Ethylene Biosynthesis (ethylene + biosynthesis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Ethylene Biosynthesis by 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase: A DFT Study

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 34 2006
Arianna Bassan Dr.
Abstract The reaction catalyzed by the plant enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) was investigated by using hybrid density functional theory. ACCO belongs to the non-heme iron(II) enzyme superfamily and carries out the bicarbonate-dependent two-electron oxidation of its substrate ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) concomitant with the reduction of dioxygen and oxidation of a reducing agent probably ascorbate. The reaction gives ethylene, CO2, cyanide and two water molecules. A model including the mononuclear iron complex with ACC in the first coordination sphere was used to study the details of OO bond cleavage and cyclopropane ring opening. Calculations imply that this unusual and complex reaction is triggered by a hydrogen atom abstraction step generating a radical on the amino nitrogen of ACC. Subsequently, cyclopropane ring opening followed by OO bond heterolysis leads to a very reactive iron(IV),oxo intermediate, which decomposes to ethylene and cyanoformate with very low energy barriers. The reaction is assisted by bicarbonate located in the second coordination sphere of the metal. [source]


Fruit load and elevation affect ethylene biosynthesis and action in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during development, maturation and ripening

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 11 2007
VALERIANO DAL CIN
ABSTRACT The influence of internal and external factors such as tree fruit load and elevation on ethylene biosynthesis and action was assessed during apple fruit development and ripening. Ethylene biosynthesis, as well as transcript accumulation of the hormone biosynthetic enzymes (MdACS1 and MdACO1), receptors (MdETR1 and MdERS1) and an element of the transduction pathway (MdCTR1), were evaluated in apples borne by trees with high (HL) and low (LL) fruit load. Orchards were located in two localities differing in elevation and season day degree sum. These parameters significantly affected the date of bloom and commercial harvest, and the length of the fruit developmental cycle. Trees from the low elevation (LE) bloomed and the fruit ripened earlier than those from the high elevation (HE), displaying also a shortened fruit developmental cycle. Dynamics of ethylene evolution was apparently not affected by elevation. The onset of ethylene evolution started 130 days after bloom (DAB) at both elevations. During early ripening, fruits from LL trees produced significantly more ethylene than those from HL trees. Expression analysis of MdACS1, MdACO1 and MdERS1 indicated that the transcript accumulation well correlated with ethylene evolution. MdCTR1 was expressed at constant level throughout fruit growth and development up to 130 DAB, thereafter, the transcript accumulation decreased up to commercial harvest, concurrently with the onset of ethylene evolution. [source]


Calcium requirement for ethylene-dependent responses involving 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in radicle tissues of germinated pea seeds,

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 5 2003
L. PETRUZZELLI
ABSTRACT The Ca2+ requirements of ethylene-dependent responses were investigated in germinating seeds of Pisum sativum L. using 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (Ps-ACO1), ACC synthase (Ps-ACS2) and class I , -1,3-glucanase as molecular markers. Ethylene biosynthesis and responsiveness are localized to the elongation and differentiation zones of the pea radicle. Ethylene treatment induced ectopic root hair formation in the cell elongation zone and promoted root hair elongation growth in the radicles of germinated seeds. Characterized Ca2+ antagonists, including EGTA, lanthanum, verapamil, ruthenium red, W-7, lithium and neomycin, were used to test for the involvement of the apoplastic and the intracellular Ca2+ -pool, the Ca2+/calmodulin complex and the phoshoinositide (PI) cycle in the ethylene responses. Ca2+ release from internal pools, but no appreciabe apoplastic Ca2+, is involved in the transcriptional induction by ethylene of Ps-ACO1 and in ectopic root hair formation in the radicle elongation zone of germinated pea seeds. Furthermore, the Ca2+/calmodulin complex and the PI cycle seem to be involved in these ethylene responses. In contrast, both the intracellular and the apoplastic Ca2+ -pools are required for the negative and positive ethylene responses to the gene expression of PS-ACS2 and class I , -1,3-glucanase, respectively; and, apoplastic Ca2+ also promotes root hair elongation growth. Tissues from adult plants and germinating seeds exhibit temporal and spatial differences in the signal/response coupling by Ca2+ of ethylene-regulated processes. [source]


Elicitation of Ethylene by Verticillium albo-atrum Phytotoxins in Potato

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
B. Mansoori
Abstract Petioles from a susceptible cultivar (Désirče) of Solanum tuberosum treated with a low-molecular mass toxin, separated from culture fluid of Verticillium albo-atrum, produced greater quantities of ethylene than did petioles of a tolerant cultivar (Home Guard). Pretreatment of leaflets from cv. Désirče with silver thiosulphite, which inhibits perception of ethylene, prevented the chlorosis and necrosis normally associated with exposure to the toxin. Similarly, application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) an inhibitor of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, to petioles of cv. Désirče reduced toxin-induced ethylene synthesis and symptom development. The data indicate that, in part, Verticillium -toxin acts through induction of ethylene biosynthesis in the host tissues, and different responses of susceptible and tolerant potato cultivars to V. albo-atrum are the result of differential production of ethylene. [source]


Conditioning period, CO2 and GR24 influence ethylene biosynthesis and germination of Striga hermonthica

PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 1 2000
Abdel Gabbar T. Babiker
Germination of witchweed (Striga hermonthica [Del.] Benth), an important root parasite on poaceous crops, requires pretreatment ,conditioning' in a warm moist environment and a subsequent exposure to a stimulant. The roles of conditioning period, CO2 and a strigol analogue (GR24) in ethylene biosynthesis and germination of the parasite were investigated. Conditioning increased the seeds' capacity to oxidize exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Exogenous CO2 increased the seeds capacity to oxidize ACC by 3- to 9-fold. A combination of GR24 and ACC increased ethylene production by more than 3-fold in comparison with the rates obtained using these compounds separately. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) completely inhibited ethylene induction by GR24, but not by ACC. A GR24 treatment, made subsequent to conditioning in GR24, did not induce ethylene. However, seeds conditioned in GR24 and then given 1 mM ACC produced 293 nl l,1 ethylene. ACC oxidase (ACCO) activity in crude extracts was increased by conditioning and CO2. The enzyme displayed an absolute requirement for ascorbate. Absence of exogenous Fe2+ reduced enzyme activity only by 14%. GR24 applied during conditioning reduced germination in response to a subsequent GR24 treatment. ACC was, invariably, less effective in inducing S. hermonthica germination than GR24 even at concentrations which induce more ethylene than concurrent GR24 treatments. The results are consistent with a model in which conditioning removes a restriction on the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in S. hermonthica seeds. GR24 modulates the key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. The stimulant suppresses ethylene biosynthesis in unconditioned seeds and promotes it in conditioned ones. Germination of S. hermonthica results from the joint action of GR24 and the ethylene it induces. [source]


Fruit load and elevation affect ethylene biosynthesis and action in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during development, maturation and ripening

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 11 2007
VALERIANO DAL CIN
ABSTRACT The influence of internal and external factors such as tree fruit load and elevation on ethylene biosynthesis and action was assessed during apple fruit development and ripening. Ethylene biosynthesis, as well as transcript accumulation of the hormone biosynthetic enzymes (MdACS1 and MdACO1), receptors (MdETR1 and MdERS1) and an element of the transduction pathway (MdCTR1), were evaluated in apples borne by trees with high (HL) and low (LL) fruit load. Orchards were located in two localities differing in elevation and season day degree sum. These parameters significantly affected the date of bloom and commercial harvest, and the length of the fruit developmental cycle. Trees from the low elevation (LE) bloomed and the fruit ripened earlier than those from the high elevation (HE), displaying also a shortened fruit developmental cycle. Dynamics of ethylene evolution was apparently not affected by elevation. The onset of ethylene evolution started 130 days after bloom (DAB) at both elevations. During early ripening, fruits from LL trees produced significantly more ethylene than those from HL trees. Expression analysis of MdACS1, MdACO1 and MdERS1 indicated that the transcript accumulation well correlated with ethylene evolution. MdCTR1 was expressed at constant level throughout fruit growth and development up to 130 DAB, thereafter, the transcript accumulation decreased up to commercial harvest, concurrently with the onset of ethylene evolution. [source]


Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 6 2002
K. M. Ramonell
Abstract An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol,1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. ,Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol,1) with 0·35 mmol mol,1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol,1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis. [source]


Proteome, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid changes in cucumber plants inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 21 2007
Guillem Segarra
Abstract Trichoderma spp. is one of the most commonly used biological control agents against plant pathogens. This fungus produces changes in plant metabolism, thus increasing growth and enhancing resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, its modes of action remain to be defined. In the first hours of interaction between cucumber plant roots and Trichoderma asperellum strain T34, salicylic and jasmonic acid levels and typical antipathogenic peroxidase activity increase in the cotyledons to different degrees depending on the applied concentration of the fungi. The use of 2-DE protein profiling and MS analysis allowed us to identify 28 proteins whose expression was affected in cotyledons after cucumber root colonization by Trichoderma applied at high concentrations: 17 were found to be up-regulated while 11 were down-regulated. Proteins involved in ROS scavenging, stress response, isoprenoid and ethylene biosynthesis, and in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and carbohydrate metabolism were differentially regulated by Trichoderma. The proteome changes found in this study help to give an understanding of how Trichoderma -treated plants become more resistant to pathogen attacks through the changes in expression of a set of defence-oriented proteins which can directly protect the plant or switch the metabolism to a defensive, nonassimilatory state. [source]


Proteomic analysis of core breakdown disorder in Conference pears (Pyrus communis L.)

PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 12 2007
Romina Pedreschi
Abstract 2-DE was applied to study core breakdown disorder in controlled atmosphere stored 'Conference' pears. This physiological disorder is characterized by internal browning of the fruit tissue and the development of cavities. Suitable protein phenol extraction/ammonium acetate-methanol precipitation and 2-DE protocols for a wide pH range were established for pear tissue. The protein expression profiles of healthy, sound (intact tissue of pears with core breakdown) and brown tissue were analyzed with the univariate non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis. Both statistical approaches revealed interesting differentially expressed proteins between healthy and disordered pears. LC-ESI-MS/MS identification of differentially expressed proteins between healthy and sound tissue revealed their participation in the energy metabolism, the antioxidant system and ethylene biosynthesis. Up-regulated characteristic proteins in brown tissue were mainly involved in energy metabolism and defense mechanisms. Proteomics coupled to univariate and multivariate statistical techniques seems to be an efficient approach to get a better insight into the different mechanisms and pathways leading to the core breakdown disorder. [source]


The immediate-early ethylene response gene OsARD1 encodes an acireductone dioxygenase involved in recycling of the ethylene precursor S -adenosylmethionine

THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
Margret Sauter
Summary Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is formed as a by-product of ethylene biosynthesis from S -adenosyl- l -methionine (AdoMet). The methionine cycle regenerates AdoMet from MTA. In two independent differential screens for submergence-induced genes and for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced genes from deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) we identified an acireductone dioxygenase (ARD). OsARD1 is a metal-binding protein that belongs to the cupin superfamily. Acireductone dioxygenases are unique proteins that can acquire two different activities depending on the metal ion bound. Ectopically expressed apo-OsARD1 preferentially binds Fe2+ and reconstituted Fe-OsARD1 catalyzed the formation of 2-keto-pentanoate and formate from the model substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-ketopent-1-ene and dioxygen, indicating that OsARD1 is capable of catalyzing the penultimate step in the methionine cycle. Two highly homologous ARD genes were identified in rice. OsARD1 mRNA levels showed a rapid, early and transient increase upon submergence and after treatment with ethylene-releasing compounds. The second gene from rice, OsARD2, is constitutively expressed. Accumulation of OsARD1 transcript was observed in the same internodal tissues, i.e. the meristem and elongation zone, which were previously shown to synthesize ethylene. OsARD1 transcripts accumulated in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, indicating that OsARD1 is a primary ethylene response gene. Promoter analysis suggests that immediate-early regulation of OsARD1 by ethylene may involve an EIN3-like transcription factor. OsARD1 is induced by low levels of ethylene. We propose that early feedback activation of the methionine cycle by low levels of ethylene ensures the high and continuous rates of ethylene synthesis required for long-term ethylene-mediated submergence adaptation without depleting the tissue of AdoMet. [source]