Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Executives

  • business executive
  • central executive
  • chief executive
  • core executive
  • corporate executive
  • nonprofit executive
  • nurse executive
  • other executive
  • senior executive
  • top executive

  • Terms modified by Executives

  • executive ability
  • executive agencies
  • executive authority
  • executive branch
  • executive coaching
  • executive cognitive function
  • executive committee
  • executive compensation
  • executive control
  • executive deficit
  • executive director
  • executive dysfunction
  • executive function
  • executive function deficit
  • executive function task
  • executive function test
  • executive functioning
  • executive impairment
  • executive institution
  • executive leadership
  • executive management
  • executive measure
  • executive officer
  • executive order
  • executive pay
  • executive performance
  • executive power
  • executive process
  • executive remuneration
  • executive stock option
  • executive summary

  • Selected Abstracts


    Examining core executive organization for EU affairs in Finland and Sweden, this article uncovers how change agents used European integration deliberately to strengthen their role in the domestic settings through taking control of EU policy co-ordination. In both countries, EU membership was an exogenous factor that enabled the offices of the PM to secure a more powerful position and advance their own institutional agendas. This strengthened their leadership role and weakened the respective foreign ministries, whose legitimacy in EU co-ordination was undermined by the discourse that matters pertaining to this co-ordination should be treated as domestic policy instead of foreign policy. This discourse proved instrumental in the organizational reforms and core executive restructuring. Both countries also provide evidence of intra-Nordic organizational learning since the Finnish co-ordination system was based on lessons drawn from Denmark whereas the subsequent Swedish reform was inspired and legitimized by changes in Finland. [source]

    Managing Design for Competitive Advantage A Process Approach

    Eric M. Olson
    FOR EXECUTIVES who want to strengthen the design/ business relationship, Eric Olson, Stanley Slater, and Rachel Cooper make some clear recommendations. Make sure designers and design managers understand the organization's competitive strategy; enumerate the design elements inherent in that strategy; nurture open communication between design and other functions; develop design briefs that stimulate creativity at the same time they reinforce business strategy; and measure performance. It's advice that's both sound and challenging. [source]

    The Decision of the Supply Chain Executive to Support or Impede Supply Chain Integration: A Multidisciplinary Behavioral Agency Perspective,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2009
    Verónica H. Villena
    ABSTRACT Applying the behavioral agency model developed by Wiseman and Gomez-Mejia (1998), this article analyzes human resource factors that induce supply chain executives (SCEs) to make decisions that foster or hinder supply chain integration. We examine two internal sources (compensation and employment risk) and one external source (environmental volatility) of risk bearing that can make SCEs more reluctant to make the decision to promote supply chain integration. We argue and empirically confirm the notion that an employment and compensation system that increases SCE risk bearing reduces the SCE's willingness to make risky decisions and thus discourages supply chain integration. We also reveal that this negative relationship becomes stronger under conditions of high environmental volatility. In addressing the "so what?" question, we found empirical support for the hypothesis that supply chain integration positively influences operational performance. Even though this decision has a positive value for the firm, we showed that SCEs discourage supply chain integration when they face higher risk bearing. Hypotheses are tested using a combination of primary survey data and archival measures in a sample of 133 Spanish firms. [source]

    Executive functioning in offspring at risk for depression and anxiety

    Jamie A. Micco Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: Executive functioning deficits (EFDs) have been found in adults with major depression and some anxiety disorders, yet it is unknown whether these deficits predate onset of disorder, or whether they reflect acute symptoms. Studies of at-risk offspring can shed light on this question by examining whether EFDs characterize children at high risk for depression and anxiety who are not yet symptomatic. Methods: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a sample of 147 children, ages 6,17 years (M age=9.16, SD=1.82), of parents with major depression (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD) and of controls with neither disorder. Children were assessed via structured diagnostic interviews and neuropsychological measures. Results: Although parental MDD and PD were not associated with neuropsychological impairments, presence of current offspring MDD was associated with poorer performance on several executive functioning and processing speed measures. Children with current generalized anxiety showed poorer verbal memory, whereas children with social phobia had more omissions on a continuous performance task. Conclusions: Findings suggest that EFDs do not serve as trait markers for developing anxiety or depression but appear to be symptomatic of current disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Executive functioning by 18-24-month-old children: effects of inhibition, working memory demands and narrative in a novel detour-reaching task

    Nicola McGuigan
    Abstract Infants can inhibit a prepotent but wrong action towards a goal in order to perform a causal means-action. It is not clear, however, whether infants can perform an arbitrary means-action while inhibiting a prepotent response. In four experiments, we explore this executive functioning in 18,24-month-old children. The working memory and inhibition demands in a novel means-end problem were systematically varied in terms of the type and combination of means-action(s) (causal or arbitrary) contained within the task, the number of means-actions (1 or 2), the goal visual availability and whether the task was accompanied by a narrative. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that children performed tasks that contained causal as opposed to arbitrary information more accurately; accuracy was also higher in tasks containing only one step. Experiment 2 also demonstrated that performance in the arbitrary task improved significantly when all sources of prepotency were removed. In Experiment 3, task performance improved when the two means-actions were intelligibly linked to the task goal. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the use of a narrative that provided a meaningful (non-causal) link between the two means-actions also improved children's performance by assisting their working memory in the generation of a rationale. Findings provide an initial account of executive functioning in the months that bring the end of infancy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Identifying Organizational Drivers of Internal Audit Effectiveness

    Marika Arena
    This study attempts to understand the organizational drivers of internal audit effectiveness in the light of recent changes in the ,mission' of internal auditing and its central role in corporate governance. On the basis of data from 153 Italian companies, our survey shows that the effectiveness of internal auditing is influenced by: (1) the characteristics of the internal audit team, (2) the audit processes and activities, and (3) the organizational links. Internal audit effectiveness increases in particular when the ratio between the number of internal auditors and employees grows, the Chief Audit Executive is affiliated to the Institute of Internal Auditors, the company adopts control risk self-assessment techniques, and the audit committee is involved in the activities of the internal auditors. [source]

    Executive functioning in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia,

    B. McGuinness
    Abstract Objective To compare performance of patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) on tests of executive functioning and working memory. Methods Patients with AD (n,=,76) and VaD (n,=,46) were recruited from a memory clinic along with dementia free participants (n,=,28). They underwent specific tests of working memory from the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery and pen and paper tests of executive function including CLOX 1 & 2, EXIT25 and a test of verbal fluency (COWAT). All patients had a CT brain scan which was independently scored for white matter change/ischaemia. Results The AD and VaD groups were significantly impaired on all measures of working memory and executive functioning compared to the disease free group. There were no significant differences between the AD and VaD groups on any measure. Z- scores confirmed the pattern of impairment in executive functioning and working memory was largely equivalent in both patient groups. Small to moderate correlations were seen between the MMSE and the neurocognitive scores in both patient groups and the pattern of correlations was also very similar in both patient groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates sizeable executive functioning and working memory impairments in patients with mild-moderate AD and VaD but no significant differences between the disease groups. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    London Business School Roundtable on Shareholder Activism in the U.K.

    Article first published online: 16 JUN 200
    Finance scholars have produced little evidence of the effectiveness of direct attempts by institutional shareholders to improve corporate performance. What studies we have,focused mainly on the activities of U.S. pension funds,show no clear effect on shareholder returns. But a new study of shareholder activism in the U.K. looks promising. The subject of the study is a "Focus Fund," launched in 1998 by the U.K. investment firm Hermes, whose aim is to identify underperforming companies, propose changes to their managements and boards, and,in contrast to the practices of the best-known U.S. shareholder activists,work mainly "behind the scenes" with the companies to bring about those changes. In keeping with the more private nature of U.K. activism, which reflects in part the fewer restrictions on communication between companies and their investors than in the U S., the study's method of investigation is also notably different from the methods used in studies of U.S. investors. Four academics were allowed to examine Hermes' records of its "engagements" with companies, including letters, recordings and transcripts of telephone conversations, and the staff's personal notes and recollections. Using this information, the researchers show that the Fund has been remarkably successful in bringing about three kinds of proposed changes: replacements of CEOs and Chairmen; changes in investment and financial policies (mainly increased payouts and more disciplined capital spending); and restructurings (typically leading to greater corporate focus). Of equal importance, the study also shows that the market reaction to the announcement of such changes has been significantly positive, and that the cumulative effect of these positive reactions accounts for as much as 90% of the Fund's impressive "alpha," or market out-performance, over its eight-year life. The first public presentation of these findings took place on February 9 at the inaugural event of the London Business School's Center for the Study of Corporate Governance. In our account of the event, an overview of the study's findings by two of its authors is followed by an "insider's" view of the Hermes' success story (presented by the Chief Executive of the Fund from 2002,2004) and a panel discussion of the general import of the findings featuring four distinguished practitioners. [source]

    The Dangers of Hanging Baskets: ,Regulatory Myths' and Media Representations of Health and Safety Regulation

    Paul Almond
    The successful enforcement of health and safety regulation is reliant upon the ability of regulatory agencies to demonstrate the legitimacy of the system of regulatory controls. While ,big cases' are central to this process, there are also significant legitimatory implications associated with ,minor' cases, including media-reported tales of pettiness and heavy-handedness in the interpretation and enforcement of the law. The popular media regularly report stories of ,regulatory unreasonableness', and they can pass quickly into mainstream public knowledge. A story's appeal becomes more important than its factual veracity; they are a form of ,regulatory myth'. This paper discusses the implications of regulatory myths for health and safety regulators, and analyses their challenges for regulators, paying particular attention to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which has made concerted efforts to address regulatory myths attaching to its activities. It will be shown that such stories constitute sustained normative challenges to the legitimacy of the regulator, and political challenges to the burgeoning regulatory state, because they reflect some of the key concerns of late-modern society. [source]

    Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate

    I. Welsh BEd (Hons) RGN ONC RNTDipN (London)
    This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored. [source]

    Skills and Competencies for Today's Nurse Executive

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Deference and Defiance: The Shifting Rhythms of Executive-Legislative Relations in Foreign Policy

    James M. Lindsay
    The return of the deferential Congress after September 11 was another chapter in the fluctuating balance of power in executive-legislative relations on foreign policy. The reason for this ebb and flow lies not in the Constitution but in politics. How aggressively Congress exercises its formal foreign policy powers turns foremost on whether the country sees itself as threatened or secure and to a lesser extent on how well the president handles foreign policy. Congress's action on the 2001 Use of Force Resolution, the 2002 Iraq Resolution, the U.S.A. Patriot Act, and other issues illustrates the nature of, and limits to, congressional deference. [source]

    Scottish devolution: identity and impact and the case of community care for the elderly

    Gordon Marnoch
    This article examines the emergent identity and impact of devolution in Scotland. Using the case of community care for the elderly, a model is set out for capturing the different interpretive perspectives evident in relation to a particular policy area in 1999,2001. The political story of the ,free personal care' issue, in which the Scottish Executive were unexpectedly forced into adopting a markedly different policy from the rest of the UK, is examined in some detail. Setting the episode in a broader context, four discursive thematics are identified in relation to the policy case. A model is demonstrated for examining different aspects of devolution including constitutional level and sub-system aspects of post-devolution governance. Conclusions are drawn as to the meaning which should be ascribed to the discourse associated with devolution and community care for the elderly. [source]

    The Tangled Webs of Westminster and Whitehall: The Discourse, Strategy and Practice of Networking Within the British Core Executive

    Colin Hay
    In this paper we identify and seek to resolve a certain paradox in the existing litera-ture on networks and networking. Whilst earlier policy network perspectives have tended to emphasize the structural character of networks as durable, dense and relatively static organization forms, the more recent strategic network literature emphasizes the flexible, adaptive and dynamic quality of networking as a social and political practice. However, neither perspective has yet developed a theory of network formation, evolution, transformation and termination. In this paper, we seek to rectify this omission, advancing a ,strategic relational' theory of network dynamics based on a rethinking of the concept of network itself. We illustrate this perspective with respect to the policy process centred in and around Westminster and Whitehall, drawing on a series of semi-structured interviews with ministers and officials from four departments. [source]

    The Presidency and the Executive Branch

    Joseph L. Wert
    Books reviewed: John P. Burke, Presidential Transitions: From Politics to Practice. Paul Kengor, Wreath Layer or Policy Player? The Vice President's Role in Foreign Policy. Joel Aberbach and Bert Rockman, In the Web of Politics: Three Decades of the U.S. Federal Executive. [source]

    American Transplant Congress 2007 Executive and Program Planning Committees and Abstract Review Committees

    Article first published online: 26 APR 200
    First page of article [source]

    Litigation related to drug errors in anaesthesia: an analysis of claims against the NHS in England 1995,2007

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2009
    J. Cranshaw
    Summary Ninety-three claims (total cost £4 915 450) filed under ,anaesthesia' in the NHS Litigation Authority database between 1995 and 2007, alleging patient harm directly by drug administration error or by an allergic reaction, were analysed. Alleged errors were categorised using systems employed by the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Project and the UK Health and Safety Executive. The severity of outcome in each claim was categorised using adapted National Patient Safety Agency definitions. Sixty-two claims involved alleged drug administration errors (total cost £4 283 677) and 15 resulted in severe harm or death. Half alleged the administration of the wrong drug, in most (16) a neuromuscular blocker. Of the claims alleging the wrong dose had been given (25), nine alleged opioid overdose including by neuraxial routes. The most frequently recorded adverse outcomes were awake paralysis (19 claims; total cost £182 347) and respiratory depression requiring intensive care treatment (13 claims; total cost £2 752 853). Thirty-one claims involved allergic reactions (total cost £631 773). In 20 claims, the patient allegedly received a drug to which they were known to be allergic (total cost £130 794). All claims in which it was possible to categorise the nature of the error involved human error. Fewer than half the claims appeared likely to have been preventable by an ,ideal double checking process'. [source]

    Affect of Regime Changes on Nonstate Actors in Taiwan,Hong Kong Relations (1997,2010): Publicly and Privately Affiliated Think Tanks As Case Studies

    Simon Xuhui Shen
    The article reviews the roles of nonstate actors (NSAs) in general in Taiwan,Hong Kong relations during the administration of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region's first Chief Executive, Tung Chee-hwa (1997,2003), in order to explore the contributions and limitations of these agencies in constructing political spaces between Hong Kong and Taiwan. The first part of the article explains the reasons behind the short appearance of NSAs in Taiwan,Hong Kong relations after 1997. The second part, the case studies, looks at two selected NSAs: the Hong Kong Policy Research Institute in Hong Kong and the Friends of Hong Kong and Macau Association based in Taipei. The reasons for the setbacks they faced after 2003 and their possible roles following leadership changes in Hong Kong and Taiwan in the run-up to 2010 will be analyzed in the last section. [source]

    The Institutional Determinants of the Path to Political Reform in Hong Kong SAR

    Charn Wing Wan
    The political economy of political reform in Hong Kong is characterized by the persistent contradictory imperatives and conflicts of ideology between the pro-democracy camp and the Beijing-backed Hong Kong government. On December 29, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China ruled out universal suffrage for both the selection of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong and the election of the legislative councilors before 2016 and stated that the earliest possible dates for the election of the Chief Executive and the legislative councilors would be 2017 and 2020, respectively. This article suggests that the constitutional institutions (formal and informal) that have evolved from Hong Kong's colonial past restrain the sets of choices for its political reform, and that unless the pro-democracy camp falls in line with Chinese central government's positions, the status quo in the political system will remain for years to come. [source]

    Structure and Level of Remuneration Across the Top Executive Team

    Michaela Rankin
    This paper details the level and structure of executive remuneration across the executive team from 2006 to 2009. Results indicate that the level and structure of executive pay varies across the executive team. There is a clear delineation between the level and structure of all components of pay for the CEO and Executive 1, and for other executives. Employees of finance firms receive higher levels of pay and greater proportions of bonus than do employees in other sectors. Pay structure in 2009 is different from other years in the study, indicating that the economic downturn of 2008 and 2009 has led to differences in executive pay. [source]

    Local area co-ordination: strengthening support for people with learning disabilities in Scotland

    Kirsten Ogilvie Stalker
    Accessible summary ,,Local Area Co-ordination is a new, person-centred way of supporting people with learning,,disabilities and their families to have a good life in the community. ,,There are 59 local area co-ordinators in Scotland. ,,There are a lot of differences in the way these local area co-ordinators work; for example,,,who they work for, how many people they support, whether they support children or adults,,and how much money they are paid. ,,People with learning disabilities and their families really like their local area co-ordinators.,,They feel the local area co-ordinator is on their side. ,,Local area co-ordinators have helped people in lots of ways, like finding supports and,,services, getting a paid job and moving house. They help people join new groups and meet,,people. ,,We think the Scottish Government should pay for more local area co-ordinators in Scotland,,and write new guidelines about how to do local area co-ordination. Summary This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Scottish Executive which examined the introduction and implementation of local area co-ordination (LAC) in Scotland. A questionnaire about their posts was completed by 44 local area co-ordinators, interviews were conducted with 35 local area co-ordinators and 14 managers and case studies of LAC practice were carried out in four local authorities. The study found both strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of LAC nationally. There was great unevenness across Scotland in the number of local area co-ordinators employed by local authorities and in their roles and remits. Progress in community capacity building was slow overall and some managers expressed mixed feelings about LAC's usefulness in a climate of scarce resources. Individuals and families, however, were very appreciative of the support received and there was evidence that LAC had made a positive difference to their lives; for example, in relation to increased inclusion, choice and formal and informal supports. Various proposals are made for supporting the future development of LAC. [source]

    Time to make up your mind: why choosing is difficult

    John Harris
    Summary For many years, the promotion of choice has been a core objective for virtually every service provider working to support people with learning disability. This is confirmed by the 2001 English White Paper Valuing People, A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century, which describes choice as one of four key principles at the heart of the UK Government's proposals, and the 2000 review of learning disability services commissioned by the Scottish Executive, People Like Us, which places a similarly high priority on the creation of choice. The present paper gives an overview of our current understanding of the concept of choice. It concludes that our aspirations to promote choice for people with learning disability are undermined by conceptual confusion about the meaning of choice, inappropriate methods for helping people to make choices and an absence of applied research to guide practice in service settings. This review is designed to establish a conceptual framework for examining choice and empowerment for people with learning disability, and to describe the implications for future research and practice. [source]

    The Prime Minister and the Core Executive: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Reading of UK Defence Policy Formulation 1997,20001

    Robert Dover
    This article explores the domestic formulation of UK European defence policy 1997,2000 through the intergovernmental meetings at Pörtschach and Saint Malo which set in train the development and codification of a common European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 2000, through a Liberal Intergovernmentalist (LI) framework. This research leads to five conclusions: first, that the Saint Malo initiative was a tactical shift of government policies rather than core preferences; second, that the prime minister centralised European defence policy-making within the core executive; third, that the prime minister was crucial to the development of the initiative; fourth, that the presentation of the initiative was made on lowest common denominator grounds; and, lastly, that the ,successive limited comparisons' framework provides an effective corrective to LI's domestic policy formulation hypotheses. [source]

    Developing the role of schools as research organisations: the Sunfield experience

    Barry Carpenter
    We are entering a new phase in learning about childhood disabilities. While we have found out much of what we need to know about their causes and aetiology, solutions to many of the challenges we will face in the future will come from the evidence base held by practitioners. Practitioners are ideally placed to carry out ,real world' research but they often need support in carrying out setting-based enquiry. In this article, Barry Carpenter, Chief Executive and Director of Research at Sunfield, discusses the relationship between academic and practitioner research and the role of practitioners as researchers. He goes on to explore the development of a research culture in special schools, focusing on Sunfield, a residential special school for children with severe and complex learning disabilities. Barry Carpenter shows how research projects at Sunfield have generated evidence which has guided the school's development. The inter-disciplinary approach adopted in this setting has encouraged involvement in research from many staff in diverse professions throughout the school. [source]

    Early childhood intervention: possibilities and prospects for professionals, families and children

    Barry Carpenter
    In March 2005, Barry Carpenter, OBE, Chief Executive and Director of Research at Sunfield, an education and residential care centre for children with severe and complex learning needs, gave his inaugural professional lecture at University College Worcester. This article is based on that lecture. In it, Barry Carpenter reviews international trends in early childhood intervention and relates these to changing patterns of childhood disability, family needs, practitioner-led service development and Government policy initiatives. He describes a political climate in the UK which is ripe for the development of a nationally cohesive programme of early childhood intervention and proposes a number of key factors hat are crucial to the consolidation of the plethora of initiatives that have taken place in the UK in recent years. These include: early interventions that are delivered from the point of diagnosis; practice that is transdisciplinary; and high quality training for professionals. At the heart of this process, however, must be the voice of the family - guiding, informing, sharing, engaging. The key to successful early childhood intervention, Barry Carpenter argues, is responsivity - to society, to its families, but most of all to its children. [source]

    The Disappearance of Disability?

    Thoughts on a Changing Culture
    Gilbert MacKay was appointed professor of special education at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow in September 2000. With a background in teaching and educational psychology, Professor MacKay has research interests in early communication and people with intellectual disabilities. Recently, the Scottish Executive awarded him grants totalling £250,000 for the development of a service for young children with autism and for the professional education of experienced teachers in developmental difficulties such as dyspraxia. This paper, originally given as a keynote address at the Scottish NASEN conference in Glasgow, challenges many of the prevailing trends in relation to disability and special educational needs. Taking a broad view of developments since Warnock, and providing a fascinating insight into recent initiatives in Scotland, Gilbert MacKay offers an analysis of five ways in which the notion of disability, and the practical reality of our responses to it, are being unhelpfully removed from the educational arena. While we can all strive to promote forms of inclusion that encompass ever,widening parameters of diversity, no one's interests are served if the implications of individuals' difficulties are simply ignored or wished away. Gilbert MacKay highlights the dangers in some recent trends but also points the way towards a much more responsive and productive future. [source]

    Oversight and Delegation in Corporate Governance: deciding what the board should decide

    Michael Useem
    American boards of directors increasingly treat their delegation of authority to management as a careful and self-conscious decision. Numerically dominated by non-executives, boards recognize that they cannot run the company, and many are now seeking to provide stronger oversight of the company without crossing the line into management. Based on interviews with informants at 31 major companies, we find that annual calendars and written protocols are often used to allocate decision rights between the board and management. Written protocols vary widely, ranging from detailed and comprehensive to skeletal and limited in scope. While useful, such calendars and protocols do not negate the need for executives to make frequent judgement calls on what issues should go to the board and what should remain within management. Executives still set much of the board's decision-making agenda, and despite increasingly asserting their sovereignty in recent years, directors remain substantially dependent upon the executives' judgement on what should come to the board. At the same time, a norm is emerging among directors and executives that the latter must be mindful of what directors want to hear and believe they should decide. [source]

    Managerial Risk-Taking Incentives and Executive Stock Option Repricing: A Study of US Casino Executives

    Daniel A. Rogers
    I examine the relation between managerial incentives from holdings of company stock and options and stock option repricing. Because options provide incentives to increase both risk and stock price, firms must realize that as options go underwater, executives might face incentives to invest in risky, negative NPV projects. Repricing may alleviate such incentives. I examine repricing activity by firms in the US gaming industry and find that risk-taking incentives from options are positively related to the incidence of executive option repricing. The results support the hypothesis that repricing assists firms in alleviating excessive risk-taking incentives of senior management. [source]

    When executives influence peers: Does function matter?

    Harvey G. Enns
    Executives often spend considerable time and energy trying to influence peers to support new initiatives (e.g., Conger, 1998; Enns, Huff, & Golden, 2001). That said, we know relatively little about how executives actually influence their peers. Using a sample of 132 executives, the present study found that finance executives differed the most from other executives in terms of the influence tactics and contexts used when influencing peers. Human resource executives also differed considerably from their counterparts in operations regarding influence tactics and contexts. Possible explanations, directions for future research, and implications for management are discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Gender-Compensation Differences Among High-Level Executives in the United States

    Bertrand and Hallock (2001: 3) present compelling evidence that female executives in the United States earned 45 percent less total compensation than their male counterparts for 1992,1997. We complement their results by analyzing data over a longer time period and, more importantly, contend that most of the unexplained gender difference in total pay among executives was due to gender differences in the portion of variable pay, in particular a different cash payout from stock option exercises. [source]