Agar Diffusion (agar + diffusion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Agar Diffusion

  • agar diffusion method
  • agar diffusion test

  • Selected Abstracts

    Antagonistic interactions among coral-associated bacteria

    Krystal L. Rypien
    Summary Reef-building corals are comprised of close associations between the coral animal, symbiotic zooxanthellae, and a diversity of associated microbes (including Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi). Together, these comprise the coral holobiont , a paradigm that emphasizes the potential contributions of each component to the overall function and health of the coral. Little is known about the ecology of the coral-associated microbial community and its hypothesized role in coral health. We explored bacteria,bacteria antagonism among 67 bacterial isolates from the scleractinian coral Montastrea annularis at two temperatures using Burkholder agar diffusion assays. A majority of isolates exhibited inhibitory activity (69.6% of isolates at 25°C, 52.2% at 31°C), with members of the ,-proteobacteria (Vibrionales and Alteromonadales) being especially antagonistic. Elevated temperatures generally reduced levels of antagonism, although the effects were complex. Several potential pathogens were observed in the microbial community of apparently healthy corals, and 11.6% of isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi at 25°C. Overall, this study demonstrates that antagonism could be a structuring force in coral-associated microbial communities and may contribute to pathogenesis as well as disease resistance. [source]

    Comparative serum pharmacokinetics of the fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin in dogs after single oral administration

    The pharmacokinetics after oral application of the fluoroquinolones (FQs), enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin were compared in independent crossover studies in Beagle dogs. Commercially available tablet formulations were given at common dosage recommended by the manufacturers which were 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for marbofloxacin, 2.5 mg/kg bw for orbifloxacin and 5.0 mg/kg bw for enrofloxacin and difloxacin. Analysis was performed by an agar diffusion assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. All FQs were rapidly absorbed and achieved average peak serum concentrations of 1.41, 1.11, 1.47 and 1.37 ,g/mL for enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin, respectively. Enrofloxacin was eliminated at a terminal half-life (t½) of 4.1 h, difloxacin at 6.9 h, orbifloxacin at 7.1 h and marbofloxacin at 9.1 h. While the area under the serum concentration,time curve of the 24-h dosing interval (AUC0,24) for marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin were similar (approximately 13 ,g · h/mL), enrofloxacin attained an AUC0,24 of 8.7 and difloxacin of 9.3 ,g · h/mL. Because of its favourable pharmacokinetics combined with excellent in vitro activity, enrofloxacin exhibited superior pharmacodynamic predictors of in vivo antimicrobial activity as Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC0,24/MIC (area under the 24-h serum concentration,time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) compared with other FQs. [source]

    In vitro susceptibility testing in fungi: a global perspective on a variety of methods

    MYCOSES, Issue 1 2010
    Cornelia Lass-Flörl
    Summary Candida and Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. For some drugs, there is a supporting in vitro,in vivo correlation available from studies of clinical efficacy. Both intrinsic and emergent antifungal drug resistance are encountered. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disk diffusion and Etest. Early recognition of infections caused by pathogens that are resistant to one or more antifungals is highly warranted to optimise treatment and patient outcome. [source]

    In vitro susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus species

    MYCOSES, Issue 5 2008
    Cornelia Lass-Flörl
    Summary Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mould infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of Aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility-testing. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disc diffusion and Etest. At present, one of the most widely used assays is the M38-A reference method for filamentous fungi, published by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute and the Etest. Recently, the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility-testing (EUCAST) has charged its Antifungal Susceptibility-testing Subcommittee (AFST-EUCAST) with the preparation of new guidelines for in vitro susceptibility-testing of antifungals against Aspergillus spp. (EUCAST-AFST-ASPERGILLUS) defining breakpoints. This paper reviews the available methods for antifungal susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus spp. as well as the scant data regarding the clinical implications of in vitro testing. [source]

    Hyptis pectinata essential oil: chemical composition and anti- Streptococcus mutans activity

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 6 2008
    PFC Nascimento
    Objectives:, The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti- Streptococcus mutans activity of Hyptis pectinata essential oil, and present its promising potential against oral diseases. Materials and methods:, The essential oil of H. pectinata was obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves and analyzed by GC / MS. The effectiveness of this essential oil regarding the antimicrobial activity against several S. mutans strains was investigated by the agar diffusion and microdilution methods, and chlorohexidine was used as a standard control. Results:, The H. pectinata essential oil exhibited considerable inhibitory effect against either all the clinical isolates obtained from patients' saliva or the ATCC strains tested, with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 200 ,g ml,1. The study also compared the efficiency of the emulsifying agents Tween 20, Tween 80, dimethyl sulfoxide and propylene glycol in H. pectinata essential oil when tested against S. mutans. The data obtained confirmed the better inhibitory effect of the oil when using all tested diluents, although Tween 80 seemed to be more suitable for emulsification. Conclusion:, According to our results, H. pectinata essential oil can be considered a promising alternative to chlorhexidine for the control of oral bacteria-related diseases and hygiene. [source]

    An in vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of some endodontic medicaments and their bases using an agar well diffusion assay

    B Athanassiadis
    ABSTRACT Background:, The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of various endodontic medicaments and their bases against selected organisms using an agar diffusion assay. Methods:, An agar well diffusion assay was used to test the antimicrobial action of some commonly used endodontic medicaments (Ledermix paste, Pulpdent paste, Ultracal paste, and a 50:50 mix of Ledermix and Pulpdent pastes) and their bases. Three bacterial species (E. faecalis, P. micros, P. intermedia) and one yeast (C. albicans) were selected. The diameters of growth inhibition zones and pH were assessed. Results:,P. micros demonstrated the highest level of in vitro resistance. Pulpdent and Ultracal pastes had the highest pH (12.64 and 12.53, respectively). The addition of Pulpdent to Ledermix did not increase the zone sizes significantly. Conclusions:, All the commercial products showed some in vitro antimicrobial activity. Ledermix paste and the 50:50 Ledermix/Pulpdent mixture being the most effective in this model. The known anti-inflammatory/analgesic properties of Ledermix and the results from this agar model suggest that the 50:50 Ledermix/Pulpdent combination would be the preferred medicament for clinical use in symptomatic cases, even though the addition of calcium hydroxide to Ledermix did not appear to be synergistic in terms of enhancing the antimicrobial action. [source]

    Intravenous catheter infections associated with bacteraemia: a 2-year study in a University Hospital

    M. Paragioudaki
    Abstract The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence and aetiology of central and peripheral venous catheter (C/PVC) infections during a 2-year period (1999,2000) and to determine the susceptibility of isolated microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents. Catheter tips were processed using the semiquantitative method and blood cultures were performed with the BacT/Alert automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities were performed by disk agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest, according to NCCLS standards. During the study period, samples from 1039 C/PVC infections were evaluated, yielding 384 (37.0%) positive cultures. Blood cultures were also available from 274 patients, of which 155 (56.6%) yielded the same microorganism as from the catheter. No bloodstream infections were detected in 104 C/PVC-positive cases. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequent isolates, followed by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance to glycopeptides among staphylococci and enterococci was not detected, whereas 60% of Gram-negative bacilli were resistant to ,-lactams. [source]