Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (ethylene + vinyl_acetate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

  • ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

  • Selected Abstracts


    Melt rheology of HDPE/EVA blends: The effects of blend ratio, compatibilization, and dynamic vulcanization

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
    Biju John
    The melt rheological behavior of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends has been examined with reference to the effect of blend ratio, shear stress, and temperature. The HDPE/EVA blends exhibit pseudoplastic behavior, and the observed rheological behavior of the blends was correlated with the extrudate morphology. The experimental values of the viscosity were compared with the theoretical models. The effect of maleic- and phenolic-modified PE compatibilizers on the viscosity of H70 blend was analyzed and found that compatibilization did not significantly increase the viscosity. The effect of dynamic vulcanization and temperature on the viscosity was also analyzed. The activation energy of the system decreased with increase in EVA content in the system. The phase continuity and phase inversion points of the blends were theoretically predicted and compared with the experimental values. The melt flow index (MFI) values of the blends were also determined and found that the MFI values decreased with increase in EVA content in the system. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2010. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Benzo[a]pyrene bioavailability from pristine soil and contaminated sediment assessed using two in vitro models

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2007
    Luba Vasiluk
    Abstract A major route of exposure to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), is ingestion. Matrix-bound HOCs may become bioavailable after mobilization by the gastrointestinal fluids followed by sorption to the intestinal epithelium. The purpose of this research was to measure the bioavailability of [14C]-BaP bound to pristine soils or field-contaminated sediment using an in vitro model of gastrointestinal digestion followed by sorption to human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) or to a surrogate membrane, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) thin film. Although Caco-2 cells had a twofold higher lipid-normalized fugacity capacity than EVA, [14C]-BaP uptake by Caco-2 lipids and EVA thin film demonstrated a linear relationship within the range of BaP concentrations tested. These results suggest that EVA thin film is a good membrane surrogate for passive uptake of BaP. The in vitro system provided enough sensitivity to detect matrix effects on bioavailability; after 5 h, significantly lower concentrations of [14C]-BaP were sorbed into Caco-2 cells from soil containing a higher percentage of organic matter compared to soil with a lower percentage of organic matter. The [14C]-BaP desorption rate from Caco-2 lipids consistently was twofold higher than from EVA thin film for all matrices tested. The more rapid kinetics observed with Caco-2 cells probably were due to the greater surface area available for absorption/desorption in the cells. After 5 h, the uptake of BaP into Caco-2 lipid was similar in live and metabolically inert Caco-2 cells, suggesting that the primary route of BaP uptake is by passive diffusion. Moreover, the driving force for uptake is the fugacity gradient that exists between the gastrointestinal fluid and the membrane. [source]


    Compatible blends of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and hydrogenated nitrile rubber

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    P. Thavamani
    Abstract The miscibility and some physico-mechanical characteristics of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer and hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis, and electrical conductivity. EVA was found to be miscible with HNBR at all properties. Infrared spectroscopic studies revealed that there is some chemical interaction between the constituent polymers. Scanning electron microscopic observations on the morphology of preferential solvent extracted samples indicated that in the blend the major constituent forms a continuous matrix in which the minor one is dispersed. At equal proportions, both EVA and HNBR exist as discontinuous phase. Variation of strength properties with blend composition is also discussed. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 23: 5,17, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.10066 [source]


    An investigation on the correlation between rheology and morphology of nanocomposite foams based on low-density polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate blends

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 10 2010
    M. Riahinezhad
    This article presents the correlation between rheology and morphology of nanocomposite foams of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and their blends. LDPE/EVA nanocomposites were prepared via melt mixing and then foamed using batch foaming method. To assess the rheological behavior of polymer melts, frequency sweep and creep recovery tests were done. Morphology of the samples was also studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that with increase in clay content, storage modulus, complex and zero shear viscosities will be increased, which affect the foam morphology. In addition, elasticity plays an important role in foaming process, in a way that samples with more elasticity percentage have the highest cell density and the lowest cell size. POLYM. COMPOS., 31:1808,1816, 2010. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source]


    Investigation of oxygen barrier properties of organoclay/HDPE/EVA nanocomposite films prepared using a two-step solution method

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 6 2009
    S.M. Reza Dadfar
    In this article, oxygen barrier properties of nanocomposite films composed of organoclay (OC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer have been investigated. The nanocomposite films whose EVA forms a dominant fraction were prepared using the solution method. The dispersion of the OC in the HDPE/EVA blend was improved through taking two-step procedure in the preparation of nanocomposite. First, the OC and EVA were dissolved in chloroform. Then, the resulting product, after evaporating most of the solvent, along with HDPE was dissolved in xylene. The obtained nanocomposite films underwent a number of tests in order to examine their barrier properties including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that OC/HDPE/EVA nanocomposites are intercalated and partially exfoliated. Furthermore, from the TEM micrographs, the organoclay experimental aspect ratio was found. Also, the O2 permeability through the films was evaluated, which showed that adding both OC and HDPE to EVA leads to a remarkable increase in the barrier properties of EVA films. Finally, by using the gas permeation results and existing permeation theories, the organoclay theoretical aspect ratio was predicted. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Ethylene vinyl acetate/Mg-Al LDH nanocomposites by solution blending

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 4 2009
    T. Kuila
    Partially exfoliated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA-40, 40% vinyl acetate content)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites using organically modified layered double hydroxide (DS-LDH) have been synthesized by solution intercalation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of nanocomposites shows the formation of exfoliated LDH nanolayers in EVA-40 matrix at lower DS-LDH contents and partially intercalated/exfoliated EVA-40/MgAl LDH nanocomposites at higher DS-LDH contents. These EVA-40/MgAl LDH nanocomposites demonstrate a significant improvement in tensile strength and elongation at break for 3 wt% of DS-LDH filler loading compare to neat EVA-40 matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis also shows that the thermal stability of the nanocomposites increases with DS-LDH content in EVA-40. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer/ethylene vinyl acetate/layered silicate ternary nanocomposite by solution method

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 7 2006
    H. Acharya
    A new ternary nanocomposite has been developed using ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA-45) copolymer, and organically modified layered silicate (16 Me-MMT) from sodium montmorillonite (Na+ -MMT). Wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed the intercalation of the polymer chains in between the organosilicate layers and the nanoscale distribution of 16 Me-MMT in polymer matrix, respectively. The measurement of mechanical properties for 2,8 wt% of 16 Me-MMT loadings showed a significant increase in tensile strength, elongation at break, and modulus at different elongations. Such an improvement in mechanical properties has been correlated based on the fracture behavior of nanocomposite by SEM analysis. Thermal stability of EPDM/EVA/layered silicate ternary nanocomposites also showed substantial improvements compared with the neat EPDM/EVA blend, confirming thereby the formation of a high performance nanocomposite. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 46:437,843, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Metallocene based polyolefin: a potential candidate for the replacement of flexible poly (vinyl chloride) in the medical field

    POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, Issue 9 2010
    M. C. Sunny
    Abstract A comparative assessment of the performance properties of metallocene polyolefin (m-PO) with those of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (pPVC) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer having 18% vinyl acetate content (EVA-18), the two common polymers used for flexible medical products, is carried out. The preliminary evaluation of the processability, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of the new material, m-PO is described. The processability parameters like mixing torque and melt viscosity of m-PO are found to be comparable with those of pPVC and EVA-18. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength (TS) of m-PO are much higher than that of pPVC and EVA-18. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that the thermal degradation of m-PO takes place only at temperatures above 340°C and can be processed at 170°C without much damage. Oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities of m-PO at three different temperatures (10, 25, and 40°C) are evaluated and compared with those of pPVC and EVA-18. It could be seen that the permeabilities of both the gases for m-PO at three temperatures were lower than those of pPVC and EVA. Biological evaluation of m-PO is carried out by assessing its cytotoxicity, hemolytic property, and blood clotting initiation. The cytotoxicity studies indicate that m-PO is non-toxic to the monolayer of L929 mammalian fibroblast cell lines on direct contact or the exposure of its extract. Non-hemolytic property of m-PO by direct contact as well as test on extract is revealed both in static and in dynamic conditions. Blood clotting time experiments indicate that the initiation of blood clotting due to m-PO is faster than that of pPVC and EVA-18. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Electrically conductive sensors for liquids based on ternary immiscible polymer blends containing polyaniline

    POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, Issue 10 2004
    H. Cooper
    Abstract Electrically conductive blends, containing two immiscible polymers (ethylene vinyl acetate, EVA-19, and copolyamide 6/6.9, CoPA) and polyaniline (PANI), were produced by melt processing. These blends showed a preferred localization of PANI in the CoPA phase, thus enhancing the formation of continuous conducting networks. Electrically conductive PANI-containing filaments produced by a capillary rheometer process at various shear rate levels were studied as sensing materials for a homologous series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol). All filaments showed a decreasing resistance upon exposure to these solvents. Filaments exposed to methanol, liquid or vapor, exhibited the highest resistance decrease. This behavior was related to the highest polarity of methanol, compared with ethanol and 1-propanol. The filaments' rate of production significantly affects the relative resistance change upon exposure to the various alcohols and their reproducibility. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Application of support vector regression for developing soft sensors for nonlinear processes,

    THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2010
    Saneej B. Chitralekha
    Abstract The field of soft sensor development has gained significant importance in the recent past with the development of efficient and easily employable computational tools for this purpose. The basic idea is to convert the information contained in the input,output data collected from the process into a mathematical model. Such a mathematical model can be used as a cost efficient substitute for hardware sensors. The Support Vector Regression (SVR) tool is one such computational tool that has recently received much attention in the system identification literature, especially because of its successes in building nonlinear blackbox models. The main feature of the algorithm is the use of a nonlinear kernel transformation to map the input variables into a feature space so that their relationship with the output variable becomes linear in the transformed space. This method has excellent generalisation capabilities to high-dimensional nonlinear problems due to the use of functions such as the radial basis functions which have good approximation capabilities as kernels. Another attractive feature of the method is its convex optimization formulation which eradicates the problem of local minima while identifying the nonlinear models. In this work, we demonstrate the application of SVR as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for developing soft sensors for nonlinear processes. In an industrial case study, we illustrate the development of a steady-state Melt Index soft sensor for an industrial scale ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer extrusion process using SVR. The SVR-based soft sensor, valid over a wide range of melt indices, outperformed the existing nonlinear least-square-based soft sensor in terms of lower prediction errors. In the remaining two other case studies, we demonstrate the application of SVR for developing soft sensors in the form of dynamic models for two nonlinear processes: a simulated pH neutralisation process and a laboratory scale twin screw polymer extrusion process. A heuristic procedure is proposed for developing a dynamic nonlinear-ARX model-based soft sensor using SVR, in which the optimal delay and orders are automatically arrived at using the input,output data. Le domaine du développement des capteurs logiciels a récemment gagné en importance avec la création d'outils de calcul efficaces et facilement utilisables à cette fin. L'idée de base est de convertir l'information obtenue dans les données d'entrée et de sortie recueillies à partir du processus dans un modèle mathématique. Un tel modèle mathématique peut servir de solution de rechange économique pour les capteurs matériels. L'outil de régression par machine à vecteur de support (RMVS) constitue un outil de calcul qui a récemment été l'objet de beaucoup d'attention dans la littérature des systèmes d'identification, surtout en raison de ses succès dans la création de modèles de boîte noire non linéaires. Dans ce travail, nous démontrons l'application de la RMVS comme outil efficace et facile à utiliser pour la création de capteurs logiciels pour les procédés non linéaires. Dans une étude de cas industrielle, nous illustrons le développement d'un capteur logiciel à indice de fluidité à état permanent pour un processus d'extrusion du polymère d'acétate de vinyle-éthylène à l'échelle industrielle en utilisant la RMVS. Le capteur logiciel fondé sur la RMVS, valide sur une vaste gamme d'indices de fluidité, a surclassé le capteur logiciel fondé sur les moindres carrés non linéaires existant en matière d'erreurs de prédiction plus faibles. Dans les deux autres études de cas, nous démontrons l'application de la RMVS pour la création de capteurs logiciels sous la forme de modèles dynamiques pour deux procédés non linéaires: un processus de neutralisation du pH simulé et un processus d'extrusion de polymère à deux vis à l'échelle laboratoire. Une procédure heuristique est proposée pour la création d'un capteur logiciel fondé sur un modèle ARX non linéaire dynamique en utilisant la RMVS, dans lequel on atteint automatiquement le délai optimal et les ordres en utilisant les données d'entrée et de sortie. [source]


    Morphology development during blending of immiscible polymers in screw extruders

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 6 2002
    Sandeep Tyagi
    The present work reports evolution of morphology from initial (presence of striation) to final (droplet formation) stages in a single-screw extruder. Morphology development during the blending process controls the final size of the dispersed phase, which in turn significantly affects the properties of the blends. The experiments were carried out using a 70/30 wt% polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PP/EVA) blend; samples were collected along the length of the screw, by screw pullout experiment, to analyze the size and size distribution of the dispersed phase present both as striated layers and subsequently as droplets. Average size of the dispersed phase and standard deviation were taken into account to monitor the morphology evolution along the length of the screw. Pre-breakup morphology development was studied by analyzing the sample collected from the feed zone of the extruder in terms of upper and lower layers along the cross section of screw channel. Examination of micrographs revealed the existence of pattern of ordered striations along the length of the melting zone containing striations from average size of 1000 ,m down to 50 ,m decreasing rapidly along the length of the screw. The breakup process was captured at the start of compression zone where step-up in the shear as well as elongational flow was applied due to decrease in the channel depth along the compression zone. The observed droplet size formed by the breakup of filaments is found to be in accordance with theory. The final droplet size is found to be governed by the emulsification process occurring as a result of stretching, breakup and coalescence in the metering section of the screw and is in the order of 2 ,m. [source]