Exogenous NO (exogenous + no)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, triflusal, stimulates nitric oxide production by human neutrophils: role in platelet function

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 9 2000
De Miguel
Background The thrombotic process is a multicellular phenomenon in which not only platelets but also neutrophils are involved. Recent in vitro studies performed in our laboratory have demonstrated that triflusal, a 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, reduced platelet aggregation not only by inhibiting thromboxane A2 production but also by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) generation by neutrophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal could modify the ability of their neutrophils to produce NO and to test the role of the NO released by neutrophils in the modulation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and ,-granule secretion. Methods The study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers who were orally treated with triflusal (600 mg day,1) for 5 days. Flow cytometric detection of platelet surface expression of P-selectin was used as a measure of the ability of platelets to release the contents of their ,-granules. Results After treatment with triflusal, there was an increase in NO production by neutrophils and an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in neutrophils. A potentiation of the inhibition of platelet aggregation by neutrophils was reversed by incubating neutrophils with both an l -arginine antagonist, NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME) and an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline 1-oxyl 3-oxide (C-PTIO). A slight decrease in P-selectin surface expression on platelets was found which was not modified by the presence of neutrophils and therefore by the neutrophil-derived NO. Exogenous NO released by sodium nitroprusside dose-dependently inhibited both ADP-stimulated ,-granule secretion and platelet aggregation. Therefore, platelet aggregation showed a greater sensitivity to be inhibited by exogenous NO than P-selectin expression. Conclusion Oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal stimulated NO production and eNOS protein expression in their neutrophils. After triflusal treatment, the neutrophils demonstrated a higher ability to prevent ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, the neutrophils and the endogenous NO generated by them failed to modify P-selectin expression in ADP-activated platelets. [source]


Nitrergic,purinergic interactions in rat distal colon motility

NEUROGASTROENTEROLOGY & MOTILITY, Issue 1 2004
K. Van Crombruggen
Abstract, Responses of rat distal colon circular muscle strips to exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine 5,-triphosphate (ATP) and to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were assessed in the absence/presence of various agents that interfere with nitrergic,purinergic pathways. Exogenous NO (10,6 to 10,4 mol L,1) elicited concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive relaxations. The soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H[1,2,4,]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced duration and amplitude; the small conductance Ca2+ -sensitive K+ (SK)-channel blocker apamin (APA) only shortened the relaxations. ODQ + APA showed a marked inhibitory effect on duration and amplitude. TTX, APA, the NO-synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME) and the purinergic receptor P2Y antagonist Reactive Blue 2 (RB2) shortened the relaxations by exogenous ATP (10,3 mol L,1) but did not influence the amplitude. ODQ had no effect. TTX + l -NAME did not yield a more pronounced inhibitory effect than TTX alone. The effect of ATP- , -S was similar to that of ATP. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) (40 V, 0.05 ms, 0.5,4 Hz for 30 s) yielded TTX-sensitive relaxations that were not altered by l -NAME, ODQ or RB2. APA shortened the relaxations. l -NAME + APA nearly abolished these relaxations. ODQ + APA and RB2 +l -NAME reduced the duration. These results suggest that distinct sets of small conductance SK-channels are involved in the amplitude and the duration of the relaxations and that NO increases their sensitivity to NO and ATP via guanosine 3,,5,-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ATP elicits relaxations via P2Y receptors with subsequent activation of SK-channels and induces neuronal release of NO. Both nitrergic and purinergic pathways must be blocked to inhibit EFS-induced relaxations. [source]


Pre-junctional ,2 -adrenoceptors modulation of the nitrergic transmission in the pig urinary bladder neck,

NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Issue 4 2007
Medardo Hern嫕dez
Abstract Aims To investigate the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated nerve relaxation and its possible modulation by pre-junctional ,2 -adrenoceptors in the pig urinary bladder neck. Methods Urothelium-denuded bladder neck strips were dissected, and mounted in isolated organ baths containing a physiological saline solution (PSS) at 37蚓 and continuously gassed with 5% CO2 and 95% O2, for isometric force recording. The relaxations to transmural nerve stimulation (electrical field stimulation [EFS]) or exogenously applied NO were carried out on strips pre-contracted with 1 然 phenylephrine (PhE) and treated with guanethidine (10 然) and atropine (0.1 然), to block noradrenergic neurotransmission and muscarinic receptors, respectively. Results EFS (0.2,1 Hz, 1 msec duration, 20 sec trains, current output adjusted to 75 mA) evoked frequency-dependent relaxations which were abolished by the neuronal voltage-activated Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 然). These responses were potently reduced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG -nitro- L -arginine (L-NOARG, 30 然) and further reversed by the NO synthesis substrate L -arginine (L-ARG, 3 mM). The ,2 -adrenoceptor agonist BHT-920 (2 然) reduced the electrically evoked relaxations, its effectiveness being higher on the responses induced by low frequency stimulation. BHT-920-elicited reductions were fully reversed by the ,2 -adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (RAW, 1 然). Exogenous NO (1 然,1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations which were not modified by BHT-920, thus eliminating a possible post-junctional modulation. Conclusions These results indicate that NO is involved in the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmission in the pig urinary bladder neck, the release of NO from intramural nerves being modulated by pre-junctional ,2 -adrenoceptor stimulation. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:578,583, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are involved in ABA inhibition of stomatal opening

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 10 2007
JIUPIANG YAN
ABSTRACT Although nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential signalling molecules required for mediation of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure, it is not known whether these molecules also mediate the ABA inhibition of stomatal opening. In this study, we investigated the role of NO and ROS in the ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in Vicia faba. ABA induced both NO and ROS synthesis, and the NO scavenger reduced the ABA inhibition of stomatal opening. Exogenous NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also inhibited stomatal opening, indicating that NO and ROS are involved in the inhibition signalling process. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reversed the ABA inhibition of stomatal opening. Either the NO scavenger or the NOS inhibitor also reversed the process in the H2O2 inhibition of stomatal opening. We found that in the ABA inhibition of stomatal opening, NO is downstream of ROS in the signalling process, and NO is synthesized by a NOS-like enzyme. [source]


Generation of NO by Bystander Human CD8 T Cells Augments Allogeneic Responses by Inhibiting Cytokine Deprivation-Induced Cell Death

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 10 2009
J. C. Choy
Nitric oxide (NO), generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in bystander human CD8 T cells, augments the accumulation of allogeneically activated human CD8 T cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that iNOS-derived NO does not affect T-cell proliferation but rather inhibits cell death of activated human CD8 T cells after activation by allogeneic endothelial cells in culture. Exogenous NO did not affect activation-induced cell death of human CD8 T cells but specifically reduced death of activated T cells due to cytokine deprivation. NO-mediated inhibition of T-cell death did not involve cGMP signaling, and NO did not affect the expression of Bcl-2-related proteins known to regulate cytokine deprivation-induced cell death. However, NO inhibited the activity of caspases activated as a consequence of cytokine deprivation in activated T cells. This protective effect correlated with S-nitrosylation of caspases and was phenocopied by z-VAD.fmk and z-LEHD.fmk, pharmacological inhibitors of caspases. In summary, our findings indicate that NO augments the accumulation of activated human T cells principally by inhibiting cytokine deprivation-induced cell death through S-nitrosylation of caspases. [source]


Nitric oxide regulates axonal regeneration in an insect embryonic CNS

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Michael Stern
Abstract In higher vertebrates, the central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate after injury, at least partially because of growth-inhibiting factors. Invertebrates lack many of these negative regulators, allowing us to study the positive factors in isolation. One possible molecular player in neuronal regeneration is the nitric oxide (NO),cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) transduction pathway which is known to regulate axonal growth and neural migration. Here, we present an experimental model in which we study the effect of NO on CNS regeneration in flat-fillet locust embryo preparations in culture after crushing the connectives between abdominal ganglia. Using whole-mount immunofluorescence, we examine the morphology of identified serotonergic neurons, which send a total of four axons through these connectives. After injury, these axons grow out again and reach the neighboring ganglion within 4 days in culture. We quantify the number of regenerating axons within this period and test the effect of drugs that interfere with NO action. Application of exogenous NO or cGMP promotes axonal regeneration, whereas scavenging NO or inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase delays regeneration, an effect that can be rescued by application of external cGMP. NO-induced cGMP immunostaining confirms the serotonergic neurons as direct targets for NO. Putative sources of NO are resolved using the NADPH-diaphorase technique. We conclude that NO/cGMP promotes outgrowth of regenerating axons in an insect embryo, and that such embryo-culture systems are useful tools for studying CNS regeneration. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008 [source]


A 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, triflusal, stimulates nitric oxide production by human neutrophils: role in platelet function

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 9 2000
De Miguel
Background The thrombotic process is a multicellular phenomenon in which not only platelets but also neutrophils are involved. Recent in vitro studies performed in our laboratory have demonstrated that triflusal, a 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, reduced platelet aggregation not only by inhibiting thromboxane A2 production but also by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) generation by neutrophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal could modify the ability of their neutrophils to produce NO and to test the role of the NO released by neutrophils in the modulation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and ,-granule secretion. Methods The study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers who were orally treated with triflusal (600 mg day,1) for 5 days. Flow cytometric detection of platelet surface expression of P-selectin was used as a measure of the ability of platelets to release the contents of their ,-granules. Results After treatment with triflusal, there was an increase in NO production by neutrophils and an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in neutrophils. A potentiation of the inhibition of platelet aggregation by neutrophils was reversed by incubating neutrophils with both an l -arginine antagonist, NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME) and an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline 1-oxyl 3-oxide (C-PTIO). A slight decrease in P-selectin surface expression on platelets was found which was not modified by the presence of neutrophils and therefore by the neutrophil-derived NO. Exogenous NO released by sodium nitroprusside dose-dependently inhibited both ADP-stimulated ,-granule secretion and platelet aggregation. Therefore, platelet aggregation showed a greater sensitivity to be inhibited by exogenous NO than P-selectin expression. Conclusion Oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal stimulated NO production and eNOS protein expression in their neutrophils. After triflusal treatment, the neutrophils demonstrated a higher ability to prevent ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, the neutrophils and the endogenous NO generated by them failed to modify P-selectin expression in ADP-activated platelets. [source]


Exogenous nitric oxide causes potentiation of hippocampal synaptic transmission during low-frequency stimulation via the endogenous nitric oxide,cGMP pathway

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 4 2001
Christelle L. M. Bon
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a putative participant in synaptic plasticity and demonstrations that exogenous NO can elicit the same plastic changes have been taken to support such a role. The experiments, carried out on the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, were aimed at testing this interpretation. A major component of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) was lost in response to l -nitroarginine, which inhibits NO synthase, and 1H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which inhibits NO-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). At 0.2 Hz afferent fibre stimulation, exogenous NO produced, concentration-dependently, a synaptic depression that reverted on washout to a persistent potentiation that occluded tetanus-induced LTP. The NO concentrations necessary (estimated in the 100-nm range), however, were mostly supramaximal for stimulating hippocampal slice sGC activity. Nevertheless the potentiation, but not the preceding depression, was blocked by ODQ. l -nitroarginine and an NMDA antagonist were similarly effective, indicating mediation by the endogenous NMDA receptor,NO synthase,sGC pathway. At a concentration normally too low to affect synaptic transmission but sufficient to stimulate sGC (estimated to be 50 nm), exogenous NO reversed the effect of l -nitroarginine and caused a potentiation which was blocked by ODQ. At a concentration inducing the depression/potentiation sequence, NO partially inhibited hippocampal slice oxygen consumption. It is concluded that, at physiological levels, exogenous NO can directly elicit a potentiation of synaptic transmission through sGC, provided that the synapses are suitably primed. At higher concentrations, NO inhibits mitochondrial respiration, which can result in an enduring synaptic potentiation due to secondary activation of the endogenous NO,cGMP pathway. [source]


Mechanisms for sensitization to TNF-induced apoptosis by acute glutathione depletion in murine hepatocytes

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
Katsuhiko Matsumaru
We previously reported that depletion of glutathione in murine hepatocytes by diethylmaleate (DEM) or acetaminophen (APAP) leads to oxidative stress,dependent necrosis and sensitizes to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis in an oxidative stress,independent fashion, which could not be explained by interference with nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) nuclear translocation. The present report explores the mechanisms of these effects. We observed that DEM led to necrosis when both mitochondrial and cytosol glutathione were depleted profoundly but sensitized to TNF-induced apoptosis when cytosol glutathione was depleted selectively. DEM and APAP lead to a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio. Glutathione depletion by DEM or APAP was associated with inhibition of TNF-induced NF-,B transactivation of anti-apoptotic genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS). Provision of exogenous NO partially abrogated the sensitization to TNF in response to glutathione depletion. Glutathione depletion alone led to sustained increase in phospho-jun levels and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. JNK inhibitor partially blocked the sensitization to TNF-induced apoptosis accompanying glutathione depletion. In conclusion, these findings suggest that extramitochondrial glutathione depletion alters the thiol-disulfide redox state, leading to inhibition of NF-,B transactivation of survival genes and to sustained activation of JNK, both of which contribute to the sensitization to TNF-induced apoptosis. [source]


The effect of nitric oxide on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression in head and neck cancer cell lines

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2003
Seok-Woo Park
Abstract The overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been previously reported in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as well as in many cancers. We hypothesized that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) might increase the expression of COX-2 in cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the cross-talk between NO and the prostaglandin (PG) pathways in HNSCC cell lines. We found that COX-2 and iNOS expressions were elevated simultaneously. On adding the NO donor, SNAP, the PGE2 level was increased 2,20 times due to increased COX-2 expression. This increase of COX-2 expression by SNAP or PMA (potent inducer of both iNOS and COX-2) was blocked to various degrees by NO scavengers and NOS inhibitors (L-NAME and 1400W). Also, the expression of COX-2 in resting cells was inhibited by NOS inhibitors. Moreover, COX-2 expression, induced by SNAP, was inhibited by ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. The effect of dibutyryl-cGMP on COX-2 expression was similar to that of SNAP. These results imply that endogenous or exogenous NO activates sGC and that the resulting increase of cGMP induces a signaling that upregulates the expression of COX-2 in HNSCC cell lines. We also observed that NO increased COX-2 expression in different cancer cell lines, including cervic and gastric cancer cell lines. These findings further support the notion that NO can be associated with carcinogenesis through the upregulation of COX-2, and that NOS inhibitor may be also useful for cancer prevention. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Role of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway and extracellular environment in the nitric oxide donor-induced increase in dopamine secretion from PC12 cells: a microdialysis in vitro study

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2003
Pier Andrea Serra
Abstract In vitro microdialysis was used to investigate the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced changes in dopamine (DA) secretion from PC12 cells. Infusion of the NO-donor S-nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 1.0 mm) induced a long-lasting increase in DA and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) dialysate concentrations. SNAP-induced increases were inhibited either by pre-infusion of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.1 mm) or by Ca2+ omission. Ca2+ re-introduction restored SNAP effects. SNAP-induced increases in DA + 3-MT were unaffected by co-infusion of the l -type Ca2+ channel inhibitor nifedipine. The NO-donor (+/,)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR-3, 1.0 mm) induced a short-lasting decrease in dialysate DA + 3-MT. Ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) co-infusion allowed NOR-3 to increase dialysate DA + 3-MT. ODQ pre-infusion inhibited NOR-3 + ascorbic acid-induced DA + 3-MT increases. Infusion of high K+ (75 mm) induced a 2.5-fold increase in dialysate DA + 3-MT. The increase was abolished by NOR-3 co-infusion. Conversely, co-infusion of ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) with NOR-3 + high K+ restored high K+ effects. Co-infusion of nifedipine inhibited high K+ -induced DA + 3-MT increases. These results suggest that activation of the NO/sGC/cyclic GMP pathway may be the underlying mechanism of extracellular Ca2+ -dependent effects of exogenous NO on DA secretion from PC12 cells. Extracellular Ca2+ entry may occur through nifedipine-insensitive channels. NO effects and DA concentrations in dialysates largely depend on both the timing of NO generation and the extracellular environment in which NO is generated. [source]


Nitric oxide regulates BDNF release from nodose ganglion neurons in a pattern-dependent and cGMP-independent manner

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 6 2010
Hui-ya Hsieh
Abstract Activity of arterial baroreceptors is modulated by neurohumoral factors, including nitric oxide (NO), released from endothelial cells. Baroreceptor reflex responses can also be modulated by NO signaling in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the primary central target of cardiovascular afferents. Our recent studies indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is abundantly expressed by developing and adult baroreceptor afferents in vivo, and released from cultured nodose ganglion (NG) neurons by patterns of baroreceptor activity. Using electrical field stimulation and ELISA in situ, we show that exogenous NO nearly abolishes BDNF release from newborn rat NG neurons in vitro stimulated with single pulses delivered at 6 Hz, but not 2-pulse bursts delivered at the same 6-Hz frequency, that corresponds to a rat heart rate. Application of L-NAME, a specific inhibitor of endogenous NO synthases, does not have any significant effect on activity-dependent BDNF release, but leads to upregulation of BDNF expression in an activity-dependent manner. The latter effect suggests a novel mechanism of homeostatic regulation of activity-dependent BDNF expression with endogenous NO as a key player. The exogenous NO-mediated effect does not involve the cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, but is largely inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and TEMPOL that are known to prevent S-nitrosylation. Together, our current data identify previously unknown mechanisms regulating BDNF availability, and point to NO as a likely regulator of BDNF at baroafferent synapses in the NTS. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Nitric oxide scavenging and detoxification by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis haemoglobin, HbN in Escherichia coli

MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
Ranjana Pathania
Summary Nitric oxide (NO), generated in large amounts within the macrophages, controls and restricts the growth of internalized human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The molecular mechanism by which tubercle bacilli survive within macrophages is currently of intense interest. In this work, we have demonstrated that dimeric haemoglobin, HbN, from M. tuberculosis exhibits distinct nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) activity and protects growth and cellular respiration of heterologous hosts, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis, from the toxic effect of exogenous NO and the NO-releasing compounds. A flavohaemoglobin (HMP)-deficient mutant of E. coli, unable to metabolize NO, acquired an oxygen-dependent NO consumption activity in the presence of HbN. On the basis of cellular haem content, the specific NOD activity of HbN was nearly 35-fold higher than the single-domain Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb) but was sevenfold lower than the two-domain flavohaemoglobin. HbN-dependent NO consumption was sustained with repeated addition of NO, demonstrating that HbN is catalytically reduced within E. coli. Aerobic growth and respiration of a flavohaemoglobin (HMP) mutant of E. coli was inhibited in the presence of exogenous NO but remained insensitive to NO inhibition when these cells produced HbN, VHb or flavohaemoglobin. M. smegmatis, carrying a native HbN very similar to M. tuberculosis HbN, exhibited a 7.5-fold increase in NO uptake when exposed to gaseous NO, suggesting NO-induced NOD activity in these cells. In addition, expression of plasmid-encoded HbN of M. tuberculosis in M. smegmatis resulted in 100-fold higher NO consumption activity than the isogenic control cells. These results provide strong experimental evidence in support of NO scavenging and detoxification function for the M. tuberculosis HbN. The catalytic NO scavenging by HbN may be highly advantageous for the survival of tubercle bacilli during infection and pathogenesis. [source]


NOS2 (iNOS) Deficiency in Kidney Donor Accelerates Allograft Loss in a Murine Model

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2007
C. Du
Renal NOS2 is expressed and produces abundant nitric oxide (NO) in various renal cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines. However, the role of this enzyme in renal allograft survival remains unknown. Kidney allotransplantation was performed in the murine model of C57BL/6J (H-2d) to nephrectomized Balb/c (H-2b) mice. Here we show that deficiency in NOS2 expression in kidney donors significantly advanced allograft failure, indicated by decreasing mean survival of recipients receiving NOS2 null grafts (15.4 6.4 days) as compared to those with wild type grafts (65.4 28.1 days) (p = 0.0005). Consistent with survival results, NOS2 null grafts had more severe renal tubule injury and decreased renal function compared to wild type grafts. In vitro NOS2 expressing TEC had greater resistance to allogeneic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis. The addition of exogenous NO inhibited Fas-mediated TEC apoptosis and reduced proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. These data suggest that endogenous production of NO through renal NOS2 activity can play a protective role in kidney grafts through attenuating Fas-mediated donor cell apoptosis as well as by inhibiting proliferation of inflammatory infiltrating lymphocytes. Enhanced donor NOS2 expression may be a useful strategy to improve kidney transplant survival. [source]