Excess Supply (excess + supply)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Excess nickel,induced changes in antioxidative processes in maize leaves

JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
Praveen Kumar
Abstract Maize (Zea mays L. cv. 777) plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 100 ÁM NiSO4 (moderate nickel (Ni) excess). In addition to growth parameters, metabolic parameters representative of antioxidant responses in leaves were assessed 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 d after initiating the Ni treatment. Extent of oxidative damage was measured as accumulation of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in leaves 7 and 14 d after treatment initiation. Apart from increasing membrane-lipid peroxidation and H2O2 accumulation, excess supply of Ni suppressed plant growth and dry mass of shoots but increased dry mass of roots and decreased the concentrations of chloroplastic pigments. Excess supply of Ni, though inhibited the catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity, increased peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activities. Localization of isoforms of these enzymes (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) on native gels also revealed increases in the intensities of pre-existing bands. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, however, did not appear to be sufficient to ameliorate the effects of excessively generated reactive oxygen species due to excess supply of Ni. [source]


Women in the Urban Informal Sector: Perpetuation of Meagre Earnings

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 2 2005
Arup Mitra
The argument of exploitation of women workers in the labour market notwithstanding, this article examines whether women in India are unable to participate fully in the labour market because they are required to combine their household activities with income yielding jobs. They are constrained to work in the neighbourhood of their residence (the location of the residence having been decided upon by male family members), and can access jobs only through informal contacts (which usually means they end up in jobs similar to those of the contact persons), both of which reduce their bargaining power considerably. The tendency for specialized activities to be concentrated in different geographic locations of a city further restricts the possibility of women workers being engaged in diverse jobs and thus aggravates the situation of an excess supply of labour in a particular activity. Constrained choice, limited contacts of women and physical segmentation of the labour market perpetuate forces that entrap women workers in a low-income situation with worse outcomes than those of their male counterparts. Consequently with greater intensity of work they still continue to receive low wages, while residual participation in the labour market restricts the possibilities of skill formation and upward mobility. All of these factors offer a substantive basis for policy recommendations. [source]


Participation and Impact of Poverty-oriented Public Works Projects in Rural Malawi

DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 2 2002
Ephraim W. Chirwa
This article reports on factors influencing participation in the poverty-oriented public works programme in rural Malawi and analyses the determinants of the revealed positive socio-economic impact among the participants. The programme targets poor households through self-selection by offering a wage below the official minimum for rural areas. The empirical results show that most participants are poor and with little education. Probability of particpation is higher for members of female-headed households and households with longer periods of food insecurity, excess supply of labour, few assets and reservation wages below the wage offered in the programme. Taking account of selectivity bias, the impact of the programme increases with the gender (female) of participants and the numbers per household participating. [source]


Excess nickel,induced changes in antioxidative processes in maize leaves

JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
Praveen Kumar
Abstract Maize (Zea mays L. cv. 777) plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 100 ÁM NiSO4 (moderate nickel (Ni) excess). In addition to growth parameters, metabolic parameters representative of antioxidant responses in leaves were assessed 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 d after initiating the Ni treatment. Extent of oxidative damage was measured as accumulation of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in leaves 7 and 14 d after treatment initiation. Apart from increasing membrane-lipid peroxidation and H2O2 accumulation, excess supply of Ni suppressed plant growth and dry mass of shoots but increased dry mass of roots and decreased the concentrations of chloroplastic pigments. Excess supply of Ni, though inhibited the catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity, increased peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activities. Localization of isoforms of these enzymes (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) on native gels also revealed increases in the intensities of pre-existing bands. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, however, did not appear to be sufficient to ameliorate the effects of excessively generated reactive oxygen species due to excess supply of Ni. [source]


Joint Production with ,Restricted Free Disposal'

METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2001
Christian Lager
A single production system with constant returns can produce any level and composition of demand by appropriate intensities of the cost-minimizing processes. Hence, in the long run, products can never be in excess supply and there exists a system of prices of production which is semipositive and independent of demand. These (and other) properties do not, in general, carry over to joint production systems where one or several processes produce two or more different products. The proportions in which products emerge will generally be different from those in which they are required for use. The usual approach to that problem is to apply the rule of ,free goods'. This assumption may be applied to goods which, if they are left where they are and as they are, cause neither costs nor benefits. But it cannot be applied to outworn machines, scrap, wastes or pollutants and is therefore not generally applicable. The present paper aims at finding conditions for the existence of cost-minimizing systems for cases where this crucial assumption either is completely absent or is substituted by the assumption of ,restricted free disposal', i.e. by the assumption that excess production is permitted up to a certain tolerated limit. It will be proved that the conditions for the existence of cost-minimizing systems with free disposal carry over to systems with restricted free disposal. [source]


Seasonality and Wage Responsiveness in a Developing Agrarian Economy

OXFORD BULLETIN OF ECONOMICS & STATISTICS, Issue 2 2004
Sunil Kanwar
Abstract This paper studies the wage responsiveness of labour supply and demand, simultaneously addressing the twin issues of the non-clearing of developing rural labour markets and seasonality. It employs a data set pertaining to south-central India, and limits itself to the agricultural market for daily-rated labour (by far the predominant form of wage contract in the sample villages). Estimating a theoretically robust and empirically justified disequilibrium model of the agricultural labour market, we find no evidence of backward-bending supply curves or ,vertical' demand curves, contrary to findings in the literature. Further, while the agricultural labour market appears to be in equilibrium during the kharif (or rainy) season, it manifests excess supply in the rabi (or post-rainy) season. [source]