such models have great potential in rodent management and allow the evaluation of different strategies. 7Besides improving the ecological basis of the population modelling, economic considerations need to be incorporated into decisions about rodent control. We suggest that appropriate population models will provide important input into such decision making. [source]


Bone microstructure at the distal tibia provides a strength advantage to males in late puberty: An HR-pQCT study

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 6 2010
Melonie Burrows
Abstract Bone is a complex structure with many levels of organization. Advanced imaging tools such as high-resolution (HR) peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) provide the opportunity to investigate how components of bone microstructure differ between the sexes and across developmental periods. The aim of this study was to quantify the age- and sex-related differences in bone microstructure and bone strength in adolescent males and females. We used HR-pQCT (XtremeCT, Scanco Medical, Geneva, Switzerland) to assess total bone area (ToA), total bone density (ToD), trabecular bone density (TrD), cortical bone density (CoD), cortical thickness (Cort.Th), trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), trabecular spacing standard deviation (Tb.Sp SD), and bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia in 133 females and 146 males (15 to 20 years of age). We used a general linear model to determine differences by age- and sex-group and age,×,sex interactions (p,<,0.05). Across age categories, ToD, CoD, Cort.Th, and BSI were significantly lower at 15 and 16 years compared with 17 to 18 and 19 to 20 years in males and females. There were no differences in ToA, TrD, and BV/TV across age for either sex. Between sexes, males had significantly greater ToA, TrD, Cort.Th, BV/TV, Tb.N, and BSI compared with females; CoD and Tb.Sp SD were significantly greater for females in every age category. Males' larger and denser bones confer a bone-strength advantage from a young age compared with females. These structural differences could represent bones that are less able to withstand loads in compression in females. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]


An Empirical Analysis of 30 Years of U.S. Juvenile and Adult Sexual Homicide Offender Data: Race and Age Differences in the Victim,Offender Relationship

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2010
Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan M.A.
Abstract:, Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim,offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976,2005) was used. Analyses of victim,offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91,100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24,82%) and inter-racially (18,76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim,offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling. [source]


Demographics and Costs of Colic in Swedish Horses

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
A. Egenvall
Background: Colic is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses. In Sweden, an insurance database with diagnostic medical information is maintained on >30% of the nation's horse population. Hypothesis: The objective was to describe the occurrence of colic, defined by costly veterinary care and life claims, in horses at 1 insurance company during 1997,2002. Horses: All horses (<21 years of age) with complete insurance for veterinary care and life during the period 1997,2002 were included. Methods: Colic was defined as conditions where the main clinical sign was abdominal pain and the problem was related to the gastrointestinal system. The analyses included measures of incidence by sex, breed group, age categories, geographical location (urban/other), survival to and survival after colic, medical cost for colic, and multivariable modeling of risk factors related to the event of colic. Results: In all, 116,288 horses contributed to 341,564 horse years at risk (HYAR). There were 3,100 horses with a colic diagnosis, of which 27% were settled for life insurance. The median gross cost for veterinary care was 4,729 Swedish Kronor (SEK). The overall occurrence and mortality rate of colic was 91 and 24 events per 10,000 HYAR. Survival after colic at 1 month was 76% (95% confidence interval: 75,78%). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The occurrence of colic varied with breed group, age, and season. The mortality rates probably reflected the true mortality of colic. The veterinary care rates most likely underestimated of the risk colic because they represent relatively costly events. [source]


A simple laser photogrammetry technique for measuring Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in the field

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
Trudi Webster
Abstract The ability to measure and age individuals within a population has many important applications, for example, for examining growth and determining size class. We developed a simple photogrammetric system using two parallel lasers and a digital camera, in order to measure dorsal fin dimensions of free-ranging Hector's dolphins. Laser dots were projected onto the fin, providing scale, thus allowing measurement as well as simultaneous photo-ID of 34 individuals from fin nicks and other marks. Multiple measurements (,5) were available for six individuals; these resulted in mean CVs of 3.71% for fin length and 3.76% for fin height. Errors due to variations in angle and measurement were quantified via photography of a fiberglass Hector's dolphin model. Allometric measurements and age data were collated from 233 autopsied Hector's dolphins. Using these data, fin length was found to be a better predictor of total length (females r2= 0.732, males r2= 0.678) than fin height. Gompertz age/length growth curves were fitted to these individuals. Linear regressions were used to estimate total length for 34 individuals from laser-metrically estimated fin base length. Individuals were then assigned one of three age categories. This system shows promise as a noninvasive way of measuring individuals, while allowing simultaneous photographic identification. [source]


HAUL-OUT ACTIVITY OF RINGED SEALS (PHOCA HISPIDA) DETERMINED FROM SATELLITE TELEMETRY

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
E. W. Born
Abstract The haul-out activity of 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) equipped with satellite-linked radio transmitters was studied in NW Greenland (ca. 73°-78°N). Between 19 June 1997 and 30 June 1999, telemetry data on haulout activity were obtained by the "Land-Sea-Reporter" (LSR), "Time-at-Depth" (TAD), and "Timelines" (TIM) systems housed within the satellite transmitters. The haul-out activity (% of total time hauled out) reported by the TIM system, which is specifically designed for collecting haul-out data, was about 1.4 times higher than that inferred from the LSR, but only about 0.7 of that inferred from TAD data. The TIM were used to describe haul-out activity. A total of 1,011 d with TIM were obtained (64.5% of a total of 1,568 "seal-days" monitored) representing data from nearly an entire annual cycle. No differences were found in percentage of time hauled out per month among various age categories. At all seasons the haul-out time showed considerable individual variation. There were no trends in percentage of time hauled out per month during late summer, fall, and winter (August-February). During the High Arctic winter darkness (November-January) the percentage of haul-out per month ranged between 3.9% in an adult (SD = 2.44, range: 1.1%-5.7%, n= 3 mo) and 15.7% in a subadult (SD = 1.95, range: 13.7%-17.6%, n= 3 mo). From late March there was a significant increase in haul-out time. Between 1 and 30 June, when aerial surveys of basking ringed seals usually are conducted, the haul-out time (% per day) increased from about 25% to about 57%. No tendencies in diel haul-out activity were revealed. [source]


Cross-cultural assessment of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT)

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2000
Health Studies, Naomi Josman PhD, OTR Faculty of Social Welfare
Abstract The Contextual Memory Test (CMT) measures aspects of memory and metamemory of people with cognitive disabilities. The assessment tool was originally developed and standardized in the United States. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the applicability of the CMT to an Israeli population; (2) to further investigate the construct validity of the CMT to discriminate among age groups; and (3) to analyse the 40 items on the CMT from a cultural point of view. The CMT was administered to 217 typical Israeli adults, grouped into three age categories, closely matching those in the US normative study (Toglia, 1993). Similar levels of performance were obtained for Israelis and Americans on the various test components. Statistically significant differences between American and Israeli subjects' performance levels were evident in three memory components in the elderly groups (group 3) and in only two memory components in the young group (group 1). In addition, within-sample comparisons of the three Israeli age groups yielded significant age effects for recall, recognition, strategy use and general awareness. This study confirmed discriminant validity for the CMT. The tool seems to be highly appropriate for use by occupational therapists in assessing memory and metamemory with American and Israeli adult subjects. The relatively small size of the age groups and the lack of random selection of subjects are limitations of this study. Therefore, it is recommended that the study be replicated with a larger and randomized sample. The multifaceted nature of the assessment provides much more information than traditional recall scores, and the metamemory components enhance both differential diagnosis and appropriate planning of treatment. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Monitoring working conditions and health of older workers in Dutch construction industry

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2010
Peter Hoonakker PhD
Abstract Background Accurate reporting of work-related conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety and to identify the interventions that are most needed. In the Netherlands, working conditions and health are monitored on an aggregated level in the construction industry. One of the purposes of monitoring is to identify specific risk factors and risk groups. The objectives of this study was to examine (1) whether older workers (,55 years) in the construction industry are a special group at risk and (2) whether there are specific risk factors for older workers in the construction industry. Methods Every 2 years, more than 70,000 construction workers in the Netherlands fill out a questionnaire as part of their periodic health checkup. In a repeated cross-sectional (trend) design, we compared working conditions (physical and psychological demands), musculoskeletal disorders (symptoms and conditions), and injuries of older workers with other age categories. Results Older construction workers have fewer complaints about physically demanding work and psychosocial workload, but have more complaints about working in awkward postures. Older workers have more complaints about their health than workers in other age categories. Older construction workers have fewer injuries than younger workers. Conclusions Older construction workers are a risk group for musculoskeletal disorders. Working in awkward postures can be considered a risk factor for older workers in construction industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53: 641,653, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Brief communication: The London atlas of human tooth development and eruption

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
S.J. AlQahtani
Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive evidence-based atlas to estimate age using both tooth development and alveolar eruption for human individuals between 28 weeks in utero and 23 years. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study of archived material with the sample aged 2 years and older having a uniform age and sex distribution. Developing teeth from 72 prenatal and 104 postnatal skeletal remains of known age-at-death were examined from collections held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Natural History Museum, London, UK (M 91, F 72, unknown sex 13). Data were also collected from dental radiographs of living individuals (M 264, F 264). Median stage for tooth development and eruption for all age categories was used to construct the atlas. Tooth development was determined according to Moorrees et al. (J Dent Res 42 (1963a) 490,502; Am J Phys Anthropol 21 (1963b) 205,213) and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Intraexaminer reproducibility calculated using Kappa on 150 teeth was 0.90 for 15 skeletal remains of age <2 years, and 0.81 from 605 teeth (50 radiographs). Age categories were monthly in the last trimester, 2 weeks perinatally, 3-month intervals during the first year, and at every year thereafter. Results show that tooth formation is least variable in infancy and most variable after the age of 16 years for the development of the third molar. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Manual digital pressures during knuckle-walking in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
R.E. Wunderlich
Abstract Considerable attention has been given to hand morphology and function associated with knuckle-walking in the African apes because of the implications they have for the evolution of bipedalism in early hominins. Knuckle-walking is associated with a unique suite of musculoskeletal features of the wrist and hand, and numerous studies have hypothesized that these anatomical features are associated with the dynamics of load distribution across the digits during knuckle-walking. We collected dynamic digital pressures on two chimpanzees during terrestrial and simulated arboreal locomotion. Comparisons were made across substrates, limb positions, hand positions, and age categories. Peak digital pressures were similar on the pole and on the ground but were distributed differently across the digits on each substrate. In young animals, pressure was equally high on digits 2,4 on the ground but higher on digits 3 and 4 on the pole. Older animals experience higher pressures on digits 2 and 3 on the ground. Hand posture (palm-in vs. palm-back) influenced the distribution and timing of peak pressures. Age-related increases in body mass also result in higher overall pressures and increased variation across the digital row. In chimpanzees, digit 5 typically bears relatively little load regardless of hand position or substrate. These are the first quantitative data on digital pressures during knuckle-walking in hominoids, and they afford the opportunity to develop hypotheses about variation among hominoids and biomechanical models of wrist and forearm loading. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Measuring and interpreting age-related loss of vertebral bone mineral density in a medieval population

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Sabrina C. Agarwal
Abstract This study investigates the age- and sex-related patterns in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and the relationship between BMD and vertebral osteophytosis (VO), using a specialized peripheral densitometer in a skeletal sample excavated from the British medieval village Wharram Percy. A total of 58 individuals were divided by sex into three broad age categories (18,29, 30,49, 50+ years.). Each fourth intact vertebral centra was scored for VO and 5-mm thick coronal sections scanned in a specialized peripheral densitometer (GE Lunar Piximus DXA). Changes in BMD associated with age, sex, and VO severity were examined in the whole vertebral section, a strictly trabecular region, and a primarily cortical region of bone separately. Significant change in vertebral BMD was found to occur by middle age with little or no statistical change in BMD between middle and old age. Females appear to suffer greater bone loss at an earlier age with no change in BMD between middle and old age, whereas males show a more steady loss of BMD across the age groups. The bone mineral content and BMD of the cortical region is higher in individuals with pronounced/severe osteophytosis. The unusual age- and sex-related patterns of change in vertebral BMD at Wharram Percy are compared with the patterns of age-related change from recent longitudinal population-based studies. The results emphasize the different pattern of bone loss in young adulthood seen in trabecular regions of the skeleton and highlight the importance of consideration of degenerative joint disease in BMD studies. The influence of lifestyle factors on vertebral BMD in this medieval population is also discussed. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Social influences on the development of foraging behavior in free-living common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
Nicola Schiel
Abstract In this study we investigated the extent and pattern of social influences (i.e., the use of a conspecific as a model) on the foraging behavior of immature, wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a function of the age of individuals. We compared the foraging activities and interactions with subadult and adult group members (older than 15 months) of young infants (1,2 months old), older infants (3,4 months old), and juveniles (5,10 months old). In addition to measuring the intensities of model-independent foraging (MIF) and merely paying attention to the model's foraging activities, we examined the frequencies of three types of model-dependent foraging (MDF): "follow the model", "manipulate the same object", and "forage together". We found that older infants were the most attentive and most socially-influenced foragers among the three age categories in absolute terms, but were not more attentive than young infants given their low foraging activity. Juveniles, in contrast, tended to have reduced overall foraging intensity compared to infants, but showed relatively more MDF in cases in which they observed subadult or adult models. Female models appeared to be more attractive than male models. These findings suggest that infants are generally more attentive to the foraging behavior of subadults and adults than juveniles, with the latter being more influenced when they had observed a model before. These subtle age-dependent effects of social foraging not only extend the assumption that young primates seek information from adults, they also suggest a complex interplay among physical and cognitive maturation, independence, and social dynamics. Am. J. Primatol. 68:1,11, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The fractal yam: botanical imagery and human agency in the Trobriands

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 4 2009
Mark S. Mosko
Anthropologists have long appreciated that animals are ,good to think'. In this essay I ponder whether plants might be good to think too, and particularly whether there is any sense in asking if plants (along with animals) might also be ,good to act'. The botanical metaphor of ,base', ,body', and ,tip' animates the origin structures of many if not most societies of the Austronesian world. Less attention has been directed at indigenous elaborations in other socio-cultural domains of the region. Based on recent fieldwork, I outline such ramifications in Trobriand culture, drawing upon the notions of fractal recursion and self-similarity from chaos theory wherein emergent ,tips' yield ,fruit' which become the condition or ,base' for further production and transformation. Accordingly, the base-body-tip-fruit metaphor serves as a cultural template or scenario for social action, shedding new interpretative light on many topics of long-standing anthropological interest (e.g. yam propagation, display, and exchange, kula, mortuary celebration, age categories, fame) as well as more recent theoretical interests. Résumé Les anthropologues ont compris il y a longtemps déjà que les animaux sont « bons à penser ». Dans cet essai, l'auteur se demande si les plantes sont elles aussi bonnes à penser, et en particulier s'il vaut la peine de se demander si les plantes (comme les animaux) pourraient être « bonnes à agir ». La métaphore botanique de « base », « corps » et « tête » anime les structures originelles de beaucoup de sociétés du monde austronésien, sinon toutes. On s'est moins intéressé aux élaborations indigènes de la région dans d'autres domaines socioculturels. Sur la base d'un récent travail de terrain, l'auteur retrace ces ramifications dans la culture trobriandaise, utilisant les notions de récursivité fractale et d'autosimilitude de la théorie du chaos, selon lesquelles les « têtes » donnent des « fruits » qui deviennent la condition ou « base » d'une nouvelle production et transformation. En conséquence, la métaphore base-corps-tête-fruit sert de modèle culturel ou de scénario d'action sociale, jetant un nouvel éclairage interprétatif sur de nombreux sujets qui intéressent depuis longtemps les anthropologues (tels que la propagation, la présentation et l'échange des ignames, la kula, les célébrations mortuaires, les classes d'âge, la renommée), mais aussi sur de nouvelles questions théoriques plus récentes. [source]


Sexual dimorphism and seasonal changes of leaf gas exchange in the dioecious tree Ilex paraguariensis grown in two contrasted cultivation types

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
M. Rakocevic
Abstract Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis, Aquifoliaceae) is a subtropical, evergreen, dioecious, South American tree. In one preliminary study, it was observed that the functional strategy of yerba mate females, aiming to finish reproductive process, was increased transpiration relative to photosynthetic rates compared with males, on self-shaded leaves. We hypothesised that the long-term gas exchange response of males and females can evolve independently of phenological stage and cultivation type. In this spirit, the primary aim of the study was to analyse the physiological sexual dimorphism of this species, evaluating fluctuations of gas exchanges related to microclimate and phenological stages. A field study was conducted on adult plants of yerba maté cultivated in monoculture (MO) and in forest understorey (FUS), and measurements carried out in situ on microclimate and leaf gas exchange parameters. The photosynthetic photon flux density that was attained at leaf level in FUS was reduced roughly 10-fold compared with that in MO. Various leaf age populations were observed during a 2-year period at 2-month intervals and grouped into four categories: young, young-fully-expanded, fully-expanded and old. Young and young-fully-expanded leaves were the most active in photosynthesis. Leaves of female plants showed greater photosynthetic rate than those of male plants, which was expressed on all leaf age categories in MO, but only during vegetative stages previous to flowering and fruit ripening. The photosynthesis of young-fully-expanded leaves of females grown in FUS was superior to males but only during winter growth pause. The stomatal conductance differed in relation to cultivation type and leaf age but did not show the sexual differentiation. Physiological sexual dimorphism in yerba mate is shown to be plastic, responding to environmental conditions. The cost associated to the reproduction of yerba maté could be most easily met showing physiological differentiation of both sexes. A higher reproductive investment of females might be compensated for by exhibiting greater leaf photosynthesis than males that occurs in vegetative stages that precede flowering and fruit ripening. [source]


Racial disparities in age at time of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular-related death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 9 2010
Lisabeth V. Scalzi
Objective To determine whether racial disparities exist with regard to the age at which patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-associated death. Methods Using the 2003,2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we calculated the age difference between patients with SLE and their race- and sex-matched controls at the time of hospitalization for a cardiovascular event and for CVD-associated death. In addition, we calculated the age difference between white patients with SLE and sex-matched controls for each minority group for the same outcomes. Results The mean age difference between women with and those without SLE at the time of admission for a CVD event was 10.5 years. All age differences between women with SLE (n = 3,627) and women without SLE admitted for CVD were significant (P < 0.0001). Among different racial groups with SLE, black women were the youngest to be admitted with CVD (53.9 years) and to have a CVD-associated in-hospital death (52.8 years; n = 218). Black women with SLE were 19.8 years younger than race- and sex-matched controls at the time of CVD-associated death. Admission trends for CVD were reversed for black women, such that the highest proportions of these patients were admitted before age 55 years, and then the proportions steadily decreased across age categories. Among the 805 men with SLE who were admitted with a CVD event, those who were black or Hispanic were youngest. Conclusion There are significant racial disparities with regard to age at the time of hospital admission for CVD events and CVD-related hospitalization resulting in death in patients with SLE. [source]


Nonparametric Modeling of the Mean Survival Time in a Multi-factor Design Based on Randomly Right-Censored Data

BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
M. H. Rahbar
Abstract Statistical procedures and methodology for assessment of interventions or treatments based on medical data often involves complexities due to incompleteness of the available data as a result of drop out or the inability of complete follow up until the endpoint of interest. In this article we propose a nonparametric regression model based on censored data when we are concerned with investigation of the simultaneous effects of the two or more factors. Specifically, we will assess the effect of a treatment (dose) and a covariate (e.g., age categories) on the mean survival time of subjects assigned to combinations of the levels of these factors. The proposed method allows for varying levels of censorship in the outcome among different groups of subjects at different levels of the independent variables (factors). We derive the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of the parameters in our model, which then allows for statistical inference. Finally, through a simulation study we assess the effect of the censoring rates on the standard error of these types of estimators. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects, Atlanta,1968,2000: Teenager or thirty-something, who is at risk?,

BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 9 2004
Jennita Reefhuis
Abstract OBJECTIVE This investigation explored the association between maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects to assess any increased risk associated with maternal age. METHODS Birth defect cases were ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), denominator information was obtained using birth certificate data. Infants with any chromosomal diagnosis were excluded. Effect estimates were calculated using 5-year maternal age categories with 25,29 years as the referent. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for maternal race, parity, infant sex, and birth year. RESULTS A total of 1,050,616 singleton infants, born after ,20 weeks gestation in the five counties of metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 through 2000 who did not have a chromosomal abnormality and whose mother was 14 to 40 years old, were included in the analyses, 32,816 of them were identified with birth defects by the MACDP. Young maternal age (14,19 years) was associated with anencephaly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.30,2.52), hydrocephaly without neural tube defect (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.23,1.96), all ear defects (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10,1.49), cleft lip (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.30,2.73), female genital defects (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.12,2.19), hydronephrosis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.11,1.82), polydactyly (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.09,1.52), omphalocele (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.39,3.12), and gastroschisis (OR = 7.18, 95% CI = 4.39,11.75). Advanced maternal age (35,40 years) was associated with all heart defects (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03,1.22), tricuspid atresia (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02,1.50), right outflow tract defects (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10,1.49), hypospadias 2nd degree or higher (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.33,2.58), male genital defects excluding hypospadias (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08,1.45) and craniosynostosis (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.18,2.30). CONCLUSIONS Young and advanced maternal ages are associated with different types of birth defects. Underlying causes for these associations are not clear. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 70:572,579, 2004. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Comparison of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization of the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate: update of a prospective non-randomized two-centre study

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2008
Robin Ruszat
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the intermediate-term clinical efficacy and the rate of complications in 80 W photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with the potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser (GreenlightTM, (AMS, Minnetonka, MN, USA) compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in a prospective non-randomised two-centre study. PATIENTS AND METHODS From December 2003 to August 2006, 396 patients (PVP 269, TURP 127) with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study. There was a significant difference in mean age (72 years for PVP vs 68 for TURP, P = 0.001). Patients were therefore stratified in age categories (<70, 70,80, >80 years) and compared for perioperative variables, functional outcome and complications, with a follow-up of up to 24 months. RESULTS The mean prostate size was greater (overall, 62 vs 48 mL, P < 0.001) and mean operative duration longer (overall 72 vs 53 min; P = 0.001) for PVP in all age categories. The rate of intraoperative bleeding (3% vs 11%), blood transfusions (0% vs 5.5%) and capsule perforations (0.4% vs 6.3%), and early postoperative clot retention (0.4% vs 3.9%) was significantly lower for PVP. Hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the PVP group for patients aged <70 years (3.0 vs 4.7 days) and 70,80 years (4.0 vs 5.0 days; P = 0.001). The improvement of peak urinary flow rate was higher after TURP for any age category. The International Prostate Symptom Score and postvoid residual volume during the follow-up showed no significant difference. After 12 months the overall prostate size reduction was 63% (,30 mL) after TURP and 44% (,27 mL) after PVP. The rate of repeat TURP/PVP was higher in the PVP group (6.7% vs 3.9%, not significant) within the follow-up of up to 2 years. The incidence of urethral and bladder neck strictures was comparable. CONCLUSIONS PVP was more favourable in terms of perioperative safety. Although patients assigned for PVP were older and had larger prostates, PVP resulted in a similar functional outcome. Further follow-up is needed to draw final conclusions about the long-term efficacy of PVP. [source]


Reproductive factors and risk of breast carcinoma in a study of white and African-American women,,

CANCER, Issue 2 2004
Giske Ursin M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated the association between reproductive factors and the risk of breast carcinoma among African-American women. The authors assessed whether the number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy, and total duration of breastfeeding were associated with similar relative risk estimates in white and African-American women in a large multicenter, population-based case,control study of breast carcinoma. METHODS Case patients were 4567 women (2950 white women and 1617 African-American women) ages 35,64 years with newly diagnosed invasive breast carcinoma between 1994 and 1998. Control patients were 4668 women (3012 white women and 1656 African-American women) who were identified by random-digit dialing and were frequency matched to case patients according to study center, race, and age. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS For white women, the reduction in risk of breast carcinoma per full-term pregnancy was 13% among younger women (ages 35,49 years) and 10% among older women (ages 50,64 years). The corresponding risk reductions for African-American women were 10% and 6%, respectively. Risk decreased significantly with increasing number of full-term pregnancies for both races and both age categories. Duration of lactation was inversely associated with breast carcinoma risk among younger parous white (trend P = 0.0001) and African-American (trend P = 0.01) women. African-American women tended to have more children compared with white women, but parity rates were lower in younger women than in older women in both racial groups. However, breastfeeding was substantially more common in young white women than in young African-American women. CONCLUSIONS Overall, parity and lactation had similar effects on breast carcinoma risk in white and African-American women. If younger African-American women now are giving birth to fewer children than in the past, without a substantial increase in breastfeeding, breast carcinoma rates may continue to increase at a more rapid rate among these women compared with white women. Cancer 2004. Published 2004 by the American Cancer Society. [source]


Parent-proxy report of their children's health-related quality of life: an analysis of 13 878 parents' reliability and validity across age subgroups using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
Richard Reading
Parent-proxy report of their children's health-related quality of life: an analysis of 13 878 parents' reliability and validity across age subgroups using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales . VarniJ. W., LimbersC. A. & BurwinkleT. M. ( 2007 ) Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 5 , 2 . DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-5-2. Background, Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement has emerged as an important health outcome in clinical trials, clinical practice improvement strategies, and healthcare services research and evaluation. While paediatric patient self-report should be considered the standard for measuring perceived HRQOL, there are circumstances when children are too young, too cognitively impaired, too ill or fatigued to complete an HRQOL instrument, and reliable and valid parent-proxy report instruments are needed in such cases. Further, it is typically parents' perceptions of their children's HRQOL that influences healthcare utilization. Data from the PedsQL DatabaseSM were utilized to test the reliability and validity of parent-proxy report at the individual age subgroup level for ages 2,16 years as recommended by recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Methods, The sample analysed represents parent-proxy report age data on 13 878 children ages 2,16 years from the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales DatabaseSM. Parents were recruited from general paediatric clinics, sub-specialty clinics and hospitals in which their children were being seen for well-child checks, mild acute illness or chronic illness care (n = 3,718, 26.8%), and from a State Children's Health Insurance Program in California (n = 10 160, 73.2%). Results, The percentage of missing item responses for the parent-proxy report sample as a whole was 2.1%, supporting feasibility. The majority of the parent-proxy report scales across the age subgroups exceeded the minimum internal consistency reliability standard of 0.70 required for group comparisons, while the total scale scores across the age subgroups approached or exceeded the reliability criterion of 0.90 recommended for analysing individual patient scale scores. Construct validity was demonstrated utilizing the known groups approach. For each PedsQL scale and summary score, across age subgroups, healthy children demonstrated a statistically significant difference in HRQOL (better HRQOL) than children with a known chronic health condition, with most effect sizes in the medium-to-large effect size range. Conclusion, The results demonstrate the feasibility, reliability and validity of parent-proxy report at the individual age subgroup for ages 2,16 years. These analyses are consistent with recent FDA guidelines which require instrument development and validation testing for children and adolescents within fairly narrow age groupings and which determine the lower age limit at which reliable and valid responses across age categories are achievable. Even as paediatric patient self-report is advocated, there remains a fundamental role for parent-proxy report in paediatric clinical trials and health services research. [source]


The Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale: normal values and interrater reliability

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2007
M. R. HACKER
Summary., ,Persons with haemophilia often experience their first joint haemorrhage in early childhood. Recurrent bleeding into a joint may lead to significant morbidity, specifically haemophilic arthropathy. Early identification of the onset and progression of joint damage is critical to preserving joint structure and function. Physical examination is the most feasible approach to monitor joint health. Our group developed the Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale to identify earlier signs of joint degeneration and incorporate developmentally appropriate tasks for assessing joint function in young children. This study's objectives were to establish normal ranges for this scale and assess interrater reliability. The ankles, knees and elbows of 72 healthy boys aged 1 through 7 years were evaluated by a physical therapist to establish normal ranges. Exactly 10 boys in each age category from 2 to 7 years were evaluated by a second physical therapist to determine interrater reliability. The original scale was modified to account for the finding that mild angulation in the weight-bearing joints is developmentally normal. The interrater reliability of the scale ranged from fair to good, underscoring the need for physical therapists to have specific training in the orthopaedic assessment of very young children and the measurement error inherent in the goniometer. Modifications to axial alignment scoring will allow the scale to distinguish healthy joints from those suffering frequent haemarthroses. [source]


Roman Period fetal skeletons from the East Cemetery (Kellis 2) of Kellis, Egypt

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
M. W. Tocheri
Abstract Much can be learned about the religious ideology and mortuary patterns as well as the demographic and health profiles of a population from archaeological human fetal skeletons. Fetal skeletons are rare, however, largely due to poor preservation and recovery, misidentification, or non-inclusion in general burial populations. We present an analysis of 82 fetal/perinatal skeletons recovered from Kellis 2, a Roman Period cemetery dated to the third and fourth centuries AD, located in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Most of the fetal remains were individually wrapped in linen and all were buried among the general cemetery population in a supine, east,west orientation with the head facing to the west. Gestational age estimates are calculated from diaphysis lengths using published regression and Bayesian methods. The overall similarity between the fetal age distributions calculated from the regression and Bayesian methods suggests that the correlation between diaphysis length and gestational age is typically strong enough to avoid the ,regression' problem of having the age structure of reference samples adversely affecting the age distribution of target samples. The inherent bias of the regression methods, however, is primarily reflected in the gestational age categories between 36 and 42 weeks corresponding with the expected increase in growth variation during the late third trimester. The results suggest that the fetal age distribution at Kellis 2 does not differ from the natural expected mortality distribution. Therefore, practices such as infanticide can be ruled out as having a significant effect on the observed mortality distribution. Moreover, the Kellis 2 sample is well represented in each gestational age category, suggesting that all premature stillbirths and neonatal deaths received similar burial rites. The age distribution of the Kellis 2 fetal remains suggests that emerging Christian concepts, such as the ,soul' and the ,afterlife', were being applied to everyone including fetuses of all gestational ages. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cardiocerebral Resuscitation Is Associated With Improved Survival and Neurologic Outcome from Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest in Elders

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
Jarrod Mosier MD
Abstract Background:, Recent studies have shown that a new emergency medical services (EMS) protocol for treating patients who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR), significantly improves survival compared to standard advanced life support (ALS). However, due to their different physiology, it is unclear if all elders, or any subsets of elders who are OHCA victims, would benefit from the CCR protocol. Objectives:, The objectives of this analysis were to compare survival by age group for patients receiving CCR and ALS, to evaluate their neurologic outcome, and to determine what other factors affect survival in the subset of patients who do receive CCR. Methods:, An analysis was performed of 3,515 OHCAs occurring between January 2005 and September 2008 in the Save Hearts in Arizona Registry. A total of 1,024 of these patients received CCR. Pediatric patients and arrests due to drowning, respiratory, or traumatic causes were excluded. The registry included data from 62 EMS agencies, some of which instituted CCR. Outcome measures included survival to hospital discharge and cerebral performance category (CPC) scores. Logistic regression evaluated outcomes in patients who received CCR versus standard ALS across age groups, adjusted for known potential confounders, including bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), witnessed arrest, EMS dispatch-to-arrival time, ventricular fibrillation (Vfib), and agonal respirations on EMS arrival. Predictors of survival evaluated included age, sex, location, bystander CPR, witnessed arrest, Vfib/ventricular tachycardia (Vtach), response time, and agonal breathing, based on bivariate results. Backward stepwise selection was used to confirm predictors of survival. These predictors were then analyzed with logistic regression by age category per 10 years of age. Results:, Individuals who received CCR had better outcomes across age groups. The increase in survival for the subgroup with a witnessed Vfib was most prominent on those <40 years of age (3.7% for standard ALS patients vs. 19% for CCR patients, odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82 to 19.26). This mortality benefit declined with age until the ,80 years age group, which regained the benefit (1.8% vs. 4.6%, OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.10 to 5.97). Neurologic outcomes were also better in the patients who received CCR (OR = 6.64, 95% CI = 1.31 to 32.8). Within the subgroup that received CCR, the factors most predictive of improved survival included witnessed arrest, initial rhythm of Vfib/Vtach, agonal respirations upon arrival, EMS response time, and age. Neurologic outcome was not adversely affected by age. Conclusions:, Cardiocerebral resuscitation is associated with better survival from OHCA in most age groups. The majority of patients in all age groups who survived to hospital discharge and who could be reached for follow-up had good neurologic outcome. Among patients receiving CCR for OHCA, witnessed arrest, Vfib/Vtach, agonal respirations, and early response time are significant predictors of survival, and these do not change significantly based on age. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:269,275 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]