Ethyl Acetate Extract (ethyl + acetate_extract)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Antioxidant activities of aged oat vinegar in vitro and in mouse serum and liver

Ju Qiu
Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study focused on the antioxidant activities of aged oat (Avena sativa L.) vinegar. The antioxidant activities of oat and vinegar have been proved by many previous research studies. It should be noted that oat vinegar, as a novel seasoning, has antioxidant activity. RESULTS: Oat vinegar showed stronger radical scavenging activities, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation than rice vinegar. The concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids in oat vinegar were higher than those in rice vinegar. Ethyl acetate extract of oat vinegar possessed the most varieties of phenolic acids and showed the strongest antioxidant activity compared with ethanol and water extracts. At suitable doses of oat vinegar, the malondialdehyde value was decreased, activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were promoted, and hepatic damage induced by 60Co ,-irradiation was ameliorated in aging mice. CONCLUSION: Oat vinegar manifested antioxidant activity which was stronger than that of rice vinegar in vitro and the same as that of vitamin E in vivo. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Chaetomium brasiliense

Guo-You Li
Abstract Two new depsidones, mollicellins I and J (1 and 2, resp.), and a new chromone, 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylmethyleugenin (3), along with six known compounds, 4,9, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a solid-state fermented culture of Chaetomium brasiliense. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis. Mollicellins I and H (5) exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against human breast cancer (Bre04), human lung (Lu04), and human neuroma (N04) cell lines with GI50 values between 2.5,8.6,,g/ml. [source]

Isolation and purification of macrocyclic components from Penicillium fermentation broth by high-speed counter-current chromatography

Xiang Gao
Abstract In this paper, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), assisted with ESI-MS, was first successfully applied to the preparative separation of three macrolide antibiotics, brefeldin A (12.6,mg, 99.0%), 7,- O -formylbrefeldin A (6.5,mg, 95.0%) and 7,- O -acetylbrefeldin A (5.0,mg, 92.3%) from the crude extract of the microbe Penicillium SHZK-15. Considering the chemical nature and partition coefficient (K) values of the three target compounds, a two-step HSCCC isolation protocol was developed in order to obtain products with high purity. In the two-step method, the crude ethyl acetate extract was first fractionated and resulted in two peak fractions by HSCCC using solvent system n -hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (HEMWat) (3:7:5:5,v/v/v/v), then purified using solvent systems HEMWat (3:5:3:5,v/v/v/v) and HEMWat (7:3:5:5,v/v/v/v) for each fraction. The purities and structures of the isolated compounds were determined by HPLC, X-ray crystallography, ESI-MS and NMR. The results demonstrated that HSCCC is a fast and efficient technique for systematic isolation of bioactive compounds from the microbes. [source]

DOSY NMR applied to analysis of flavonoid glycosides from Bidens sulphurea

Edilene Delphino Rodrigues
Abstract 2D DOSY 1H NMR has proved to be a useful technique in the identification of the molecular skeleton of the four major compounds of ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of Bidens sulphurea (Asteraceae). The combination of this technique with HPLC, mass spectrometry and other NMR techniques enabled the identification of four flavonoid glycosides: quercetin-3- O -,- D -galactopyranoside, quercetin-3- O -,- D -glycopyranoside, quercetin-3- O -,- L -arabinofuranoside and quercetin-3- O -,- D -rhamnopyranoside. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Calycopterin, an immunoinhibitory compound from the extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi

Najme Faham
Abstract Medicinal plants have been widely investigated for their various effects. Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss (Labiatae) is used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. The inhibitory effect of D. kotschyi on the lectin-induced cellular immune response has been demonstrated previously. In this study, mitogen-treated lymphocytes were exposed to the extract of D. kotschyi and analysed for the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis. The data obtained indicated a dose-dependent increase of cells in the sub-G1 phase of cell cycle. Study of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation showed a typical DNA laddering in agarose gels. A bioactivity-guided fractionation assay to find the active components responsible for the inhibitory effect of D. kotschyi on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation led to the isolation of calycopterin from the ethyl acetate extract of D. kotschyi. Its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and UV spectra. Calycopterin inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.7 g/mL. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that D. kotschyi extract has the capacity to induce apoptosis in the lymphocytes and that isolated calycopterin is responsible for the inhibitory effect of D. kotschyi on lymphocyte proliferation. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cyclooxygenase inhibitory flavonoids from the stem bark of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.

C. Selvam
Abstract The ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Semecarpus anacardium showing in vivo anti-in,ammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay was investigated in order to identify its active compounds. Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of S.anacardium afforded 3,4,2,,4,-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein) and 7,3,,4,-trihydroxy,avone. Evaluation of COX-1 inhibitory activity of 3,4,2,,4,-tetrahydroxychalcone and 7,3,,4,-trihydroxy,avone provided the IC50 values of 28.4 and 36.7 M respectively. Further investigation of these compounds for COX-2 inhibitory activity revealed moderate potency towards this enzyme. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Characterization of tanshinones with quinone reductase induction activity from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

Zhongjun Ma
Quinone reductase (QR) induction is a reliable biomarker of phase II enzyme induction. In this study, glutathione (GSH) was employed and a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was introduced to reveal the chemical constituents with QR activity from the ethyl acetate extract of roots Salvia miltiorrhiza (,Danshen') and nine tanshinones (9, 13, 17-19, 21, 24,26), which could conjugate with GSH, were characterized by LC/MS/MS and considered to have QR activities. Then, thirteen tanshinones, including six compounds (17, 18, 21, 24,26) of the above nine tanshinones, were isolated to conduct QR induction evaluation, and it was found that miltirone and its derivatives (18, 20, 24, 26) exhibited significant activities. The GSH conjugate abilities of the isolated tanshinones were also examined; this showed that compounds 18, 20, 24 and 26 had good conjugating abilities with GSH. Compared with the in vitro bioactivity screening results, this proved that conjugate ability is related with QR activity, so an LC/MS/MS method can be applied to find more active compounds. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of danshen extract on pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers

Furong Qiu
What is already known about this subject ,,Danshen extract is widely used for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease and other diseases of senility in Asia. ,,Danshen extract and theophylline may be prescribed together to treat patients with asthma. ,,In human, theophylline with low therapeutic index is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. ,,In vitro findings have shown that human CYP1A2 is inhibited by the ethyl acetate extract of danshen and danshen pharmaceutical product. ,,There may be drug interactions between danshen extract and theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate). What this study adds ,,This study concerned drug interactions between danshen extract and theophylline in Chinese volunteers. ,,Long-term oral intake of danshen extract does not change the basic pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline. ,,Dose adjustment of theophylline thus may not be necessary in patients receiving concomitant therapy with danshen extract. Aims To examine the potential effect of danshen extract on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Methods In a sequential cross-over study with two phases, 12 volunteers took 100 mg theophylline on day 1 and day 15. From day 2 to day 15, volunteers received danshen extract tablets three times daily, four tablets each time for 14 days. On day 15, they received four danshen extract tablets with 100 mg theophylline. Plasma concentrations of theophylline were measured on days 1 and 15 periodically for 24 h. Results The 90% confidence interval of Cmax, t1/2 and CL/F of theophylline with 14-day danshen extract tablets vs. without comedication were (101.42, 121.36) (84.57, 106.72) and (88.82, 105.72), respectively. The time to peak plasma theophylline concentration was unchanged by danshen (P > 0.05). The pharmacokinetics parameter of theophylline was unaffected by danshen extract. Conclusions Danshen extract does not influence the metabolism of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Dose adjustment of theophylline thus may not be necessary in patients receiving concurrent therapy with danshen extract tablets. [source]

Beneficial effect of laserpitin, a coumarin compound from Angelica keiskei, on lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

Hiroshi Ogawa
Summary 1.,Recently, we found that 4-hydroxyderricin, one of the major chalcones in Angelica keiskei extract (an ethyl acetate extract from the yellow liquid of stems), suppressed increases in systolic blood pressure and reduced both serum very low-density lipoprotein levels and liver triglyceride content in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). In the present study, we have isolated laserpitin, a characteristic coumarin, from the A. keiskei extract and examined the effect of dietary laserpitin on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in SHRSP. 2.,Six-week-old male SHRSP were fed diets containing 0.1% laserpitin for 7 weeks with free access to the diet and water. Bodyweight gain was reduced by dietary laserpitin after 4 weeks through to 7 weeks without any significant change in daily food intake. Serum total cholesterol, phospholipid and apolipoprotein (apo) E levels were significantly increased, which was due to significant increases in cholesterol, phospholipid and apoE contents in the low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL, respectively) fractions. These results suggest that dietary laserpitin increases serum apoE-HDL levels. 3.,In the liver, significant decreases in relative liver weight and triglyceride content were found after treatment with laserpitin for 7 weeks. 4.,An investigation of hepatic mRNA expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism indicated that a significant decrease in hepatic triglyceride lipase may be responsible for the increase in serum HDL levels and also indicated that a marked decrease in adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 may be responsible, at least in part, for the decrease in hepatic triglyceride content. 5.,In conclusion, dietary laserpitin produces increases in serum HDL levels, especially apoE-HDL, and decreases in the hepatic triglyceride content in SHRSP. [source]

Effects of dietary Angelica keiskei on lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

Hiroshi Ogawa
Summary 1.,The effect of dietary Angelica keiskei on lipid metabolism was examined in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2.,Six-week-old male SHRSP were fed diets containing 0.2% A. keiskei extract (ethyl acetate extract from the yellow liquid of stems) for 6 weeks with free access to the diet and water. 3.,Elevation of systolic blood pressure tended to be suppressed on and after 2 weeks; however, this effect was not statistically significant. 4.,Serum levels of cholesterol and phospholipid in SHRSP were significantly elevated after treatment with A. keiskei extract and this effect was accompanied by significant increases in serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoE concentrations. These changes in the serum were due to increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing ApoA-I and ApoE. 5.,In the liver, significant decreases in relative weight and triglyceride content were observed in SHRSP after treatment with A. keiskei extract. An investigation of mRNA expression of enzymes involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism indicated a decreased level of hepatic Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase mRNA expression. 6.,In conclusion, dietary A. keiskei produces elevation of serum HDL levels and a reduction of liver triglyceride levels in SHRSP. [source]

In-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity of different extracts of the leaves of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp in the rat

D. Rajlakshmi
ABSTRACT The in-vitro antioxidant activities of different concentrations of the water, alcoholic, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the dried leaves of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp, and in-vivo antioxidant activity of the water extract was studied in experimental rat models. The results obtained from in-vitro lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 -ascorbate in rat liver homogenate showed a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation by different extracts of C. colebrookianum leaf. Water extracts at concentrations (w/v) of 1:30, 1:50, 1:200 and 1:1000 showed the strongest inhibitory activity over the other organic extracts, suggesting maximum antioxidant effect. Chronic feeding of the water extract to Wistar albino rats (both sexes, 150,200g) in 1 or 2g kg,1/day doses for 14 days significantly increased the ferric reducing ability of plasma by 19% and 40% on the seventh day, and by 45% and 57% on the fourteenth day of treatment, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and some cellular antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) were estimated in heart, liver and kidney. There was a significant reduction in hepatic and renal TBARS with both the doses, without any change in myocardial TBARS. There was no change in the level of antioxidants in heart, liver and kidney, except for the hepatic superoxide dismutase. The findings of this study showed that the leaf extract of C. colebrookianum increased the antioxidant capacity of blood and had an inhibitory effect on the basal level of lipid peroxidation of liver and kidney. This lends scientific support to the therapeutic use of the plant leaves, as claimed by the tribal medicine of North-East India. [source]