Ethylene Oxide (ethylene + oxide)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Selected Abstracts


Prem Anand Nagaraja
Background: Surgical suture packs are opened (and external packaging removed) on the operating table prior to surgery. Some of these suture packs may not be used in the surgery for reasons of inappropriateness or change in the surgical technique or following accidental contact with a non-sterile surface. These unused sutures with their foil packs still unopened are sometimes re-sterilized using ethylene oxide to allow for reuse. This re-sterilization of unopened suture packs can be contentious, due to legislation and health regulations in developed countries. The purpose of the present paper was to measure the effect of such repeated gas sterilization on sutures. Methods: The knot tensile strength was measured for new sterile sutures and ethylene oxide re-sterilized sutures. The tests were conducted on two available brands of sutures, including both absorbable and non-absorbable synthetic sutures. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in the tensile strengths between the two sets of sutures, before and after re-sterilization. Some foil packs showed slight crimping after re-sterilization, but remained intact. No humidity was observed inside the foil packs. Conclusions: Re-sterilization of unused suture foil packs can be carried out without loss of tensile strength. [source]

Synthesis of Half-Channels by the Anionic Polymerization of Ethylene Oxide Initiated by Modified Cyclodextrin

Nezha Badi
Amphiphilic star-shaped oligomers are produced by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO) using per-2,3-di- O -heptyl- , -(or ,)cyclodextrins as initiators , a versatile way of synthesizing artificial channels bearing one polyEO branch per glucose unit. The behavior of the amphiphilic molecules in lipid membranes is studied by electrical measurements, which confirms the formation of transient, well-defined dimeric ionic channels (see figure). [source]

Rapid and sensitive on-line liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric determination of an ethylene oxide-DNA adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine, in urine of nonsmokers

Chih-Chun Jean Huang
Ethylene oxide (EtO) is classified as a known human carcinogen. The formation of EtO-DNA adducts is considered as an important early event in the EtO carcinogenic process. An isotope-dilution on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was then developed to analyze one of the EtO-DNA adducts, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), in urine of 46 nonsmokers with excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The merits of this method include small sample volume (only 120,L urine required), automated sample cleanup, and short total run time (12 minutes per sample). This method demonstrates its high-throughput capacity for future molecular epidemiology studies on the potential health effects resulting from the low-dose EtO exposure. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Delayed-type hypersensitivity dermatitis to ethylene oxide

Ulrich M. Caroli
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Synthesis of poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) and its application for separation of proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis

Jing Xu
Abstract A series of well-defined triblock copolymers, poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization, were used as physical coatings for protein separation. A comparative study of EOF showed that the triblock copolymer presented good capillary coating ability and EOF efficient suppression. The effects of the Mr of PDMA block in PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer and buffer pH on the separation of basic protein for CE were investigated. Moreover, the influence of the copolymer structure on separation of basic protein was studied by comparing the performance of PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer with PEO- b -PDMA diblock copolymer. Furthermore, the triblock copolymer coating showed higher separation efficiency and better migration time repeatability than fused-silica capillary when used in protein mixture separation and milk powder samples separation, respectively. The results demonstrated that the triblock copolymer coatings would have a wide application in the field of protein separation. [source]

Nanostructured copolymer gels for dsDNA separation by CE

Fen Wan
Abstract Pluronics are triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) that are able to form many different ordered nanostructures at appropriate polymer concentrations and temperatures in selective solvents. These nanostructured "gels" showed desirable criteria when used as DNA separation media, especially in microchip electrophoresis, including dynamic coating and viscosity switching. A ternary system of F127 (E99P69E99)/TBE buffer/1-butanol was selected as a model system to test the sieving performance of different nanostructures in separating dsDNA by CE. The nanostructures and their lattice constants were determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. Viscosity measurements showed the sol,gel transition phenomena. In addition to the cubic structure, successful electrophoretic separation of dsDNA in 2-D hexagonally packed cylinders was achieved. Results showed that without further optimization, ,X174 DNA,Hae III digest was well separated within 15,min in a 7-cm separation channel, by using F127/TBE/1-butanol gel with a 2-D hexagonal structure. A mechanism for DNA separations by those gels with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains is discussed. [source]

Tobacco smoke carcinogens and breast cancer

Stephen S. Hecht
Abstract Cigarette smoking is an established cause of a variety of cancer types, but its role in breast cancer etiology is not clear. In this report, the potential role of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of human breast cancer is evaluated. Of over 60 known carcinogens in tobacco smoke, several are known to induce mammary tumors in laboratory animals: benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-toluidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP), 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, and benzene. Studies in humans demonstrate that tobacco constituents can reach breast tissue. The uptake and metabolic activation of mammary carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 4-aminobiphenyl are frequently higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Although it is likely that specific mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke can reach breast tissue, evidence is lacking at the present time. Some PAHs present in cigarette smoke can be metabolized to sterically hindered diol epoxides, which are potent mammary carcinogens. Thus, compounds such as benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]P), not classically considered to be a strong carcinogen in rodents, could nevertheless be metabolized in humans to diol epoxides carcinogenic to the breast. Collectively, the link between smoking and breast cancer is plausible but has been difficult to establish, probably because of the low carcinogen dose. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 39:119,126, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

Pablo Docampo
Abstract Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO2 is synthesized in a well-defined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer,poly(isoprene- b -ethylene oxide) (PI- b -PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. [source]

Fabrication and Drug Delivery of Ultrathin Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Hollow Fibers

Youliang Hong
Abstract Ultrathin mesoporous bioactive glass hollow fibers (MBGHFs) fabricated using an electrospinning technique and combined with a phase-separation-induced agent, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), are described. The rapid solvent evaporation during electrospinning and the PEO-induced phase separation process demonstrated play vital roles in the formation of ultrathin bioactive glass fibers with hollow cores and mesoporous walls. Immersing the MBGHFs in simulated body fluid rapidly results in the development of a layer of enamel-like apatite mesocrystals at the fiber surfaces and apatite nanocrystals inside the hollow cores. Drug loading and release experiments indicate that the drug loading capacity and drug release behavior of the MBGHFs strongly depends on the fiber length. MBGHFs with fiber length >50,m can become excellent carriers for drug delivery. The shortening of the fiber length reduces drug loading amounts and accelerates drug release. The MBGHFs reported here with sophisticated structure, high bioactivity, and good drug delivery capability can be a promising scaffold for hard tissue repair and wound healing when organized into 3D macroporous membranes. [source]

Highly Extensible Bio-Nanocomposite Films with Direction-Dependent Properties

Akhilesh K. Gaharwar
Abstract The structure and mechanical properties of bio-nanocomposite films made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) that is physically cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles, Laponite, are investigated. Direction-dependent mechanical properties of the films are presented, and the effect of shear orientation during sample preparation on tensile strength and elongation is assessed. Repeated mechanical deformation results in highly extensible materials with preferred orientation and structuring at the nano- and micrometer scales. Additionally, in vitro biocompatibility data are reported, and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts are observed to readily adhere and proliferate on silicate cross-linked PEO while maintaining high cell viability. [source]

Proton Transport from Dendritic Helical-Pore-Incorporated Polymersomes

Anthony J. Kim
Abstract The ability to add synthetic channels to polymersome (polymer vesicle) membranes could lead to novel membrane composites with unique selectivity and permeability. Proton transport through two different synthetic pores, self-assembled from either a dendritic dipeptide, (6Nf-3,4-3,5)12G2-CH2 -Boc-L-Tyr-L-Ala-OMe, or a dendritic ester, (R)-4Bp-3,4-dm8G1-COOMe, incorporated into polymersome membranes are studied. Polymersomes provide an excellent platform for studying such transport processes due to their robustness and mechanical and chemical stability compared to liposomes. It is found that the incorporated dendritic dipeptide and dendritic ester assemble into stable helical pores in the poly(ethylene oxide)-polybutadiene (PEO-PBD) polymersomes but not in the poly(2-methyloxazoline)-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(2-methyl oxazoline) (PMOX-PDMS-PMOX) polymersomes. The incorporation is confirmed by circular dichroism (CD), changes in purely synthetic mechanical strength (e.g., areal expansion modulus) as assessed by micropipette aspiration, and cryo-TEM. In addition to the structural analyses, a transport measurement shows the incorporated dendritic helical pores allow facile transport of protons across the polymersome membranes after up to one month of storage. This integration of synthetic porous channels with polymersome substrates could provide a valuable tool for studying active transport processes in a composite membrane. These composites will ultimately expand the family of biologically inspired porous-membrane mimics. [source]

pH-Responsive Flower-Type Micelles Formed by a Biotinylated Poly(2-vinylpyridine)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(, -caprolactone) Triblock Copolymer

Kathy Van Butsele
Abstract In the present work, a method is proposed to assemble pH-responsive, flower-like micelles that can expose a targeting unit at their periphery upon a decrease in pH. The micelles are composed of a novel biotinylated triblock copolymer of poly(,, -caprolactone)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PCL- b -PEO- b -P2VP) and the non-biotinylated analogue. The block copolymers are synthesized by sequential anionic and ring-opening polymerization. The pH-dependent micellization behaviour in aqueous solution of the triblock copolymers developed is studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorimetric measurements. The shielding of the biotin at neutral pH and their availability at the micelle surface upon protonation is established by TEM and surface plasmon resonance with avidin and streptavidin-coated gold surfaces. The preliminary stealthy behavior of these pH-responsive micelles is examined using the complement activation (CH50) test. [source]

A Combinatorial Approach for Colorimetric Differentiation of Organic Solvents Based on Conjugated Polymer-Embedded Electrospun Fibers

Jaewon Yoon
Abstract A combinatorial approach for the colorimetric differentiation of organic solvents is developed. A polydiacetylene (PDA)-embedded electrospun fiber mat, prepared with aminobutyric acid-derived diacetylene monomer PCDA-ABA 1, displays colorimetric stability when exposed to common organic solvents. In contrast, a fiber mat prepared with the aniline-derived diacetylene PCDA-AN 2 undergoes a solvent-sensitive color transition. Arrays of PDA-embedded microfibers are constructed by electrospinning poly(ethylene oxide) solutions containing various ratios of two diacetylene monomers. Unique color patterns are developed when the conjugated polymer-embedded electrospun fiber arrays are exposed to common organic solvents in a manner which enables direct colorimetric differentiation of the tested solvents. [source]

Phase Segregation in Thin Films of Conjugated Polyrotaxane, Poly(ethylene oxide) Blends: A Scanning Force Microscopy Study,

L. Sardone
Abstract Scanning force microscopy (SFM) is used to study the surface morphology of spin-coated thin films of the ion-transport polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blended with either cyclodextrin (CD)-threaded conjugated polyrotaxanes based on poly(4,4,-diphenylene-vinylene) (PDV), ,-CD,PDV, or their uninsulated PDV analogues. Both the polyrotaxanes and their blends with PEO are of interest as active materials in light-emitting devices. The SFM analysis of the blended films supported on mica and on indium tin oxide (ITO) reveals in both cases a morphology that reflects the substrate topography on the (sub-)micrometer scale and is characterized by an absence of the surface structure that is usually associated with phase segregation. This observation confirms a good miscibility of the two hydrophilic components, when deposited by using spin-coating, as suggested by the luminescence data on devices and thin films. Clear evidence of phase segregation is instead found when blending PEO with a new organic-soluble conjugated polymer such as a silylated poly(fluorene)- alt -poly(para -phenylene) based polyrotaxane (THS,,-CD,PF,PPP). The results obtained are relevant to the understanding of the factors influencing the interfacial and the intermolecular interactions with a view to optimizing the performance of light-emitting diodes, and light-emitting electrochemical cells based on supramolecularly engineered organic polymers. [source]

A Hybrid Poly(ethylene oxide)/ Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 Nanoparticle Solid-State Redox Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Solar Cells,

W. Han
Abstract High-efficiency all-solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells have been fabricated using a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PEO/PVDF)/TiO2 -nanoparticle polymer redox electrolyte, which yields an overall energy-conversion efficiency of about 4.8,% under irradiation by white light (65.2,mW,cm,2). The introduction of PVDF (which contains the highly electronegative element fluorine) and TiO2 nanoparticles into the PEO electrolyte increases the ionic conductivity (by about two orders of magnitude) and effectively reduces the recombination rate at the interface of the TiO2 and the solid-state electrolyte, thus enhancing the performance of the solar cell. [source]

Generation of Compositional-Gradient Structures in Biodegradable, Immiscible, Polymer Blends by Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions,

B. Hexig
Abstract A biodegradable, immiscible poly(butylenes adipate- co -butylenes terephthalate) [P(BA- co -BT)]/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer blend film with compositional gradient in the film-thickness direction has been successfully prepared in the presence of a low-molecular-weight compound 4,4,-thiodiphenal (TDP), which is used as a miscibility-enhancing agent. The miscibilities of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP ternary blend films and the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP gradient film were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The compositional gradient structure of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP (46/46/8 w/w/w) film has been confirmed by microscopic mapping measurement of Fourier-transform infrared spectra and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. We have developed a new strategy for generating gradient-phase structures in immiscible polymer-blend systems by homogenization, i.e., adding a third agent that can enhance the miscibility of the two immiscible polymers through simultaneous formation of hydrogen bonds with two component polymers. [source]

Dialyzer reactions in a patient switching from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis

Robert C. Yang
Many terms have been used to describe the collection of signs and symptoms triggered by the initial use of dialyzers. These reactions can be divided into Type A (hypersensitivity reactions, with the incidence of 4/100,000) and Type B (nonspecific reactions, incidence 3,5/100). Many different mechanisms have been postulated, including complement activation, pulmonary leukostasis, hypersensitivity to ethylene oxide, interaction between the AN69 membrane and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and dialysate contamination. An unusual case of dialyzer reactions is presented here, involving a patient who had to discontinue peritoneal dialysis when she was admitted with fungal peritonitis. Upon initiation of hemodialysis, she experienced dyspnea and burning sensation and demonstrated significant leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and oxygen desaturation. These reactions persisted despite double-rinsing of the dialyzers and the use of several different dialyzers with synthetic membranes (polysulfone and AN69), and a variety of sterilization methods (electron beam and gamma radiation). In the end, a simple measure was found to be effective in preventing further dialyzer reactions in this fascinating case. [source]

Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers on Two-Dimensional Chemical Patterns Fabricated by Electro-Oxidation Nanolithography

Ji Xu
A hexagonal web of carboxylic-terminated nanostripes (left image, bright areas) is patterned onto a methyl-terminated surface of an octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer. A thermally annealed polystyrene- block -poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b -PEO) thin-film, spin-cast on the chemical pattern (right image), exhibits surface normal oriented cylindrical PEO microdomains on the methyl-terminated regions only. These chemical patterns effectively template the order and spatial orientation of diblock-copolymer microdomains. [source]

Synthesis of Half-Channels by the Anionic Polymerization of Ethylene Oxide Initiated by Modified Cyclodextrin

Nezha Badi
Amphiphilic star-shaped oligomers are produced by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO) using per-2,3-di- O -heptyl- , -(or ,)cyclodextrins as initiators , a versatile way of synthesizing artificial channels bearing one polyEO branch per glucose unit. The behavior of the amphiphilic molecules in lipid membranes is studied by electrical measurements, which confirms the formation of transient, well-defined dimeric ionic channels (see figure). [source]

Layer-by-Layer Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Films: From Fundamentals to Applications

Eugenia Kharlampieva
Abstract Recent years have seen increasing interest in the construction of nanoscopically layered materials involving aqueous-based sequential assembly of polymers on solid substrates. In the booming research area of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged polymers, self-assembly driven by hydrogen bond formation emerges as a powerful technique. Hydrogen-bonded (HB) LbL materials open new opportunities for LbL films, which are more difficult to produce than their electrostatically assembled counterparts. Specifically, the new properties associated with HB assembly include: 1) the ease of producing films responsive to environmental pH at mild pH values, 2) numerous possibilities for converting HB films into single- or two-component ultrathin hydrogel materials, and 3) the inclusion of polymers with low glass transition temperatures (e.g., poly(ethylene oxide)) within ultrathin films. These properties can lead to new applications for HB LbL films, such as pH- and/or temperature-responsive drug delivery systems, materials with tunable mechanical properties, release films dissolvable under physiological conditions, and proton-exchange membranes for fuel cells. In this report, we discuss the recent developments in the synthesis of LbL materials based on HB assembly, the study of their structure,property relationships, and the prospective applications of HB LbL constructs in biotechnology and biomedicine. [source]

A Random Sequential Adsorption Model for Protein Adsorption to Surfaces Functionalized with Poly(ethylene oxide)

Parag Katira
A random sequential adsorption model for the adsorption of proteins to surfaces functionalized with poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) at a range of molecular weights and grafting densities is presented. An excellent fit of the model predictions to experimental results suggests that the random arrangement of polymer chains leading to polymer-free "bald" spots is a critical factor in primary protein adsorption. [source]

Kinetic studies of hydrazine and 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine alkylation by 2-chloroethanol: Influence of a strong base in the medium

V. Goutelle
To optimize yields, the study of reaction kinetics related to the synthesis of 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH) obtained from the alkylation of N2H4 by 2-chloroethanol (CletOH) was carried out with and without sodium hydroxide. In both cases, the main reaction of HEH formation was followed by a consecutive, parallel reaction of HEH alkylation (or dialkylation of N2H4), leading to the formation of two isomers: 1,1-di(hydroxyethyl)hydrazine and 1,2-di(hydroxyethyl)hydrazine. In this study, hydrazine and hydroxyalkylhydrazine alkylations followed SN2 reactions triggered directly by CletOH or indirectly in the presence of a strong base by ethylene oxide, an intermediate compound. The kinetics was studied in diluted mediums by quantifying HEH and CletOH by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activation parameters of each reaction and the influence of a strong base present in the medium on the reaction mechanisms were established. A global mathematical treatment was applied for each alternative. It allowed modeling the reactions as a function of reagent concentrations and temperature. In the case of direct alkylation by CletOH, simulation was established for semi-batch and batch syntheses and was confirmed in experiments for concentrated mediums (1.0 M , [CletOH]0 , 3.2 M and 15.7 M , [N2H4]0 , 18.8 M). Simulation therefore permits the prediction of the instantaneous concentration of reagents and products, in particular ethylene oxide concentration in the case of indirect alkylation, which must be as weak as possible. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 41: 382,393, 2009 [source]

Highly Ordered Nanoporous Thin Films from Cleavable Polystyrene- block -poly(ethylene oxide),

M. Zhang
A cleavable trityl ether juncture is introduced between polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and thus highly ordered nanoporous thin films have been prepared from self-assembled PS- b -PEO diblock copolymers, via the removal of PEO from solvent-annealed PS- b -PEO thin films in a simple two or one-step process. When patterned substrates are used, addressable nanopore arrays with a high degree of lateral order and a well-defined lattice orientation can be readily produced (see figure). [source]

Use of associating polymers as multifunctional thickeners: studies of Their structure in aqueous solutions via nmr, qels, fluorescence, And rheology measurements

Katsunori Yoshida
The solution properties of an associating polymer were studied by NMR, quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), fluorescence, and rheology measurements. An associative thickening (AT) polymer was designed having a nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) backbone with long alkyl chains at both ends to achieve high viscosity even at relatively high salt concentrations and over a wide pH range. This study focuses on the associative state of the polymer in aqueous solutions at various polymer concentrations. In a fluorescence probe study using pyrene a spectral change in the I3/I1 ratio was observed for pyrene at a polymer concentration (Cp) of 3 x 10 -4%, indicating an apparent critical concentration (cmc) of the amphiphilic polymer. The viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient (Dsel), and hydrodynamic size (Rh) distribution measurements at various Cp all suggest that there is a second transition at Cp, 0.4%. Although we observed the discontinuity in viscosity, Dsel, and Rh at Cp, 0.4%, no changes in the relaxation times (T1 and T2) were recognized for either the alkyl chain or the ethylene oxide moiety of the polymer at C p= 0.1,1%. These data suggest that there are no structural changes or phase transitions at Cp, 0.4%, but that intermicellar networks are presumably formed by bridging of the end alkyl groups of the polymer, which is driven by hydrophobic forces. Because the polymer forms networks by hydrophobic interaction and the polymer itself is nonionic, the viscosity of the polymer solution was influenced very little by either the addition of salt or a pH change, as would be expected. The dynamic viscoelastic study revealed that the polymer solution exhibits a single mode Maxwell type relaxation behavior with a terminal relaxation time of about 0.61 s, which imparts a unique flow appearance to the polymer solutions. The time course measurements of the dynamic elastic modulus of the stratum corneum revealed that the polymer has excellent potential for skin softening. It was concluded that the associative thickening polymer not only is a useful thickener with a salt and pH tolerance but also has beneficial skincare effects. [source]

A hybrid density functional theory study of the low-temperature dimethyl ether combustion pathways.

I: Chain-propagation
Dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed to be a promising alternative to conventional diesel fuel because of its favorable compression ignition property (high cetane number) and its soot-free combustion. A radical chain mechanism for hydrocarbon autoignition has been proposed for DME at low temperatures. In this mechanism, the chain initiation step consists of DME undergoing hydrogen abstraction by a highly reactive species (typically OH). The CH3OH2 created in the initiation step then combines with O2; the subsequent CH3OCH2OO radical is involved in a Lindemann-type mechanism, which can lead to the production of formaldehyde (CH2 = O) and OH. This concludes the chain-propagating step: the one OH produced then sustains the chain-reaction by creating another CH3OH2. A relatively stable intermediate (CH2OCH2OOH), formed via isomerization of CH3OCH2OO in the chain-propagation step, can combine with a second O2 to produce a radical (OOCH2OCH2OOH) that can potentially decompose into two OH radical (and other products). This path leads to chain-branching and an exponential increase in the rate of DME oxidation. We have used spin-polarized density functional theory with the Becke-3-parameter Lee,Parr,Yang exchange-correlation functional to calculate the structures and energies of key reactants, intermediates, and products involved in (and competing with) the chain-propagating and chain-branching steps of low-temperature DME oxidation. In this article, Part I, we consider only the chain-propagation mechanism and its competing mechanisms for DME combustion. Here, we show that only certain conformers can undergo the isomerization to CH2OCH2OOH. A new transition state has been discovered for the disproportionation reaction CH2OCH2OOH , 2CH2O + OH in the chain-propagating step of DME autoignition that is much lower than previous barriers. The key to making this decomposition pathway facile is initial cleavage of the O,O rather than the C,O bond. This renders all transition states along the chain-propagation potential energy surface below the CH3OH2 + O2 reactants. In contrast with the more well-studied CH3H2 (ethyl radical) + O2 system, the H-transfer isomerization of CH3OCH2OO to CH2OCH2OOH in low-temperature DME oxidation has a much lower activation energy. This is most likely due to the larger ring strain of the analogous transition state in ethane oxidation, which is a five-membered ring opposed to a six-membered ring in dimethyl ether oxidation. Thus low-temperature ethane oxidation is much less likely to form the ROOH (where R is a generic group) radicals necessary for chain-branching, which leads to autoignition. Three competing reactions are considered: CH3OH2 , CH2O + CH3; CH2OCH2OOH , 1,3-dioxetane + OH; and CH2OCH2OOH , ethylene oxide + HOO. The reaction barriers of all these competing paths are much higher in energy (7,10 kcal/mol) than the reactants CH3OH2 + O2 and, therefore, are unlikely low-temperature paths. Interestingly, an analysis of the highest occupied molecular orbital along the CH3OH2 decomposition path shows that electronically excited (1A2 or 3A2) CH2O can form; this can also be shown for CH2OCH2OOH, which forms two formaldehyde molecules. This may explain the luminosity of DME's low-temperature flames. [source]

Hybrids of poly(ethylene oxide- b -amide-6) and ZrO2 sol,gel: Preparation, characterization, and application in processes of membranes separation

Rita Aparecida Zoppi
Abstract Hybrids consisting of poly(ethylene oxide- b -amide-6), PEBAXTM, and zirconium oxide were prepared from hydrolysis and condensation of zirconium tetraisopropoxide in solution containing the dissolved organic polymer. These hybrids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Results show that the incorporation of the inorganic phase seems to promote the degradation of the organic polymer. Composite membranes consisting of a porous support of poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and a filter layer of PEBAX/ZrO2 were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Permeation tests of water or aqueous solutions containing poly(ethylene glycol) of different molar masses were carried out to determine the permeation rate and the membrane cutoff respectively. To determine the phosphate retention, permeation tests using a KH2PO4 aqueous solution were carried out. Independent of composition of the filter layer, values of phosphate retention were nearly equivalent to 80%. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 2,16, 2002; DOI 10.1002/adv.10011 [source]

Novel amphiphilic polymer gel electrolytes based on (PEG- b -GMA)- co -MMA

Dan Luo
Abstract Amphiphilic conetwork,structured copolymers containing different lengths of ethylene oxide (EO) chains as ionophilic units and methyl methacrylate (MMA) chains as ionophobic units were prepared by free radical copolymerization and characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. Polymer gel electrolytes based on the copolymers complexed with liquid lithium electrolytes (dimethyl carbonate (DMC) : diethyl carbonate (DEC) : ethylene carbonate (EC) = 1 : 1 : 1 (W/W/W), LiPF6 1.0M) were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and impedance spectroscopy. A maximum ion conductivity of 4.27 10,4 S/cm at 25oC was found for the polymer electrolyte based on (PEG2000- b -GMA)- co -MMA with long EO groups. Moreover, the effect of temperature on conductivity of the amphiphilic polymer electrolytes obeys the Arrhenius equation. The good room temperature conductivity of the polymer electrolytes is proposed to relate to the enhancement in the amorphous domain of the copolymers due to their amphiphilic conetwork structure. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Fabrication of aragonite rosette superstructure through the weak interaction between nonionic polymers and Ca2+

Shuxian Shi
Abstract The controlled formation of aragonite by simple method under ambient condition is a big challenge for biomaterial scientists. In this article, we took poly (N -vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as an example to investigate the influence of water-soluble nonionic polymers on the polymorphs of CaCO3 via CO2 diffusion method under ambient pressure and temperature, and found that the existence of PVP molecules favors the formation of aragonite with rosette superstructure. A possible mechanism is proposed that nonionic polymers can be doped into amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles and further participate in the transformation process from ACC to aragonite and then promotes the formation of rosette superstructure through parallel aggregation by crosslinking the aragonite nuclei. The experiments of CaCO3 crystallization in presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) confirmed the mechanism. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

The influence of electrospinning parameters on the structural morphology and diameter of electrospun nanofibers

Valencia Jacobs
Abstract Electrospinning is a simple method of producing nanofibers by introducing electric field into the polymer solutions. We report an experimental investigation on the influence of processing parameters and solution properties on the structural morphology and average fiber diameter of electrospun poly ethylene oxide (PEO) polymer solution. Experimental trials have been conducted to investigate the effect of solution parameters, such as concentration, molecular weight, addition of polyelectrolyte in PEO solution, solvent effect, as well as governing parameter, such as applied voltage. The concentration of the aqueous PEO solution has shown noteworthy influence on the fiber diameter and structural morphology of electrospun nanofibers. At lower concentrations of PEO polymer solution, the fibers showed irregular morphology with large variations in fiber diameter, whereas at higher concentrations, the nanofibers with regular morphology and on average uniform fiber diameter were obtained. We find that the addition of polyelectrolytes, such as sodium salt of Poly acrylic acid (PAA) and Poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH), increases the conductivity of PEO solutions and thereby decreases the bead formation in electrospun nanofibers. The increase in applied voltage has been found to affect the structural morphology of nanofiber while the addition of ethanol in PEO solution diminishes the bead defects. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Surface properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-based segmented block copolymers with monodisperse hard segments

D. Husken
Abstract The surface properties of segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments and monodisperse crystallizable tetra-amide segments were studied. The monodisperse crystallizable segments (T6T6T) were based on terephthalate (T) and hexamethylenediamine (6). Due to the crystallinity of T6T6T being high (, 85%), the amount of amorphous T6T6T dissolved in the polyether phase was limited. The length of the PEO segments was varied (between 600 and 4600 g/mol) and effect of extending the PEO segments with terephthalic groups was investigated. Studied was the hydrophilicity of the surface by contact angle measurements and of the bulk copolymers by water absorption measurements The results were compared with data of PEO-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO-PBT) copolymers. For a given hydrophilicity of the bulk copolymer, the surface hydrophilicity decreased in the order PEO-PBT, PEO-T6T6T, and (PEO-T)-T6T6T. The use of short monodisperse hard segments resulted in low contact angles, with a lowest observed value of , 29. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]