Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of English

  • african american english
  • american english
  • learning english
  • standard english

  • Terms modified by English

  • english NH
  • english article
  • english as a second language
  • english auctions
  • english channel
  • english civil war
  • english classroom
  • english court
  • english hospital
  • english lake district
  • english language
  • english language article
  • english language learner
  • english language literature
  • english language medical literature
  • english language publication
  • english law
  • english learner
  • english literature
  • english local government
  • english national health service
  • english proficiency
  • english reformation
  • english regions
  • english school
  • english society
  • english speakers
  • english teacher
  • english teaching
  • english translation
  • english version

  • Selected Abstracts




    Michael Rutter
    First page of article [source]


    Romanian Study Team, The English
    First page of article [source]

    Generate and Repair Machine Translation

    Kanlaya Naruedomkul
    We propose Generate and Repair Machine Translation (GRMT), a constraint,based approach to machine translation that focuses on accurate translation output. GRMT performs the translation by generating a Translation Candidate (TC), verifying the syntax and semantics of the TC and repairing the TC when required. GRMT comprises three modules: Analysis Lite Machine Translation (ALMT), Translation Candidate Evaluation (TCE) and Repair and Iterate (RI). The key features of GRMT are simplicity, modularity, extendibility, and multilinguality. An English,Thai translation system has been implemented to illustrate the performance of GRMT. The system has been developed and run under SWI,Prolog 3.2.8. The English and Thai grammars have been developed based on Head,Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) and implemented on the Attribute Logic Engine (ALE). GRMT was tested to generate the translations for a number of sentences/phrases. Examples are provided throughout the article to illustrate how GRMT performs the translation process. [source]

    English,Thai Structure,Based Machine Translation

    Booncharoen Sirinaovakul
    We propose an alternative method of machine,aided translation: Structure,Based Machine Translation (SBMT). SBMT uses language structure matching techniques to reduce complicated grammar rules and provide efficient and feasible translation results. SBMT comprises the following four features: (1) source language input sentence analysis; (2) source language sentence transformation into target language structure; (3) dictionary lookup; and (4) semantic disambiguation or word sense disambiguation (WSD) for correct output selection. SBMT has been designed and a prototype system has been implemented that generates satisfactory translations. [source]

    Accurate automatic visible speech synthesis of arbitrary 3D models based on concatenation of diviseme motion capture data

    Jiyong Ma
    Abstract We present a technique for accurate automatic visible speech synthesis from textual input. When provided with a speech waveform and the text of a spoken sentence, the system produces accurate visible speech synchronized with the audio signal. To develop the system, we collected motion capture data from a speaker's face during production of a set of words containing all diviseme sequences in English. The motion capture points from the speaker's face are retargeted to the vertices of the polygons of a 3D face model. When synthesizing a new utterance, the system locates the required sequence of divisemes, shrinks or expands each diviseme based on the desired phoneme segment durations in the target utterance, then moves the polygons in the regions of the lips and lower face to correspond to the spatial coordinates of the motion capture data. The motion mapping is realized by a key-shape mapping function learned by a set of viseme examples in the source and target faces. A well-posed numerical algorithm estimates the shape blending coefficients. Time warping and motion vector blending at the juncture of two divisemes and the algorithm to search the optimal concatenated visible speech are also developed to provide the final concatenative motion sequence. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Visyllable Based Speech Animation

    Sumedha Kshirsagar
    Visemes are visual counterpart of phonemes. Traditionally, the speech animation of 3D synthetic faces involvesextraction of visemes from input speech followed by the application of co-articulation rules to generate realisticanimation. In this paper, we take a novel approach for speech animation , using visyllables, the visual counterpartof syllables. The approach results into a concatenative visyllable based speech animation system. The key contributionof this paper lies in two main areas. Firstly, we define a set of visyllable units for spoken English along withthe associated phonological rules for valid syllables. Based on these rules, we have implemented a syllabificationalgorithm that allows segmentation of a given phoneme stream into syllables and subsequently visyllables. Secondly,we have recorded the database of visyllables using a facial motion capture system. The recorded visyllableunits are post-processed semi-automatically to ensure continuity at the vowel boundaries of the visyllables. We defineeach visyllable in terms of the Facial Movement Parameters (FMP). The FMPs are obtained as a result of thestatistical analysis of the facial motion capture data. The FMPs allow a compact representation of the visyllables.Further, the FMPs also facilitate the formulation of rules for boundary matching and smoothing after concatenatingthe visyllables units. Ours is the first visyllable based speech animation system. The proposed technique iseasy to implement, effective for real-time as well as non real-time applications and results into realistic speechanimation. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism [source]

    Female Gender and the Risk of Rupture of Congenital Aneurysmal Fistula in Adults

    Salah A.M. Said MD
    ABSTRACT Aims., To delineate the risk factors for rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in adult patients. Methods., We conducted a literature search of the Medline database using Pubmed search interface to identify reports dealing with rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in an adult population. The search included the English and non-English languages between 1963 and 2005. Results., Fourteen adult patients (12 females) with serious and life-threatening complications secondary to aneurysmal fistulas were reported. Mean age was 62.9 years. The ethnic origins of these 14 patients were 9 Asian and 5 Caucasian. Most patients have had no other cardiac malformations. Five patients had a history of hypertension. One patient was asymptomatic. In 13 symptomatic patients, the clinical presentation was cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, syncope, heart failure, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, distal thromboembolic events with infarction, shock, and/or sudden death. Aneurysmal fistulas were identified in 10 patients; of these 6 were of the saccular type. Rupture occurred in 9 patients (8 females and 1 male). Eleven patients were treated surgically with 1 late death. Two male subjects experienced sudden unexpected cardiac death. Conclusion., Rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas occurred more often in females. Identified risk factors for rupture, hemopericardium, tamponade, and death were among others saccular aneurysm, Asian ethnic race, origin of the aneurysmal fistulas from the left coronary artery and a history of hypertension may play a role. In this article, we present a literature review of congenital aneurysmal fistulas associated with or without rupture and a case report of a woman with unruptured aneurysmal fistula. [source]

    Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2003
    P Susitaival
    Occupational skin diseases are among the most frequent work-related diseases in industrialized countries. Good occupational skin disease statistics exist in few countries. Questionnaire studies are needed to get more data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire Group has developed a new questionnaire tool , Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) , for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors. The 2 NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled by using existing questionnaires and experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases, e.g. in a population or workplace. All the questions in the short questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/SHORT) are included in the long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, which contains a pool of questions to be chosen according to research needs and tailored to specific populations. The NOSQ-2002 report includes, in addition to the questionnaires, a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled in English and translated into Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data, which can be compared between studies and countries. [source]


    In contingent valuation studies, failing to accommodate populations with limited language skills might yield biased estimates. In the United States, there are many residents primarily fluent in Spanish. This study uses conditional logit models applied to data from a bilingual (English and Spanish) conjoint choice mail survey to evaluate the effects of language proficiency on estimates of the economic benefits of contaminated site cleanup. Results indicate that language does have significant effects on welfare estimates. The results suggest that mail surveys addressing environmental issues that may affect a linguistically diverse population should be designed at the outset with multiple languages in mind. (JEL Q51, J19) [source]

    Language: Ten things I hate about current English

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1-2 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early modern stereotypes and the rise of English: Jonson, Dryden, Arnold, Eliot

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2006
    Stereotyping is a mode of stigmatisation and polarisation, and so we tend to think of the stereotype as a deadening force which closes down conversation. But we need to appreciate further the extent to which the transmission of stereotypes can facilitate and shape creative cultural response, even if that response is designed to simplify and satirise in the service of an ideological imperative. The stereotype of the Puritan as ignoramus in Ben Jonson's seventeenth-century comedies reappears in, and helps to structure, aesthetic discussions over three centuries, beginning with Dryden's post-Restoration literary criticism. These discussions were central to the generation of a dominant narrative of English literary history, to the development of notions of literary refinement and politeness and to the construction of a literary canon. Incorporated by Matthew Arnold and T. S. Eliot into their versions of literary history - versions which were themselves a response to what Arnold and Eliot perceived as the cultural crises of their own time - early modern dramatic stereotypes became naturalised in university courses and school textbooks. Ultimately, this essay suggests, the transmission of the early modern stereotype of the Puritan was bound up with the rise of English as an academic discipline. [source]

    The future of English

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2006
    First page of article [source]

    Arnold Heller and the lymph pump

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2005
    K. Aukland
    Abstract This article reviews studies on lymph propulsion in the lymph vessels by active contraction of the vessels, first described by Arnold Heller in 1869 in German language, and here translated into English. His observations were first confirmed by Beatrice Carrier (1926) and Howard Flory et al. (1927), and several groups were active up to World war II. Few publications appeared in the period 1940--1960, followed by increasing activity and development of new experimental techniques for use both in various experimental animals and in humans. Recently it has been shown that passive lymph flow may add to active propulsion. Both mechanisms depend on lymph formation, i.e. the uptake of interstitial fluid by the initial lymph vessels which is still not well understood. [source]

    A Secondary School Career Education Program for ESL Students

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2001
    June Wyatt-Beynon
    Using Bourdieu's theory of different types of capital and social "fields," this paper analyzes one curriculum model, the ESL Co-op program, which is designed to meet the needs of immigrant adolescents who are primarily dependent on their first language. The program couples instruction in English as a second language (ESL) with work experience. ESL Co-op is offered in two secondary schools in a suburban Vancouver school district that is the most rapidly growing district in British Columbia. More than 30 percent of the approximately 50,000 students enrolled in the district speak a language other than, or in addition to, English in the home. A collaborative team of university researchers and district curriculum consultants inquired into the program's success in helping recent immigrant students become aware of possible future career and job opportunities and any other aspects of the program's operation deemed salient by the interviewees. We wondered if the folk theory of success embedded in federal, provincial, and district policy discourse, which emphasizes work experience, was in fact setting the stage for educational and occupational success of these young people. Interviews with 44 parents, 43 students, and six staff members from a total of 10 different language backgrounds revealed that staff perceive the program as a unique opportunity for students to gain exposure to Canadian work environments and to develop survival, language, and job-related skills or, in Bourdieu's terms, embodied capital. Students' and parents' overriding concern is that the program precludes the possibility of graduation with the grade-12 diploma (institutional capital) available from the mainstream program. [source]

    Critical Thoughts on Teaching Standard English

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2000
    Barbara L. Speicher
    This article exposes four assumptions that underlie most discussions of Standard English. First, spoken English equates to written English. Substantial evidence demonstrates that this equation is both misleading and false. Second, spoken and written English are equally amenable to standardization. This is also fallacious. We will use Prototype Theory (Rosch et al., 1976) and Standard Ideology (Milroy and Milroy, 1991) to explore how broadly shared notions about standard language have led to this belief. Third, Standard English is the language of the workplace and essential for social mobility. While we do not refute this assumption, we do explore the discrimination that stems from it. Fourth, Standard English is the language of the classroom. This assumption has never been systematically tested in the literature by examining the language that teachers use. Nor is it clear that teachers believe they do or should impose an idealized spoken form on their students. [source]

    An evidence-based assessment of the clinical guidelines for replanted avulsed teeth.

    Part II: prescription of systemic antibiotics
    The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether this is the best approach based on currently-available evidence. The objective of this study was to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to answer the PICO question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is prescribing SAT, (C) compared with not prescribing SAT, (O) associated with an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation? Materials and methods:, A literature search was performed across four internet databases (Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science), for relevant citations (n = 35 702). Limiting citations to those in English and removing duplicates produced a set of titles (n = 14 742) that were sieved according to evidence-based dentistry principles. Relevant titles were selected for abstract assessment (n = 782), identifying papers for examination (n = 74). Inclusion criteria were applied and three papers (326 total teeth) met the final criteria for meta-analysis. Results:, Meta-analyses found no statistically significant difference between prescribing or not prescribing antibiotics for acceptable periodontal healing without progressive root resorption (common odds ratio = 0.90, SE = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals = 0.51,1.58). Conclusion:, The evidence for an association between prescribing SAT and an increased likelihood of acceptable periodontal healing outcome is inconclusive. This investigation of antibiotic use as defined in the clinical guidelines indicates there is inconclusive clinical evidence from studies of replanted avulsed human teeth to either contradict or support the guideline. Pending future research to the contrary, dentists are recommended to follow current guidelines in prescribing SAT when replanting avulsed teeth. [source]

    Trigeminal Trophic Syndrome,Report of Four Cases and Review of the Literature

    Parrish Sadeghi MD
    Background. Trigeminal trophic syndrome is a unilateral, frequently crescent-shaped neurotrophic ulceration of the face occurring after injury to the trigeminal nerve. The appearance of the ulcers resembles other disease entities such as granulomatous disease, neoplasm, vasculitis, infection, and factitial dermatitis. Objectives. The objectives of this study are to increase awareness of this disorder and to emphasize the importance of eliciting a thorough neurologic history when evaluating facial ulcerations. Methods. Four cases are reported and, using MEDLINE, the English and non-English literature from 1982 to 2002 is reviewed. Results. Including this report, there have been 60 cases of trigeminal trophic syndrome reported from 1982 to 2002. The age at presentation ranged from 14 months to 93 years. Time of onset from injury to the trigeminal ganglion or its branches and the development of the ulcers ranged from 2 weeks to 30 years. One-third of the patients had undergone trigeminal nerve ablation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and another third had a history of stroke. Other causes included craniotomy, head trauma, herpes infection. Conclusion. The majority of cases of trigeminal trophic syndrome are associated with a history of stroke or trigeminal nerve ablation. Successful surgical outcome can be achieved if the underlying neurologic pathology is addressed before the reconstructive procedure. [source]

    The first steps in word learning are easier when the shoes fit: comparing monolingual and bilingual infants

    Karen Mattock
    English, French, and bilingual English-French 17-month-old infants were compared for their performance on a word learning task using the Switch task. Object names presented a /b/ vs. /g/ contrast that is phonemic in both English and French, and auditory strings comprised English and French pronunciations by an adult bilingual. Infants were habituated to two novel objects labeled ,bowce' or ,gowce' and were then presented with a switch trial where a familiar word and familiar object were paired in a novel combination, and a same trial with a familiar word,object pairing. Bilingual infants looked significantly longer to switch vs. same trials, but English and French monolinguals did not, suggesting that bilingual infants can learn word,object associations when the phonetic conditions favor their input. Monolingual infants likely failed because the bilingual mode of presentation increased phonetic variability and did not match their real-world input. Experiment 2 tested this hypothesis by presenting monolingual infants with nonce word tokens restricted to native language pronunciations. Monolinguals succeeded in this case. Experiment 3 revealed that the presence of unfamiliar pronunciations in Experiment 2, rather than a reduction in overall phonetic variability was the key factor to success, as French infants failed when tested with English pronunciations of the nonce words. Thus phonetic variability impacts how infants perform in the switch task in ways that contribute to differences in monolingual and bilingual performance. Moreover, both monolinguals and bilinguals are developing adaptive speech processing skills that are specific to the language(s) they are learning. [source]

    Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children

    Stephanie M. Carlson
    Advanced inhibitory control skills have been found in bilingual speakers as compared to monolingual controls (Bialystok, 1999). We examined whether this effect is generalized to an unstudied language group (Spanish-English bilingual) and multiple measures of executive function by administering a battery of tasks to 50 kindergarten children drawn from three language groups: native bilinguals, monolinguals (English), and English speakers enrolled in second-language immersion kindergarten. Despite having significantly lower verbal scores and parent education/income level, Spanish-English bilingual children's raw scores did not differ from their peers. After statistically controlling for these factors and age, native bilingual children performed significantly better on the executive function battery than both other groups. Importantly, the relative advantage was significant for tasks that appear to call for managing conflicting attentional demands (Conflict tasks); there was no advantage on impulse-control (Delay tasks). These results advance our understanding of both the generalizability and specificity of the compensatory effects of bilingual experience for children's cognitive development. [source]

    The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly

    Elena Nicoladis
    Type and token frequency have been thought to be important in the acquisition of past tense morphology, particularly in differentiating regular and irregular forms. In this study we tested the role of frequency in two ways: (1) in bilingual children, who typically use and hear either language less often than monolingual children and (2) cross-linguistically: French and English have different patterns of frequency of regular/irregular verbs. Ten French-English bilingual children, 10 French monolingual and 10 English monolingual children between 4 and 6 years watched a cartoon and re-told the story. The results demonstrated that the bilingual children were less accurate than the monolingual children. Their accuracy in both French and English regular and irregular verbs corresponded to frequency in the input language. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that children learn past tense morphemes by analogy with other words in their vocabularies. We propose a developmental sequence based on conservative generalization across a growing set of verbs. [source]

    The language-specific nature of grammatical development: evidence from bilingual language learners

    Virginia A. Marchman
    The fact that early lexical and grammatical acquisition are strongly correlated has been cited as evidence against the view that the language faculty is composed of dissociable and autonomous modules (Bates & Goodman, 1997). However, previous studies have not yet eliminated the possibility that lexical,grammar associations may be attributable to language-general individual differences (e.g. children who are good at learning words are good at learning grammar). Parent report assessments of toddlers who are simultaneously learning English and Spanish (n = 113) allow an examination of the specificity of lexical,grammar relationships while holding child factors constant. Within-language vocabulary,grammar associations were stronger than cross-language relationships, even after controlling for age, proportion of language exposure, general language skill and reporter bias. Similar patterns were found based on naturalistic language samples (n = 22), ruling out a methodological artifact. These results are consistent with the view that grammar learning is specifically tied to lexical progress in a given language and provide further support for strong lexical,grammatical continuity early in acquisition. [source]

    Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: what is the evidence?

    MariŽlle J. P. Van Avendonk
    Aim:, To systematically review the literature regarding insulin use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Methods:, A Medline and Embase search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in English between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2008, involving insulin therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The RCTs must comprise at least glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), postprandial plasma glucose and /or fasting blood glucose (FBG)) and hypoglycaemic events as outcome measurements. Results:, The Pubmed search resulted in 943 hits; the Embase search gave 692 hits. A total of 116 RCTs were selected by title or abstract. Eventually 78 trials met the inclusion criteria. The studies were very diverse and of different quality. They comprised all possible insulin regimens with and without combination with oral medication. Continuing metformin and/or sulphonylurea after start of therapy with basal long-acting insulin results in better glycaemic control with less insulin requirements, less weight gain and less hypoglycaemic events. Long-acting insulin analogues in combination with oral medication are associated with similar glycaemic control but fewer hypoglycaemic episodes compared with NPH insulin. Most of the trials demonstrated better glycaemic control with premix insulin therapy than with a long-acting insulin once daily, but premix insulin causes more hypoglycaemic episodes. Analogue premix provides similar HbA1c, but lower postprandial glucose levels compared with human premix, without increase in hypoglycaemic events or weight gain. Drawing conclusions from the limited number of studies concerning basal,bolus regimen seems not possible. Some studies showed that rapid-acting insulin analogues frequently result in a better HbA1c or postprandial glucose without increase of hypoglycaemia than regular human insulin. Conclusion:, A once-daily basal insulin regimen added to oral medication is an ideal starting point. All next steps, from one to two or even more injections per day should be taken very carefully and in thorough deliberation with the patient, who has to comply with such a regimen for many years. [source]

    Platelet hyperactivity in clinical depression and the beneficial effect of antidepressant drug treatment: how strong is the evidence?

    R. Von Kšnel
    Objective:, Platelet hyperactivity is thought to contribute to the increased coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in depression. This study reviewed the evidence for hyperactive platelets and for effects of antidepressant drug treatment on platelet ,stickiness' in clinical depression. Method:, By means of PubMed electronic library search, 34 studies in English were identified (1983,2003) and critically reviewed. Results:, In depression, flow cytometry studies allowing detection of subtle platelet activation states consistently found at least one platelet activation marker to be increased, while the bulk of platelet aggregation studies did not suggest increased platelet aggregability. Platelets seem to be more activated in depressed patients with CAD than in depressed individuals without CAD. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors normalized platelet hyperactivity in four studies. Conclusion:, Data on platelet activity in depression are inconclusive. To resolve this issue and its clinical implications, studies in larger sample sizes controlling for confounders of platelet functioning and prospectively designed are needed. [source]

    Suitability for psychoanalytic psychotherapy: a review

    K. Valbak
    Objective:, To review empirical studies on outpatients' pretherapy suitability for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Method:, A literature search for studies in English was made in the databases MEDLINE, PsychInfo and EM-base. Forty-one studies spanning 20 years were selected for a thorough evaluation. Results:, Seventy-five per cent of the studies concerned brief dynamic psychotherapy. In general, application of single measures of suitability had a modest predictive value with correlations in the range of 0.17,0.73. There was no consistent difference between various formats of therapies. Most promising variables with the highest correlations with good outcome were: ,good quality of object relations', ,psychological mindedness' and ,motivation for change'. Some clinical guidelines can be drawn from quantitative research to provide the therapist with best method and format. Conclusion:, The importance of psychological variables known from the development of the brief dynamic therapies and earlier research was confirmed. Most correlations were modest and single factors could not be identified. Multivariate designs that combine different methods and formats with patient characteristics seem most promising in future predictor-outcome research. [source]

    Understanding and beliefs of diabetes in the UK Bangladeshi population

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
    S. M. Choudhury
    Abstract Aims, To examine the understanding and beliefs of people with diabetes from the Bangladeshi community living in the UK. Methods, Structured interviews were carried out with 14 people invited to a peer educational programme. All interviews were on a one-to-one basis and were in Sylheti or in English. Interviews were transcribed and analysed by two independent researchers. Results, The majority of participants did not know what caused diabetes. Knowledge of the management of diabetes was linked to controlling sugar intake and a number of participants reported eating bitter foods such as bitter gourd to control their diabetes. There was little access to information as many participants did not speak English and did not have a Bengali-speaking doctor. The majority of participants felt that education classes should teach them what the doctor thought was important and that these classes would best be advertised by word of mouth. Therefore, participants were quite passive about their own self management and relied very strongly on the doctor's views and recommendations. Conclusions, Findings from this study can be used to help health professionals working with Bangladeshi people. There is a need for improved information for Bangladeshi people and much of this information might need to come from health professionals. In addition, there is a need for increased awareness by health professionals of practices used by Bangladeshi people, such as eating bitter gourd (which may enhance the effects of rosiglitazone), and the influence these practices could have on the individual's diabetes management. [source]

    Reporting of diabetes on death certificates using data from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2005
    M. J. Thomason
    Abstract Aims To study the effect of age at death, sex, ethnic group, date of death, underlying cause of death and social class on the frequency of reporting diabetes on death certificates in known cases of diabetes. Methods Data were extracted from certificates recording 981 deaths which occurred between 1985 and 1999 in people aged 45 years or more who participated in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, to which 23 English, Scottish and Northern Ireland centres contributed. Diabetes (9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases; ICD-9 250) entered on parts 1A,1C or 2A,2C of the death certificate was considered as reporting diabetes. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine independent factors associated with the reporting of diabetes. Results Diabetes was reported on 42% (419/981) of all death certificates and on 46% (249/546) of those with underlying cardiovascular disease causes. Reporting of diabetes was independently associated on all death certificates with per year of age increase (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.001,1.04, P = 0.037), underlying cause of death (non-cardiovascular causes OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.59,0.98, P = 0.035) and social class (classes I,II OR 1.00; class III OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.96,1.89, P = 0.084, classes IV,V OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.05,2.10, P = 0.027). Stratification by age, sex, and underlying cause of death also revealed significant differences in the frequency of reporting diabetes over time. Conclusions The rate of reporting of diabetes on cardiovascular disease death certificates remains poor. This may indicate a lack of awareness of the importance of diabetes as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. [source]

    A pilot randomized trial in primary care to investigate and improve knowledge, awareness and self-management among South Asians with diabetes in Manchester

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2003
    A. Vyas
    Abstract Aims To investigate whether a secondary,primary care partnership education package could improve understanding of diabetes care among South Asians. Methods In a pilot randomized controlled trial, in the setting of eight general practices randomized to intervention or control, patients were invited to four or more rotating visits per year by one of a diabetes specialist nurse, dietician or chiropodist working with general practice staff. Participants were from lists of South Asian patients with known Type 2 diabetes in each (general) practice. Results Patients and practice scores at baseline and 1-year follow-up, from an interview using a questionnaire on knowledge, awareness and self-management of diabetes. Responses were developed into educational packages used during intervention. Of the 411 patients listed at baseline only 211 were traced for interview (refusal only 4%). Mean age was 55.4 years, age of diabetes onset 47.1 years. Fourteen percent were employed and 35% were able to communicate in English fluently. Only 118 could be traced and interviewed at 1 year, although there was no significant difference in demography between those who completed the study and those who did not. Despite a mean of four visits/patient, intervention had no impact on scores for diabetes knowledge, or awareness [score change 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.20, 0.49] or self-management (,0.05, 95% CI ,0.48, 0.39) between baseline and 1 year. Conclusions This form of secondary/primary care support did not transfer information effectively, and we suspect similar problems would arise in other similar communities. Different methods of clinician/patient information exchange need to be developed for diabetes in this South Asian group. [source]

    The relevance of the glycaemic index to our understanding of dietary carbohydrates

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2000
    G. Frost
    Summary Aims To review the evidence for the importance of glycaemic index of dietary carbohydrate in disease prevention and control Methods A critical appraisal of the literature published in English between and cited on Medline between January 1966 and October 1999. Results Using basic, intervention and epidemiological studies from experienced teams, evidence that the glycaemic index of diet may influence outcome in terms of cardiovascular risk, risk of metabolic syndrome diseases and pregnancy was found Conclusions Consideration of glycaemic indices in making dietary recommendations may be expected to produce additional health benefit. [source]

    The genetics of autism

    M. Lauritsen
    Objective: To review systematically the empirical evidence for the involvement of genetic risk factors in infantile autism. Method: We aimed at including all relevant papers written in English. We conducted a Medline search in September 2000. In addition we searched the reference lists of related papers. Results: A relatively small number of reports including family and twin studies, comorbidity, cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies were reviewed. Conclusion: As well family, twin, cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies supported the importance of genetic risk factors in infantile autism. In most individual cases probably at least a few gene variants simultaneously determine the genetic risk. Presently the most interesting chromosome regions concerning the aetiology of autism are chromosomes 7q31,35, 15q11,13 and 16p13.3 which have been suggested by different lines of genetic research. [source]