Event Detection (event + detection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Feasibility of Gait Event Detection Using Intramuscular Electromyography in the Child with Cerebral Palsy

Richard T. Lauer PhD
Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a model that employs electromyographic (EMG) signals to predict the occurrence of gait events in the child with cerebral palsy (CP). This model could be the basis of a future functional electrical stimulation (FES) control system to assist gait. Two children were implanted with bifilar intramuscular electrodes into the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle activity and gait parameters were recorded, and a fuzzy inference system was used to correlate EMG to five distinct gait events. For nine of the 10 gait events evaluated, the model predicted gait events to within 82 ms on average, as referenced to the VICON motion analysis system. For eight of the 10 events, prediction errors were 0.3% or less. Results indicate that EMG from the proximal musculature could be used to predict the occurrence of gait events in these two children with CP. [source]

Toxic event detection by respirometry and adaptive principal components analysis

Sébastien Le Bonté
Abstract Two methods based on adaptive principal components analysis (APCA) are compared to extract, from primary measurements, information related to the changes of wastewater characteristics induced by variable weather conditions and/or to the presence of toxic substances. The primary measurements are activated sludge respiratory data obtained by short-term experiments in an on-line batch respirometer, combined with indirect information on soluble pollution (UV-visible absorbance, turbidity, pH, etc.) and wastewater flow rate. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1), which simulates the functioning of a large wastewater treatment plant by activated sludge, has been used to obtain large data sets and to test the proposed APCA method, which has then been applied to real wastewater characteristics. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Delay aware reliable transport in wireless sensor networks

Vehbi C. Gungor
Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are event-based systems that rely on the collective effort of several sensor nodes. Reliable event detection at the sink is based on collective information provided by the sensor nodes and not on any individual sensor data. Hence, conventional end-to-end reliability definitions and solutions are inapplicable in the WSN regime and would only lead to a waste of scarce sensor resources. Moreover, the reliability objective of WSN must be achieved within a certain real-time delay bound posed by the application. Therefore, the WSN paradigm necessitates a collective delay-constrained event-to-sink reliability notion rather than the traditional end-to-end reliability approaches. To the best of our knowledge, there is no transport protocol solution which addresses both reliability and real-time delay bound requirements of WSN simultaneously. In this paper, the delay aware reliable transport (DART) protocol is presented for WSN. The objective of the DART protocol is to timely and reliably transport event features from the sensor field to the sink with minimum energy consumption. In this regard, the DART protocol simultaneously addresses congestion control and timely event transport reliability objectives in WSN. In addition to its efficient congestion detection and control algorithms, it incorporates the time critical event first (TCEF) scheduling mechanism to meet the application-specific delay bounds at the sink node. Importantly, the algorithms of the DART protocol mainly run on resource rich sink node, with minimal functionality required at resource constrained sensor nodes. Furthermore, the DART protocol can accommodate multiple concurrent event occurrences in a wireless sensor field. Performance evaluation via simulation experiments show that the DART protocol achieves high performance in terms of real-time communication requirements, reliable event detection and energy consumption in WSN. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Potential population-based electronic data sources for rapid pandemic influenza vaccine adverse event detection: a survey of health plans,

Kristen M. Moore MPH
Abstract Purpose A vaccine against pandemic influenza may be rapidly and widely distributed, and could be used in populations with little prior exposure to influenza vaccines. Under such conditions, it will be important to gain timely information about the rates of vaccine adverse events, ideally by using electronic data from large populations. Many public and private health plans and payers have such information. Methods Between May and September 2007, we conducted a decision maker interview and technical assessment with several health plans in the United States. The interview and survey evaluated technical capability, organizational capacity, and willingness to participate in a coordinated program of rapid safety research targeting pandemic and other influenza vaccines. Results Eleven health plans (eight private, three public) participated in the decision maker interview. Most interviewees were medical directors or held similar positions within their organizations. Participating plans provided coverage and/or care for approximately 150 million members in the U.S. Nine health plans completed a technical assessment survey. Most decision makers indicated interest and willingness to participate in a coordinated rapid safety surveillance program, and all reported the necessary claims data analysis experience. Respondents noted legal, procedural, budgetary, and technical barriers to participation. Conclusions Senior decision makers representing private and public health plans were willing and asserted the ability of their organizations to participate in pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring. Developing working relationships, negotiating contracts, and obtaining necessary regulatory and legal approvals were identified as key barriers. These findings may be generalizable to other vaccines and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Experience in adverse events detection in an emergency department: Nature of events

James Hendrie
Abstract Objective:, The study was performed to determine the nature of adverse events in an ED. Methods:, The methodology has been described in the accompanying paper. Two by two tables were analysed using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A P -value of ,0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analysis was performed using MINITAB. Results:, One hundred and ninety-four events were detected, from a sample of 3222 patients. Except where specified, events with management causation ,3 were excluded. This excluded 24 events (12.4%) leaving 170 for analysis. Errors of commission occurred in 55% and omission in 45%. Errors of commission were significantly associated with prior events, errors of omission with ED events (P , 0.0001, respectively). The most common cause of events was drug reactions. 1.35% had a Naranjo score , 1, 0.54% , 4. Prior events were significantly associated with adverse drug reactions (P , 0.0001). Drug reactions were associated with a lower preventability score (P , 0.0001). Diagnostic issues were present in 1.2%. All three categories, that is diagnosis not considered, diagnosis within the differential and seriousness not appreciated were associated preventability ,4 (P , 0.0001, P , 0.02 and P , 0.004, respectively). Diagnostic problems were significantly associated with ED events (P , 0.0001). Conclusion:, In conclusion, the data demonstrate that events fall into two sets: prior events which are associated with errors of commission, drug reactions and lower preventability; and ED events which are associated with errors of omission, diagnostic issues and high preventability. [source]