Ethylene Signaling (ethylene + signaling)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene

Hong-Liang Zhu
Abstract Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis, which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition, there were fewer seeds and locules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones. (Managing editor: Li-Hui Zhao) [source]

Genetic dissection of the role of ethylene in regulating auxin-dependent lateral and adventitious root formation in tomato

Sangeeta Negi
Summary In this study we investigated the role of ethylene in the formation of lateral and adventitious roots in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using mutants isolated for altered ethylene signaling and fruit ripening. Mutations that block ethylene responses and delay ripening ,Nr (Never ripe), gr (green ripe), nor (non ripening), and rin (ripening inhibitor) , have enhanced lateral root formation. In contrast, the epi (epinastic) mutant, which has elevated ethylene and constitutive ethylene signaling in some tissues, or treatment with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC), reduces lateral root formation. Treatment with ACC inhibits the initiation and elongation of lateral roots, except in the Nr genotype. Root basipetal and acropetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport increase with ACC treatments or in the epi mutant, while in the Nr mutant there is less auxin transport than in the wild type and transport is insensitive to ACC. In contrast, the process of adventitious root formation shows the opposite response to ethylene, with ACC treatment and the epi mutation increasing adventitious root formation and the Nr mutation reducing the number of adventitious roots. In hypocotyls, ACC treatment negatively regulated IAA transport while the Nr mutant showed increased IAA transport in hypocotyls. Ethylene significantly reduces free IAA content in roots, but only subtly changes free IAA content in tomato hypocotyls. These results indicate a negative role for ethylene in lateral root formation and a positive role in adventitious root formation with modulation of auxin transport as a central point of ethylene,auxin crosstalk. [source]

Ethylene regulates lateral root formation and auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

Sangeeta Negi
Summary Lateral root branching is a genetically defined and environmentally regulated process. Auxin is required for lateral root formation, and mutants that are altered in auxin synthesis, transport or signaling often have lateral root defects. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in the regulation of Arabidopsis lateral root formation are not well characterized. This study utilized Arabidopsis mutants altered in ethylene signaling and synthesis to explore the role of ethylene in lateral root formation. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis or signaling, through the eto1-1 and ctr1-1 mutations, or through the application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), negatively impacts lateral root formation, and is reversible by treatment with the ethylene antagonist, silver nitrate. In contrast, mutations that block ethylene responses, etr1-3 and ein2-5, enhance root formation and render it insensitive to the effect of ACC, even though these mutants have reduced root elongation at high ACC doses. ACC treatments or the eto1-1 mutation significantly enhance radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport in both the acropetal and the basipetal directions. ein2-5 and etr1-3 have less acropetal IAA transport, and transport is no longer regulated by ACC. DR5-GUS reporter expression is also altered by ACC treatment, which is consistent with transport differences. The aux1-7 mutant, which has a defect in an IAA influx protein, is insensitive to the ethylene inhibition of root formation. aux1-7 also has ACC-insensitive acropetal and basipetal IAA transport, as well as altered DR5-GUS expression, which is consistent with ethylene altering AUX1-mediated IAA uptake, and thereby blocking lateral root formation. [source]

AtNAC2, a transcription factor downstream of ethylene and auxin signaling pathways, is involved in salt stress response and lateral root development

Xin-Jian He
Summary An NAC-type transcription factor gene AtNAC2 was identified from Arabidopsis thaliana when expression patterns of the genes from a microarray analysis were examined. The AtNAC2 expression was induced by salt stress and this induction was reduced in magnitude in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing tobacco ethylene receptor gene NTHK1. AtNAC2 is localized in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. It can form a homodimer in yeast. AtNAC2 was highly expressed in roots and flowers, but less expressed in other organs examined. In addition to the salt induction, the AtNAC2 can also be induced by abscisic acid (ABA), ACC and NAA. The salt induction was enhanced in the ethylene overproducer mutant eto1-1, but suppressed in the ethylene-insensitive mutants etr1-1 and ein2-1, and in the auxin-insensitive mutant tir1-1when compared with that in wild-type plants. However, the salt induction of AtNAC2 was not significantly affected in the ABA-insensitive mutants abi2-1, abi3-1 and abi4-1. These results indicate that the salt response of AtNAC2 requires ethylene signaling and auxin signaling pathways but does not require ABI2, ABI3 and ABI4, intermediates of the ABA signaling pathway. Overexpression of AtNAC2 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in promotion of lateral root development. AtNAC2 also promoted or inhibited downstream gene expressions. These results indicate that AtNAC2 may be a transcription factor incorporating the environmental and endogenous stimuli into the process of plant lateral root development. [source]