England

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of England

  • anglo-saxon england
  • central england
  • century england
  • early modern england
  • east england
  • eastern england
  • eighteenth-century england
  • elizabethan england
  • late medieval england
  • medieval england
  • modern england
  • new england
  • nineteenth-century england
  • north-east england
  • north-west england
  • northern england
  • northern new england
  • setting england
  • seventeenth century england
  • seventeenth-century england
  • south east england
  • south-east england
  • south-west england
  • southeast england
  • southern england
  • southwest england
  • stuart england
  • victorian england
  • west england

  • Terms modified by England

  • england temperature

  • Selected Abstracts


    SHOULD THE BANK OF ENGLAND EXIST?

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2008
    Tim Congdon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    WHY CHINA INDUSTRIALIZED AFTER ENGLAND

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    BARRY S. KAHN
    Although industrialization first occurred in England, it is thought that China, not England, may have been the world leader in technology at the time. Yet, China did not industrialize until 150 yr after England and nearly a century after less advanced European countries. This represents a puzzle because two-sector neoclassical growth models, such as Hansen and Prescott (2002), that accurately match industrialization, require that more technologically advanced countries industrialize at an earlier date. I find that a model that accounts for cross-country heterogeneities in population density accurately predicts the timing of industrialization in China. (JEL F43, N10, N30, O11, O14, O41) [source]


    GOVERNMENT'S CONSTRUCTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PARENTS AND SCHOOLS IN THE UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN IN ENGLAND: 1963,2009

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2010
    David Bridges
    In this essay David Bridges argues that since most families choose to realize their responsibility for the major part of their children's education through state schools, then the way in which the state constructs parents' relation with these schools is one of its primary levers on parenting itself. Bridges then examines the way in which parent-school relations have been defined in England through government and quasi-government interventions over the last forty-five years, tracing these through an awakening interest in the relation between social class and unequal school success in the 1960s, passing through the discourse of accountability in the 1970s, marketization in the 1980s and 1990s, performativity extending from this period into the first decade of the twenty-first century, and, most recently, more direct interventions into parenting itself and the regulation of school relations with parents in the interests of safeguarding children. These have not, however, been entirely discrete policy themes, and the positive and pragmatic employment of the discourse of partnership has run throughout this period, albeit with different points of emphasis on the precise terms of such partnership. [source]


    MUSLIMS, HINDUS, AND SIKHS IN THE NEW RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE OF ENGLAND,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 4 2003
    CERI PEACH
    ABSTRACT. This article examines the dramatic changes brought to English townscapes by Islam, Hinduism, and Sikhism. These "new" religions have arrived with the large-scale immigration and subsequent natural growth of the minority ethnic populations of Great Britain since the 1950s. The article traces the growth and distribution of these populations and religions, as well as the development of their places of worship from front-room prayer rooms to cathedral-scale buildings. It explores the way in which the British planning process, dedicated to preserving the traditional, has engaged with the exotic. [source]


    WEST YORKSHIRE AFRICAN CARIBBEAN COUNCIL OF CHURCHES, ENGLAND

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 354 2000
    Tony Parry
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    GEOLOGICAL MODEL EVALUATION THROUGH WELL TEST SIMULATION: A CASE STUDY FROM THE WYTCH FARM OILFIELD, SOUTHERN ENGLAND

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    S.Y. Zheng
    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of reservoir models using transient pressure data. Braided fluvial sandstones exposed in cliffs in SW England were studied as the surface equivalent of the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone, a reservoir unit at the nearby Wytch Farm oilfield. Three reservoir models were built; each used a different modelling approach ranging in complexity from stochastic pixel-based modelling using commercially available software, to a spreadsheet random number generator. In order to test these models, numerical well test simulations were conducted using sector models extracted from the geological models constructed. The simulation results were then evaluated against the actual well test data in order to find the model which best represented the field geology. Two wells at Wytch Farm field were studied. The results suggested that for one of the sampled wells, the model built using the spreadsheet random number generator gave the best match to the well test data. In the well, the permeability from the test interpretation matched the geometric average permeability. This average is the "correct" upscaled permeability for a random system, and this was consistent with the random nature of the geological model. For the second well investigated, a more complex "channel object" model appeared to fit the dynamic data better. All the models were built with stationary properties. However, the well test data suggested that some parts of the field have different statistical properties and hence show non-stationarity. These differences would have to be built into the model representing the local geology. This study presents a workflow that is not yet considered standard in the oil industry, and the use of dynamic data to evaluate geological models requires further development. The study highlights the fact that the comparison or matching of results from reservoir models and well-test analyses is not always straightforward in that different models may match different wells. The study emphasises the need for integrated analyses of geological and engineering data. The methods and procedures presented are intended to form a feedback loop which can be used to evaluate the representivity of a geological model. [source]


    ROSS AND BUDE FORMATIONS (CARBONIFEROUS, IRELAND AND ENGLAND): REINTERPRETED AS LAKE-SHELF TURBIDITES

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    R. Higgs
    The Ross Formation (Namurian, Ireland) and the near-identical Bude Formation (Westphalian, England), both amply described in the literature, are used by oil companies as deep-sea-fan reservoir analogues. However, the Ross Formation is reinterpreted here, like the Bude Formation in recent publications, to be composed of river-fed turbidites deposited on the wave-influenced northern shelf of a Variscan foreland-basin lake, which also had a southern flysch trough. Key features of these formations are: (i) two classes of thin (, 0.4m) sandstone "event bed" in shale comprising (a) structureless turbidite-like beds, and (b) rippled beds with combined-flow ripples and/or hummocky cross-stratification, neither structure having previously been reported from the Ross Formation; (ii) "trademark" tabular packets (1,10 m) of amalgamated event beds which interfinger laterally with mudstones; (iii) sharp packet bases and tops; (iv) rare sinuous channel fills; and (v) rare thick (1,10m) shale units, each containing a thin (cm-dm) fossiliferous band. The fossil bands are interpreted here as maximum flooding surfaces, reflecting glacioeustatic marine incursions over the lake spill point (sill), forcing the lake to rise and to turn marine or strongly brackish; these bands define Galloway-type depositional sequences 50,100 m thick. During eustatic falls, the lake was forced down to sill level, where it perched and turned fresh (desalination). Intervals containing sandstone packets are attributed to the falling-stage and lowstand systems tracts, each packet representing a higher-order lowstand systems tract. Packets are interpreted as tongue shaped, supplied by river-fed underflows. Packet bases (sharp) represent the storm-wave-graded equilibrium shelf profile, glacioeustatically forced to its lowstand position. On this erosion surface were deposited underflow turbidites produced by floods in the catchment. Occasional catastrophic storms on the lake shaved these turbidites and interfingering fair-weather muds back down to the equilibrium level, leaving behind a subsidence-accommodated increment whose surface was sculpted by storm wind and wave currents, forming hummocks, combined-flow ripples and erosional megaflutes. Whenever a river-fed underflow accompanied one of these storms, the resulting highly erosive combined flow carved a sinuous channel on the wave-sculpted equilibrium surface. Sandstone-shale intervals separating the sandstone packets are interpreted as transgressive- and highstand systems tracts. They contain both turbidites and wave-modified turbidites (rippled beds), deposited on the out-of-equilibrium drowned shelf. A gradual rotation in sole-mark direction with time in both formations is attributed to a reversal of Coriolis deflection as the plate drifted north across the equator, causing underflows (deflected along-shelf geostrophically) to flow first NEwards and then SWwards on an inferred SE-facing shelf. The lack of evidence for emergence in the Ross and Bude Formations, in spite of the great thicknesses (460m and 1,290m, respectively) of these shallow-water deposits, is attributed to regulation of minimum water depth firstly by the lake sill blocking eustatically-forced exposure, and secondly by storm grading, preventing emergence by sedimentation. [source]


    BRONZE AGE BARROWS ON THE HEATHLANDS OF SOUTHERN ENGLAND: CONSTRUCTION, FORMS AND INTERPRETATIONS

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    RICHARD BRADLEY
    Summary The Bronze Age barrows on the downs of southern England have been investigated and discussed for nearly 200 years, but much less attention has been paid to similar structures in the areas of heathland beyond the chalk and river gravels. They were built in a phase of expansion towards the end of the Early Bronze Age, and more were constructed during the Middle Bronze Age. They have a number of distinctive characteristics. This paper considers the interpretation of these monuments and their wider significance in relation to the pattern of settlement. It also discusses the origins of field systems in lowland England. [source]


    HOUSES FOR THE DEAD AND CAIRNS FOR THE LIVING; A RECONSIDERATION OF THE EARLY TO MIDDLE BRONZE AGE TRANSITION IN SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    ANDY M. JONES
    Summary. The Early to Middle Bronze Age transition period has often been interpreted as involving a move to ,rational' food-producing societies. More recently, models have been advanced which have highlighted the presence of ritualized practices within Middle Bronze Age society. However, many of these interpretations have largely been based upon evidence from excavated settlements in central southern England. This paper examines the need to consider the transition period at a more localized level and presents the evidence from south-west England. [source]


    USING AND ABANDONING ROUNDHOUSES: A REINTERPRETATION OF THE EVIDENCE FROM LATE BRONZE AGE,EARLY IRON AGE SOUTHERN ENGLAND

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    LEO WEBLEY
    Summary. It has recently been demonstrated that a number of roundhouses of the early first millennium BC in southern England show a concentration of finds in the southern half of the building. It has thus been argued that this area was used for domestic activities such as food preparation, an idea which has formed the basis for discussion of later prehistoric ,cosmologies'. However, reconsideration of the evidence suggests that this finds patterning does not relate to the everyday use of the buildings, being more likely to derive from a particular set of house abandonment practices. Furthermore, evidence can be identified for the location of domestic activities within contemporary roundhouses that appears to contradict the established model. [source]


    NEW CLADID AND FLEXIBLE CRINOIDS FROM THE MISSISSIPPIAN (TOURNAISIAN, IVORIAN) OF ENGLAND AND WALES

    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    THOMAS W. KAMMER
    Abstract:, The modern study of fossil crinoids began with J. S. Miller who, in 1821, described specimens from southern England, nearby Wales and other regions, and named several common Early Carboniferous genera. Later, in 1950,60, James Wright monographed all known Early Carboniferous crinoids from the British Isles. In spite of such previous scrutiny, we recognize here two new genera among species already described: Glamorganocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Ophiurocrinus gowerensis Wright, 1960) from South Wales and Mendipocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Poteriocrinus latifrons Austin and Austin, 1847) from southern England. These new genera increase the number of advanced cladid genera in the Ivorian Substage of the Tournaisian in western Europe to 18, and the total number of crinoid genera to 36. A review of species assigned to Mespilocrinus has led to the recognition of M. granulifer De Koninck and LeHon, 1854 as a nomen dubium. A new species of Mespilocrinus, M. wrighti sp. nov., is described from the Ivorian of South Wales; this is the most highly derived species of the genus, as based on a phylogenetic analysis including ten species and 13 characters, with Pycnosaccus as the outgroup. A single, well-ordered tree resulted from this analysis. Interpretation of this tree suggests that the centre of evolution for Mespilocrinus was North America, where three species appeared during the Kinderhookian (early Tournaisian), rapidly achieving morphological disparity within the genus. This radiation event was part of the overall explosive radiation of crinoids following the Late Devonian mass extinction event when crinoid diversity was at a global minimum during the Frasnian. Recovery began during the Famennian, followed by an explosive radiation in the Tournaisian. [source]


    CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS, SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND EXCEPTIONAL SKELETAL PRESERVATION IN THE MUCH WENLOCK LIMESTONE FORMATION (SILURIAN) OF DUDLEY, ENGLAND

    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    DAVID C. RAY
    Abstract:, The Much Wenlock Limestone Formation of the Dudley inliers, West Midlands, contains one of the world's richest and most exquisitely preserved Silurian marine biotas. However, for most museum specimens, little is known of their exact provenance and mode of preservation. Detailed comparisons between outcrops and museum collections allow the identification of five faunal-lithological associations and numerous horizons of exceptional skeletal preservation. The associations are interpreted as a series of transient carbonate mid-platform environments extending from below storm wave-base to above fair-weather wave-base. Erosive surfaces, condensed sections, flooding surfaces and the stacking patterns of genetically related bed-sets (parasequences) have allowed the formation to be interpreted as a single third-order sequence stratigraphic cycle of sea-level change. The articulated preservation of taxa such as pelmatozoan echinoderms and trilobites can be attributed to either rapid burial by obrution deposits close to fair-weather wave-base or smothering by storm sequestered muds in slightly deeper-water settings. Such intervals of exceptional preservation are commonly associated with flooding surfaces, presumably reflecting reduced likelihood of reworking once rapid burial had taken place. [source]


    THE CONCEPT OF ,ART' IN HENRICIAN ENGLAND

    ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
    TATIANA C. STRING
    This article suggests revisions to the scholarly orthodoxies concerning the status of art in Early Modern England, particularly during the reign of Henry viii. In the absence of the theoretical discussions of art that existed elsewhere in Europe, one must explore other methodological possibilities. What emerges is a more sophisticated appreciation of art than has been realized. Of particular value as evidence are the royal inventories, which reveal not only the types of art collected, but also the manner of its display. The approaches adopted here, it is argued, have wider applications beyond the study of Tudor England. [source]


    Epidemiology of invasive and other pneumococcal disease in children in England and Wales 1996,1998

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2000
    E Miller
    The results of enhanced national surveillance of pneumococcal disease in children <15y of age in England and Wales are reported for the period 1996,1998. Of the 1985 cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive disease (annual incidence 6.6 per 100000 overall and 39.7 per 100000 in infants <1 y of age), 485 (24%) were meningitis (annual incidence of 1.6 per 100000 overall and 15.7 per 100000 in infants <1 y of age). Fifty-nine deaths in children with invasive disease were identified-3% of the total reports. Thirty-one different serogroups/types were identified, with organisms in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine responsible for 69% of the infections in children <5 y of age; this rose to 77% and 82%, respectively, for the 9-and 11-valent vaccines. Resistance to penicillin varied from 2.3% to 6.2% in different years, but erythromycin resistance remained constant at 17%. The vast majority of resistant isolates were in vaccine serotype/groups. Computerized hospital admission records for all children <15 y of age with a discharge diagnosis code indicating probable pneumococcal disease were also analysed for 1997. The annual incidence for cases with a code specifically mentioning S. pneumoniae was 9.9 per 100000 compared with 71.2 per 100000 for lobar pneumonia; the mean duration of stay for both was < 1 wk. The incidence of admission for pneumococcal meningitis (1.9 overall and 19.6 for infants < 1 y of age) was similar to that derived from laboratory reports and resulted in an average duration of stay of 2 wk. Conclusion: This surveillance has confirmed the substantial burden of morbidity attributable to pneumococcal disease in British children and the potential public health benefits that could be achieved by the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. [source]


    The impact of victim-offender mediation: A cross-national perspective

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2000
    Mark S. Umbreit
    The field of victim-offender mediation, now in its third decade, has grown extensively throughout North America and Europe, with programs in more than twelve hundred communities. This article reports on results from three related studies on the consequences of participating in victim-offender mediation, including programs in four of the United States (Umbreit, 1996, 1994a, 1994b; Umbreit and Coates, 1993), four provinces of Canada (Umbreit, 1999, 1995c), and two cities in England (Umbreit and Roberts, 1996). VOM is implemented differently in various places, reflecting cultural norms and mores. Given innumerable ways of doing victim-offender mediation, are there common experiences shared among participants that can inform program delivery and justice policy? The VOM model was found to be a highly transportable and flexible program in diverse settings. High levels of client satisfaction with both the process and outcome were found, and a high level of fairness was expressed. VOM continues to be a promising model, reflecting the principles of the restorative justice movement and offering a firm foundation of practice wisdom and research from which other newer forms of victim-offender dialogue, such as family group conferences, circles, and boards, can benefit (Bazemore and Umbreit, 1999). [source]


    Connecting EIA to environmental management systems: lessons from industrial estate developments in England

    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2007
    Paul Slinn
    Abstract This paper concerns the relationship between environmental assessment and environmental management systems in the context of recent industrial estate developments. Drawing on environmental statements and interviews with developers, an examination was carried out of the level of good practice in estate design and operation, and the way in which this was influenced by environmental impact assessment and environmental management systems. The study concludes that the environmental impact assessment system worked well within the context of land use planning, but that it failed to facilitate the planning of effective environmental management in practice, with the consequence that the projects examined failed to meet many of the good practice criteria against which they were tested. Finally, several recommendations are made to strengthen continuity between the two. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    The development of a specialist hostel for the community management of personality disordered offenders

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2009
    Stephen Blumenthal
    Background,Since the late 1990s, in England and in Wales, there has been increasing interest in the particular challenges of managing offenders with personality disorder (PD). In 1999, a specialist hostel, managed by the probation service but with a high level of forensic mental health service input, was opened to high-risk PD offenders. Aims,To describe the first 93 high-risk residents with PD who were completing sentences under life licence, parole or probation, and their outcome. Methods,We investigated the nature of the offences residents had previously committed, their psychological profile in terms of personality patterns on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as staff commentary on their progress, to establish whether these factors related to outcome in terms of completion of stay in the hostel or premature discharge. Curfew failures and rearrest rates were also measured. Results,Of the 80 men who completed their residency within the two years of the study, the majority (50) left the hostel for positive reasons under mutual agreement. One-fifth were rearrested while resident, which is a lower rate than would be expected for such a group of offenders. PCL-R scores were predictive of outcome, but so was previous offending history. Self-defeating traits on the MCMI-III and negative comments written by hostel staff were also associated with failure. Conclusions,The hostel development demonstrated that probation and health services can work together to manage violent offenders with high levels of psychological dysfunction, and the evaluation provided some indications of how such arrangements might be enhanced. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Are psychiatrists affecting the legal process by answering legal questions?

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2008
    Timothy Hardie
    Background,Psychiatrists are often asked to answer legal questions. The extent to which they answer strictly legal rather than medical matters is not known. Aim,To investigate how strongly psychiatrists in England and Wales express opinions on one legal question , that of diminished responsibility in respect of a murder charge, and how this is related to outcome in court. Method,Our data were extracted from psychiatric reports and case files supplied by the then Department of Constitutional Affairs (now the Ministry of Justice) on cases heard in the Crown Courts between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2001 in which the defence of diminished responsibility had been raised. The cases had been selected by the Law Commission in their earlier review of partial defences to murder. We devised a reliable system of rating the presence/absence and strength of expression of a legal opinion in the medical reports. We tested the data for relationship between nature and strength of opinion and progression to trial and verdict. Results,Psychiatric reports were available on 143 of 156 cases in which diminished responsibility was considered. They yielded 338 opinions on at least one aspect of diminished responsibility. In 110 (93%) of the 118 cases in which there was a diminished verdict, this was made without trial and, therefore, without reference to a jury. In only eight (27%) out of the 30 cases that went to trial, was a diminished responsibility verdict made. Half of the reports (169) gave a clear opinion on diminished responsibility, a third (121) invited the court to draw a particular conclusion and only 11% (36) provided relevant evidence without answering the legal questions. When there was an opinion or an invitation to make a finding on the legal question, a trial was less likely. A trial was also less likely if reports agreed on what the verdict should be. Conclusions,Psychiatrists frequently answer the legal question of diminished responsibility. The judiciary and medical experts should join in research to examine the consequences of different styles or approaches in presentation of essentially similar evidence in court. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Children, admitted to high security (special) hospital

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2003
    Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry, Claire Dimond Consultant in Child
    Introduction The Special Hospitals in England provide psychiatric treatment in high security. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics and background characteristics of children admitted to high security hospitals in England, using the special hospital case register. Method Forty-six children (the subject group) were admitted to a high security hospital under the MHA (1983) classification of disorder of mental illness and/or psychopathic disorder between 1983 and 1999, 33 (72%) of whom were male. A comparison group of adults was matched on sex, legal classification of detention and MHA 1983 classification of disorder. Results The children were admitted for a similar range of offences to those of the comparison group. However, the children had received convictions for criminal damage and violence at a significantly earlier age, they were more likely to have experienced a change in carer during their childhood, been placed in a children's home and were less likely to be living with a family member on their 16th birthday. Children admitted to special hospital experience a lot of disruption in their childhood and are extremely high users of multi-agency services as they grow up. Discussion Issues are raised regarding how to provide a developmentally sensitive service for children who require high security care. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Psychology brings justice: the science of forensic psychology,

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2003
    Gisli H. Gudjonsson Professor of Forensic Psychology
    In this paper the focus is on one aspect of forensic psychology: the development of psychological instruments, a social psychological model and assessment procedures for evaluating the credibility of witnesses and police detainees during interviewing. Clinically grounded case work and research has impacted on police interviewing and practice, the admissibility of expert psychological testimony and the outcome of cases of miscarriage of justice. After describing the research that laid the foundations for advancement of scientific knowledge in this area, a brief review is presented of 22 high-profile murder cases where convictions based on confession evidence have been quashed on appeal between 1989 and 2001, often primarily on the basis of psychological evidence. The review of the cases demonstrates that psychological research and expert testimony in cases of disputed confessions have had a profound influence on the practice and ruling of the Court of Appeal for England and Wales and the British House of Lords. The cases presented in this paper show that it is wrong to assume that only persons with learning disability or those who are mentally ill make unreliable or false confessions. Personality factors, such as suggestibility, compliance, high trait anxiety and antisocial personality traits, are often important in rendering a confession unreliable. Future research needs to focus more on the role of personality factors in rendering the evidence of witnesses and suspects potentially unreliable. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Mental health patients in criminal justice populations: needs, treatment and criminal behaviour

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2003
    J. Keene PhD Professor of Primary Care
    Background Government policy requires that health and social care agencies work more closely together and in partnership with the criminal justice system. There is a well-established relationship between crime and mental disorder. Method The Tracking Project provides for the first time in England the means of collating and analysing data on mental disorder (defined as receiving secondary care as patients of a Mental Health Trust) and crime (defined as all those charged with an offence). Data were collected over a three-year period for all individuals who had contact with the criminal justice system and mental health services in an English county. Results In a county population of 800,400, some 30,329 were offenders. More than a third had used a health or social care service during the three-year period; 8.0% were mentally disordered. Those offenders aged 25,64 and who contacted the police more than once were significantly more likely to be mentally disordered. Type of offence was also a relevant variable. The probation service showed broadly similar results. Discussion The research has provided for the first time substantive quantitative evidence of the relationship between crime and mental disorder. The results can be used as the basis for further work to target assessment and risk reduction measures at those most at risk. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Changes in patterns of excessive alcohol consumption in 25 years of high security hospital admissions from England and Wales

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2003
    Celia McMahon
    Background It is now generally acknowledged that alcohol abuse increases the risk of violence among people with major mental disorder. Studies in the 1980s and earlier, however, tended to report an inverse relationship between their alcohol use and violence. Aims A study was undertaken to test a hypothesis that among people with major mental disorder considered to pose a serious risk to others the likelihood of excessive alcohol consumption in a period leading up to a violent or dangerous act has increased over time. Methods Analysis was made of annual high security hospital admission cohort case register data of 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1999; alcohol use data were taken from interview and records, and problem drinking defined as consumption of alcohol in excess of 21 units per week during the 12 months prior to the index offence or act. Results There was a linear increase in the proportion of patients in five-year admission cohorts who had engaged in excessive alcohol consumption during the year prior to their index offence or act. The increase was steeper among women than men, but cut across all diagnosis and offending groups. It was strongly associated with increasing tendency to abuse illicit drugs. Conclusions The greater proportion of patients affected by excessive alcohol consumption occurred in spite of a reduction over the same period in admission of people in the diagnostic groups most likely to be implicated in substance misuse (personality disorder). This increased trend may simply reflect similar trends in the general population, but may also be associated with a lack of services or current consensus on appropriate treatment for patients whose mental illness is complicated by excessive alcohol use. Regardless, the trend suggests a growing need for ,dual diagnosis' services within and outside high security hospital. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2002
    Professor Jeremy W. Coid MD FRCPsych
    Objectives To examine the associations between DSM-III, axis II, personality disorder, motivation and disruptive behaviour in prisoners. Method Interviews were carried out with 81 prisoners in prison special units in England using research diagnostic instruments and an item sheet measuring disruptive behaviours and their motivations. Independent associations were established using logistic regression. Results Specific associations were established between psychopathy and axis II disorders with violent and disruptive behaviour and motivations for these behaviours. Conclusions The study supported a cognitive model explaining the functional association between personality disorder and antisocial behaviour. Personality disorders act as predisposing factors influencing the development of motivations and subsequently facilitate the enactment of disordered behaviour, in a linear progression. Assessment of personality disorder should be routine in disruptive and dangerous prisoners. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Ten years on: medical services to prisoners in England and Wales

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2000
    John V. Basson
    First page of article [source]


    Drug misuse and acquisitive crime among clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2000
    Duncan Stewart
    Background Criminal activity among drug-misusing populations can result in considerable costs. This paper examines the relationship between acquisitive criminal behaviour and drug use among a cohort of 1075 clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS). Method Clients were recruited from 54 drug misuse treatment programmes in England. A structured interview was administered by clinical staff. The majority of clients were opiate-dependent poly-drug users. Results 27 000 acquisitive criminal offences were reported by the cohort in the three months prior to starting treatment, of which shoplifting was the most common offence. There was marked variation in the amount of acquisitive crime reported; just 10% of the sample were responsible for three-quarters of the crimes committed. Two other groups were identified: low-rate offenders, and those who did not commit an acquisitive crime. Multivariate analyses revealed that frequency of illicit drug use was associated with increased levels of criminal behaviour. Compared with the no-crime group, the high-rate offenders were 11 times more likely to be regular users of heroin, and three times more likely to have used cocaine regularly. Discussion These findings suggest that the most dependent and problematic drug misusers present treatment services with the greatest challenge in terms of reducing levels of criminality. Copyright 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Sound, Presence, and Power: "Student Voice" in Educational Research and Reform

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2006
    ALISON COOK-SATHER
    ABSTRACT Every way of thinking is both premised on and generative of a way of naming that reflects particular underlying convictions. Over the last 15 years, a way of thinking has reemerged that strives to reposition students in educational research and reform. Best documented in Australia, Canada, England, and the United States, this way of thinking is premised on the following convictions: that young people have unique perspectives on learning, teaching, and schooling; that their insights warrant not only the attention but also the responses of adults; and that they should be afforded opportunities to actively shape their education. Although these convictions mean different things to different people and take different forms in practice, a single term has emerged to capture a range of activities that strive to reposition students in educational research and reform: "student voice." In this discussion the author explores the emergence of the term "student voice," identifies underlying premises signaled by two particular words associated with the term, "rights" and "respect," and explores the many meanings of a word that surfaces repeatedly across discussions of student voice efforts but refers to a wide range of practices: "listening." The author offers this discussion not as an exhaustive or definitive analysis but rather with the goal of looking across discussions of work that advocates, enacts, and critically analyzes the term "student voice." [source]


    CPA assessment , the regional assessors' experience

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2007
    E. Welsh
    Many individuals within Laboratory Medicine will be unaware that CPA conducts assessments to two different sets of CPA Standards. There are the Standards for the Medical Laboratory and the Standards for EQA Schemes in Laboratory Medicine. The style and format of both sets of standards is very similar with each being presented in eight sections A , H. The EQA standards are almost identical to the laboratory standards with the exception of the E.F and G standards which are specific to EQA schemes. There are approximately 40 EQA Schemes registered with CPA compared with almost 2 500 laboratories. These EQA schemes vary from very large national/international schemes with numerous analytes to small interpretive schemes run by one individual with a personal interest in that specific subject. The large schemes usually come under the UKNEQAS consortia banner and due to their size and configuration do not present undue problems in the assessment process. Smaller interpretive EQA schemes present a challenge both for the scheme and CPA in gaining accreditation. These schemes are usually within the discipline of Histopathology and are regarded as educational rather than proficiency testing schemes. Very frequently, the scheme is organized by a single individual with a collection of microscope slides, storage facilities for the slides and a computer. This presents the Scheme Organizer with great difficulty in complying with the Quality Management System requirements of the CPA Standards. There are a number of models which can be applied in order to satisfy the requirement of the Quality Management System, but ultimately it must be recognized that in some circumstances it is not possible to accredit these small schemes. The NHSCSP Gynae Cytology EQA Scheme is probably the largest EQA scheme within the UK, in respect of the number of participants and the number of staff supporting the scheme. Scheme Management decided that all nine regions of England would apply for accreditation under one CPA Reference Number. This process meant that the scheme would be assessed as a Managed Pathology Network. This is unique in terms of EQA schemes and presented a number of problems not previously encountered in EQA scheme accreditation. This decision meant that all nine regions must comply with a single Quality Management System and other CPA standards whilst allowing flexibility within the system for each region to facilitate the assessment process specific to their user's requirements. The process worked in a satisfactory manner and the overall outcome was not dissimilar to that of other large EQA schemes. The assessment to the current EQA Standards only commenced in April 2006 whilst the Standards for Medical Laboratories commenced in 2003, and it is perhaps not surprising to find that the principal non-conformities are related to the Quality Management System. This parallels the findings encountered in laboratory accreditation. There is an ongoing educational process for Scheme Management and the Facilitators in each region in how to comply fully with the standards and a commitment to quality improvement which ultimately is beneficial to the participant's of the scheme and to patient safety. [source]


    Liquid-based cytology for cervical screening

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    N. Payne
    England and Wales' new National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has completed the first of its appraisals and issued guidance on a diagnostic technique rather than a therapeutic intervention.1 It was directed to examine the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical screening and took evidence from a wide variety of sources. LBC is a new method of preparing cervical samples for cytological examination. Unlike the conventional ,smear' preparation it involves making a suspension of cells from the sample and this is used to produce a thin layer of cells on a slide. [source]


    Cervical screening in England and Wales: its effect has been underestimated

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    A. Herbert
    Opinions about cervical screening in the UK tend to follow one of two negative lines of thought. The first is that cervical cancer is a rare disease, and too much time and effort are spent on screening. The second is that it has been relatively ineffective, since incidence of invasive carcinoma did not fall until the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) was introduced in 1988, although it fell by 40% since then. This paper presents publicly available data to demonstrate that neither of these views is true. Registrations of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix and carcinoma in situ in England and Wales between 1971 and 1996 show that a substantially increased risk of disease in women born since 1940 has been reversed, almost certainly by greatly improved screening. Cervical carcinoma is now a rare disease because most cases are prevented before they become invasive, mostly by screening young women, aged 20,40, before the decade of life when symptomatic cervical carcinoma most frequently presents. [source]


    Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2010
    R. Reay
    Reay R, Mitford E, McCabe K, Paxton R, Turkington D. Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis. Objective:, To investigate the incidence and range of diagnostic groups in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in a defined geographical area. Method:, An observational database was set up on all patients aged 16 years and over presenting with FEP living in a county in Northern England between 1998 and 2005. Results:, The incidence of all FEP was 30.95/100 000. The largest diagnostic groups were psychotic depression (19%) and acute and transient psychotic disorder (19%). Fifty-four per cent of patients were aged 36 years and over. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder only accounted for 55% of cases. Conclusion:, This clinical database revealed marked diversity in age and diagnostic groups in FEP with implications for services and guidelines. These common presentations of psychoses are grossly under researched, and no treatment guidelines currently exist for them. [source]