Ethylene Polymerization Reaction (ethylene + polymerization_reaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ethylene polymerization behavior of Cr(III)-containing montmorillonite: Influence of chromium compounds

Kazuhiro Yamamoto
Abstract Montmorillonite was treated with Cr(NO3)3, Cr(acetate)3, and Cr(acac)3 to give three catalyst precursors, Cr-MMT-1, Cr-MMT-2, and Cr-MMT-3, respectively. Application of these catalysts to the ethylene polymerization reaction revealed Cr-MMT-1 to be much more reactive than the other two while the molecular weight distributions of the polymers were practically the same. Elemental analysis, XRD, and TEM measurements suggested that chromium occupied the interlayer section in Cr-MMT-1 and mostly the outer surface region for the other two catalysts. Aluminosilicate-supported Cr catalysts exhibited reactivity similar to that of Cr-MMT-2 and Cr-MMT-3. However, more of the low-molecular-weight polymer was formed. These data suggested that there is a relationship between the sites of the Cr ions and catalytic reactivity, and between supporting solid identity and molecular weight distribution of the polymer. The use of n -Bu2Mg and Et2Zn in the place of Et3Al led to lower activity but gave polymers of narrower molecular weight distribution, with more of the high-molecular-weight material. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 2272,2280, 2009 [source]

Metallocene Combinations in Ethylene Polymerization: A Cyclic and Differential Pulse Voltammetry Study

Fernando Silveira
Abstract A series of metallocenes, namely [Cp2ZrCl2], [(MeCp)2ZrCl2], [(nBuCp)2ZrCl2], [(iBuCp)2ZrCl2], [(tBuCp)2ZrCl2], [Cp2TiCl2], [Et(Ind)2ZrCl2], [Et(IndH4)2ZrCl2] and [MeSi2(Ind)2ZrCl2)], were combined in a 1:1 molar ratio within a reactor for ethylene polymerization, with MAO as the cocatalyst. The catalysts were characterized by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. The combined systems that showed the highest and lowest activities were combined in 1:3 and 3:1 molar ratios. The catalyst activity in the ethylene polymerization reaction is discussed in terms of the estimated consumption rate, decomposition rate constant and half-life of the metallocene species formed with MAO in an ethylene atmosphere. [source]

Multicenter nature of titanium-based Ziegler,Natta catalysts: Comparison of ethylene and propylene polymerization reactions

Yury V. Kissin
Abstract This article discusses the similarities and differences between active centers in propylene and ethylene polymerization reactions over the same Ti-based catalysts. These correlations were examined by comparing the polymerization kinetics of both monomers over two different Ti-based catalyst systems, ,-TiCl3 -AlEt3 and TiCl4/DBP/MgCl2 -AlEt3/PhSi(OEt)3, by comparing the molecular weight distributions of respective polymers, in consecutive ethylene/propylene and propylene/ethylene homopolymerization reactions, and by examining the IR spectra of "impact-resistant" polypropylene (a mixture of isotactic polypropylene and an ethylene/propylene copolymer). The results of these experiments indicated that Ti-based catalysts contain two families of active centers. The centers of the first family, which are relatively unstable kinetically, are capable of polymerizing and copolymerizing all olefins. This family includes from four to six populations of centers that differ in their stereospecificity, average molecular weights of polymer molecules they produce, and in the values of reactivity ratios in olefin copolymerization reactions. The centers of the second family (two populations of centers) efficiently polymerize only ethylene. They do not homopolymerize ,-olefins and, if used in ethylene/,-olefin copolymerization reactions, incorporate ,-olefin molecules very poorly. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 1745,1758, 2003 [source]

Influence of supported vanadium catalyst on ethylene polymerization reactions

Sutapa Ghosh
Abstract BACKGROUND: In the research area of homogeneous Ziegler,Natta olefin polymerization, classic vanadium catalyst systems have shown a number of favourable performances. These catalysts are useful for (i) the preparation of high molecular weight polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions, (ii) the preparation of ethylene/R -olefin copolymers with high R -olefin incorporation and (iii) the preparation of syndiotactic polypropylenes. In view of the above merits of vanadium-based catalysts for polymerization reactions, the development of well-defined single-site vanadium catalysts for polymerization reactions is presently an extremely important industrial goal. The main aim of this work was the synthesis and characterization of a heterogeneous low-coordinate non-metallocene (phenyl)imido vanadium catalyst, V(NAr)Cl3, and its utility for ethylene polymerization. RESULTS: Imido vanadium complex V(NAr)Cl3 was synthesized and immobilized onto a series of inorganic supports: SiO2, methylaluminoxane (MAO)-modified SiO2 (4.5 and 23 wt% Al/SiO2), SiO2 Al2O3, MgCl2, MCM-41 and MgO. Metal contents on the supported catalysts determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy remained between 0.050 and 0.100 mmol V g,1 support. Thermal stability of the catalysts was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Characterization of polyethylene was done by gel permeation chromatography and DSC. All catalyst systems were found to be active in ethylene polymerization in the presence of MAO or triisobutylaluminium/MAO mixture (Al/V = 1000). Catalyst activity was found to depend on the support nature, being between 7.5 and 80.0 kg PE (mol V),1 h,1. Finally, all catalyst systems were found to be reusable for up to three cycles. CONCLUSION: Best results were observed in the case of silica as support. Acid or basic supports afforded less active systems. In situ immobilization led to higher catalyst activity. The resulting polyethylenes in all experiments had ultrahigh molecular weight. Finally, this work explains the synthesis and characterization of reusable supported novel vanadium catalysts, which are useful in the synthesis of very high molecular weight ethylene polymers. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]