Ethics Approval (ethics + approval)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Improving food purchasing choices through increased understanding of food labels, using itemized till receipts to measure these changes

P.M. Rigby
Background:, Rising obesity and the associated risks of diabetes and heart disease require changes in diet to bring about healthier eating. To achieve this, people need to understand nutrition and daily requirements but are frequently confused by nutrition information on food labels. The introduction of the Food Standards Agency's ,Traffic Light' and the alternative ,Guideline Daily Amount' systems may help or further confuse the public. A previous study showed that although 63% of study participants read labels, only 25% claimed to understand them, also knowledge of nutrient requirements and functions was low (Rigby, 2004). Ransley et al., (2001) have shown that till receipts can be used to estimate fat and energy intake. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether an intervention designed to improve understanding of nutrition and labels could improve food purchases and whether these changes could be measured from till receipts. Method:, Participants were recruited from the general public (80 female; 23 males) (age <30 years (23), 31,45 years (25), 46,60 years (30), >60 years (22). Subjects were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 78) who were provided with an information booklet and credit card sized nutrition and labelling information to use when shopping, or the control group (n = 25), who received the information after four weeks of normal shopping. The intervention group provided an initial till receipt pre intervention and was then given the nutrition and labelling material. Further till receipts were returned from successive shopping trips over the following 4 weeks. The nine categories of food used for comparison were: fruit and vegetables, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, white cereals, wholegrain cereals, processed foods, full fat and reduced fat items. Ethics approval was obtained from NWW Wales NHS Trust ethics committee. Results:, Each of the nine food categories on till receipts were calculated as a percentage of the total shopping, excluding non-food items. General linear model repeated measures analyses showed differences between study participants' food purchases. For the intervention group, purchases in three of the nine food categories showed significant improvements: increased purchases of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001); reduction in purchases of saturated fats (P < 0.001); and reduction of white cereal purchases (P < 0.050). The control group showed no differences in any category. Discussion:, Although the intervention group did show improvements in most of the other food categories, they were not statistically significant. Positive changes were found in seven of the nine categories, with only one, wholegrain cereals, showing a decrease in purchases rather than an increase. The control group displayed a random pattern over the four till receipts, with eight categories either showing negative change or no change; only one showed a positive change. The disproportionate group sizes may mean that it is not be possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the intervention. Conclusions:, This study demonstrates that positive changes in improving food-purchasing choices, as measured by till receipts, can be made by using educational interventions. Further larger studies using routinely collected supermarket data would enable the study to be replicated on a much larger scale. References, Ransley, J.K., Donnelly, J.K., Khara, T.N., Botham, H., Arnott, H., Greenwood, D.C. & Cade, J.E. (1991) The use of supermarket till receipts to determine the fat and energy intake in a UK population. Public Health Nutr. 4, 1279,1286. Rigby, P. (2004) Effecting change. Understanding nutritional information. Can increased knowledge and understanding in relation to nutritional information bring about a change in eating habits? PhD Thesis WA: Bangor University. [source]

Risk profiles for non-adherence to antipsychotic medications

T. V. MCCANN rmn rgn phd ma ba dipnurs (lond) rnt rcnt
Poor adherence to medications is common in individuals with schizophrenia, and can lead to relapse and re-hospitalization. This paper presents the findings of an Australian study of the factors affecting antipsychotic medication taking in individuals with schizophrenia. The Factors Influencing Neuroleptic Medication Taking Scale was used with a non-probability sample of mental health service users. Ethics approval was obtained from a university and a hospital ethics committee. Data were analysed using spss version 15. Most participants had insight into their illness and were aware of the stigma of mental illness. Around 70% experienced annoying side effects, while nearly half admitted alcohol consumption. About one-fifth admitted they had missed taking medications during the previous week. Significant others played a variable role in medication taking. Over 80% were satisfied with their relationships with health professionals, but were less satisfied with access to these professionals, especially psychiatrists. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, impact of medication side effects, and access to psychiatrists were independent predictors of medication omission. It is argued that medication taking is a complex issue, which needs to be taken into consideration in health professional training and measures to promote adherence. [source]

Mental health professionals' attitudes towards consumer participation in inpatient units

T. V. MCCANN rmn rgn phd ma ba dipnurs (lond) rnt rcnt
Consumer participation has been a major focus in mental health services in recent years, but the attitudes of mental health professionals towards this initiative remain variable. The purpose of this study was to describe mental health professionals' attitudes towards mental health consumer participation in inpatient psychiatric units. The Consumer Participation and Consultant Questionnaire was used with a non-probability sample of 47 mental health professionals from two adult inpatient psychiatric units situated in a large Australian public general hospital. Ethics approval was obtained from a university and a hospital ethics committee. Data were analysed using spss, Version 12. Overall, respondents had favourable attitudes towards consumer participation in management, care and treatment, and mental health planning. They were less supportive about matters that directly or indirectly related to their spheres of responsibility. The type of unit that the respondents worked in was not a factor in their beliefs about consumer participation. Recommendations are made about the development of guidelines for consumer participation in inpatient units, the educational preparation of mental health clinicians, and the need for mental health professionals to reflect on, and discuss their own beliefs and practices about, consumer participation. [source]

Institutional Review Boards and Multisite Studies in Health Services Research: Is There a Better Way?

Jennifer L. Gold
Objective. The following paper examines the issue of whether the current system for ethics review of multisite health services research protocols is adequate, or whether there exist alternative methods that should be considered. Principal Findings. (1) Investigators at different sites in a multisite project often have very different experiences with respect to the requirements and requests of the review board. Other problems include the waste of time and resources spent on document preparation for review boards, and delays in the commencement of research activities. (2) There are several possible reasons why there is variability in ethics review. These include the absence of standardized forms, differences in the background and experiences of board members, the influence of institutional or professional culture, and regional thinking. (3) Given the limited benefits derived from the variability in recommendations of multiple boards and the numerous problems encountered in seeking ethics approval from multiple boards suggest that some sort of reform is in order. Conclusions. The increasing number of multisite, health services research studies calls for a centralized system of ethics review. The local review model is simply not conducive to multisite studies, and jeopardizes the integrity of the research process. Centralized multisite review boards, together with standardized documents and procedure, electronic access to documentation, and training for board members are all possible solutions. Changes to the current system are necessary not only to facilitate the conduct of multisite research, but also to preserve the integrity of the ethics approval process in general. [source]

Multicentre drug trials, ethics approval and death of patients

J. A. Millar
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups

Debbie Kralik PhD RN
Aim., The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. Background., The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; ,Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Discussion., Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public,private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. Conclusion., A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical concerns. Vigilance by researchers is required to ensure that data are viewed within the scope of the enabling ethics approval. [source]

Ethical issues in pro-social advertising: the Australian 2006 White Ribbon Day campaign

Robert John Donovan
The Australian White Ribbon Day 2006 campaign was severely criticized by mental health professionals and those working in the family and domestic violence sector because of depictions of suicide and self-harm in the television advertisement and accompanying promotional materials. The White Ribbon Day (WRD) National Leadership Group (NLG) rejected all requests by concerned groups to not use these campaign materials. They and their apologists claimed that such violent imagery was necessary to attract men's attention and was being misinterpreted as depicting suicide attempts. With preliminary ethics approval we set out to assess reactions to the television advertisement. After 24 interviews, the testing was terminated by the university research ethics officer after two male respondents demonstrated significant distress after viewing the ad. Furthermore, the results by that stage showed that there were perceived messages of suicide in the ad. These results were sent to the WRD NLG with a request to reconsider proceeding with the television advertisement and associated materials. Mental health and domestic violence organizations lodged similar requests. All requests were rejected. The case raises a number of ethical issues for pro-social organizations when dealing with sensitive issues and using execution techniques that may impact negatively on vulnerable audiences. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Suburethral slingplasty evaluation study in North Queensland, Australia: The SUSPEND trial

Yik Nyok LIM
Abstract Objective:, To compare the safety and efficacy of three types of suburethral slings for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence. Methods:, Following ethics approval, 195 (3 65) patients with urodynamic stress incontinence were randomly assigned to undergo suburethral slingplasty with the Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT; Gynecare, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA), Intravaginal Sling (IVS; Tyco Healthcare, Mansfield, MA, USA), or Suprapubic Arc Sling (SPARC; American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA). The patients were blinded to the type of sling implanted. Main outcome measures were:, (1) operative and short-term complications; (2) pre- and postoperative symptomatology; and (3) pre- and postoperative urodynamic findings. Results:, There was a statistically significant increased rate of sling protrusion (13.1% vs. 3.3% and 1.7%; P = 0.04) in the SPARC group when compared to TVT and IVS. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the incidences of other operative complications, patients' main subjective outcomes, satisfaction rates, or postoperative urodynamic findings. The overall objective stress incontinence cure rates were 87.9%, 81.5% and 72.4% for the TVT, IVS, SPARC groups respectively (P = 0.11). Conclusions:, All three slings appear quite successful for the treatment of stress incontinence. The SPARC tapes showed more sling protrusion complications and a trend towards lower objective cure rates; probably as a result of the insertion method used in this study which favoured a loose SPARC sling placement. The authors recommend that the SPARC slings be left tighter than TVT, or for the cough test to be carried out. [source]