Endoscopy

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Endoscopy

  • airway endoscopy
  • capsule endoscopy
  • contact endoscopy
  • conventional endoscopy
  • early endoscopy
  • flexible endoscopy
  • follow-up endoscopy
  • gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • gi endoscopy
  • magnification endoscopy
  • magnifying endoscopy
  • nasal endoscopy
  • pouch endoscopy
  • standard endoscopy
  • surveillance endoscopy
  • therapeutic endoscopy
  • upper endoscopy
  • upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • upper gi endoscopy
  • virtual endoscopy
  • wireless capsule endoscopy

  • Terms modified by Endoscopy

  • endoscopy finding
  • endoscopy society
  • endoscopy unit

  • Selected Abstracts


    PREDICTIVE VALUE OF ENDOSCOPY AND ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY FOR REGRESSION OF GASTRIC DIFFUSE LARGE B-CELL LYMPHOMAS AFTER HELICOBACTER PYLORI ERADICATION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2009
    Akira Tari
    Background:, Some gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have been reported to regress completely after the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas without any detectable mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma that went into complete remission after successful H. pylori eradication. Patients and Methods:, We examined the effect of H. pylori eradication in 15 H. pylori -positive gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without any evidence of an associated MALT lymphoma (clinical stage I by the Lugano classification) by endoscopic examination including biopsies, endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and bone marrow aspiration. Results:,H. pylori eradication was successful in all the patients and complete remission was achieved in four patients whose clinical stage was I. By endoscopic examination, these gastric lesions appeared to be superficial. The depth by endoscopic ultrasonography was restricted to the mucosa in two patients and to the shallow portion of the submucosa in the other two patients. All four patients remained in complete remission for 7,100 months. Conclusion:, In gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas without a concomitant MALT lymphoma but associated with H. pylori infection, only superficial cases and lesions limited to the shallow portion of the submucosa regressed completely after successful H. pylori eradication. The endoscopic appearance and the rating of the depth of invasion by endosonography are both valuable for predicting the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in treating gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. [source]


    NO EVIDENCE FOR PATIENT-TO-PATIENT TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS DURING UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY: MOLECULAR STUDIES ON THREE ACUTE HEPATITIS C PATIENTS

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 3 2009
    Takayuki Toda
    Background:, The risk of patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) during endoscopy remains controversial. Using molecular approaches, we examined the possibility of patient-to-patient transmission of HCV in three patients who developed acute hepatitis C 1,6 months after examination by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) in a hospital endoscopy unit in Japan. Methods:, For the source of HCV infection, we used frozen sera obtained from potential candidates who underwent UGIE earlier than three index patients on the same days in the same unit. HCV genotype was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genotype-specific primers. The 1087-nucleotide (nt) sequence of the NS5B region of the HCV genome was compared between index patients and their HCV-viremic candidates. Results:, The three index patients were exclusively infected with HCV of genotype 1b. Among a total of 60 candidate patients who underwent UGIE earlier than the index patients, 14 were positive for anti-HCV, of whom 12 had detectable HCV-RNA (1b, n = 9; 2a, n = 1; 2b, n = 2) on sera collected during each UGIE. Shared identity within the 1087-nt NS5B sequence was less than 95.0% between index patients and HCV/1b-infected candidates (n = 3, 1 and 5, respectively). None of the remaining 46 candidates who were negative for anti-HCV at UGIE examination tested positive for HCV-RNA, nor seroconverted to anti-HCV on their sera, which most likely excludes the possibility of HCV viremia despite the anti-HCV-negative serology at UGIE examination. Conclusion:, The present study suggests that patient-to-patient transmission of HCV during UGIE is infrequent. [source]


    ROLE OF ENDOSCOPY IN SCREENING OF EARLY PANCREATIC CANCER AND BILE DUCT CANCER

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2009
    Kiyohito Tanaka
    In the screening of early pancreatic cancer and bile duct cancer, the first issue was ,what are the types of abnormality in laboratory data and symptoms in case of early pancreatic cancer and bile duct cancer?' Early cancer in the pancreaticobiliary region has almost no symptoms, however epigastralgia without abnormality in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a sign of early stage pancreaticobiliary cancer. Sudden onset and aggravation of diabetes mellitus is an important change in the case of pancreatic cancer. Extracorporeal ultrasonography is a very useful procedure of checking up changes of pancreatic and biliary lesions. As the role of endoscopy in screening, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most effective means of cancer detection of the pancreas, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is most useful of diagnosis tool for abnormalities of the common bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is an important modality as the procedure of sampling of diagnostic materials. Endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has the role of histological diagnosis of pancreatic mass lesion also. Especially, in the case of pancreas cancer without evidence of cancer by pancreatic juice cytology and brushing cytology, EUS-FNA is essential. Intra ductal ultrasonography (IUDS) and perotral cholangioscopy (POCS) are useful for determination of mucosal extent in extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Further improvements of endoscopical technology, endoscopic procedures are expected to be more useful modalities in detection and diagnosis of early pancreatic and bile duct cancers. [source]


    DEXMEDETOMIDINE FOR SEDATION DURING UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2008
    Kazutoshi Hashiguchi
    Background:, A clinical study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation of patients undergoing routine upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods:, Forty middle-aged patients who were admitted for medical examination were randomized to receive an initial loading dose infusion of dexmedetomidine 6.0 g/kg per h over 10 min followed by a maintenance infusion of 0.6 g/kg per h (group A) or rapid infusion of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg (group B) as sedation for routine endoscopy. Sixty patients did not receive sedative agent (group C). Assessment included measurement of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation, and endoscopy duration. Results:, There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in baseline characteristics. The level of sedation was similar between groups A and B, and the gag response score was significantly lower in the sedated groups than in group C. Hemodynamic stability was also demonstrated in group A during and after the endoscopic procedure. Increased systolic/diastolic BP was significantly attenuated in group A compared with group C. Interestingly, HR was significantly suppressed in group A than in groups B and C. In groups A and B, SpO2 was decreased compared with group C during and after the procedures; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference among the groups with endoscopy duration. Conclusions:, For sedation during upper endoscopy, dexmedetomidine is as safe and effective as midazolam, and it significantly reduces HR and BP during and after the endoscopic procedures. [source]


    MAGNIFYING ENDOSCOPY WITH NARROW BAND IMAGING FOR EARLY DIFFERENTIATED GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 3 2008
    Kazuyoshi Yagi
    We have been using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) to study early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas and to assess the relationship between microvessel pattern, pit pattern and histological pattern. The magnified view of the cancerous area showed three types of pattern: (i) a mesh pattern, consisting of mesh-like connected microvessels; (ii) a loop pattern, consisting of loop-like microvessels that were not connected and had tubule-like or villus-like mucosal structures along them; and (iii) an interrupted pattern, consisting of interrupted thick or thin vessels without mucosal structures. The mesh type of microvascular pattern showed a round pit pattern in 88.9% of cases (32/36) and the loop type of microvascular pattern showed a non-round pit pattern in 100% of cases. Among lesions that showed a mesh pattern or a loop pattern, 94.9% (56/59) were mucosal cancer and 5.1% (3/59) were submucosal cancer. However, 92.3% (12/13) of lesions that showed an interrupted pattern were submucosal differentiated adenocarcinoma and 7.7% (1/13) were mucosal differentiated adenocarcinoma. The present findings provide basic data on the characteristics of mucosal differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by magnifying endoscopy with NBI, as well as invasive changes such as submucosal invasion. [source]


    ENDOSCOPIC SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION FOR EARLY GASTRIC CANCER USING MAGNIFYING ENDOSCOPY WITH A COMBINATION OF NARROW BAND IMAGING AND ACETIC ACID INSTILLATION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 3 2008
    Kyosuke Tanaka
    Demarcation of early gastric cancers is sometimes unclear. Enhanced-magnification endoscopy with acetic acid instillation and magnifying endoscopy with a narrow band imaging (NBI) system have been useful for recognition of demarcation of early gastric cancers. We report a patient with early gastric cancer who underwent a successful endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) by magnifying endoscopy with the combined use of NBI and acetic acid instillation. A 72-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent ESD. Demarcation of the lesion was not clear, but magnifying endoscopy using the combination of NBI and acetic acid clearly revealed the demarcation. ESD was carried out after spots were marked circumferentially. We identified the positional relation between the demarcation and all markings. Resection of the lesion was on the outside of the markings. Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the mucosa. The margins were carcinoma free. Magnifying endoscopy combining the use of NBI with acetic acid instillation is simple and helpful for identifying the demarcation of early gastric cancer. This method may be useful in increasing the rate of complete resection by ESD for early gastric cancer. [source]


    MICROVASCULAR PATTERNS OF ESOPHAGEAL MICRO SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ON MAGNIFYING ENDOSCOPY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 1 2008
    Hideaki Arima
    Background:, Recently, esophageal microcancers have been frequently diagnosed and are receiving increasing attention as initial findings of cancer. We examined whether the clinicopathological features and microvascular patterns of esophageal microcancers on magnifying endoscopy are useful for diagnosis. Methods:, Magnifying endoscopy was performed to examine the histopathological features of 55 esophageal cancers measuring ,10 mm in diameter (34 small cancers, 16 microcancers, and five supermicrocancers). Results:, Although some lesions were detected only on iodine staining, most were detected on conventional endoscopic examination. Most small cancers and microcancers were m1 or m2; some were m3 or sm2. Supermicrocancers were dysplasia or m1 cancer. As for the microvascular pattern, most m1 and m2 cancers showed type 3 vessels, while most submucosal cancers showed type 4 vessels. Conclusions:, Microvascular patterns on magnifying endoscopy are useful for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant esophageal cancers and for estimating the depth of tumor invasion. The shape of small lesions is often altered considerably by biopsy. Residual tumor may persist unless the basal layer of the lesion is included in biopsy specimens, even in microcancers. Consequently, endoscopic mucosal resection, without biopsy, is being performed in increasing numbers of patients with lesions suspected to be cancer on the basis of their microvascular patterns. [source]


    A REVIEW OF CURRENT CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ZOOM ENDOSCOPY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2005
    Kenshi Yao
    Current clinical applications of upper gastrointestinal (GI) zoom endoscopy were reviewed. The objective of upper GI zoom endoscopy has been the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions as well as the diagnosis of minute inflammatory mucosal change. The target organ and pathology of the neoplastic lesions have been squamous cell carcinoma in the oro- and hypo-pharynx and in the esophagus; intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; and adenocarcinoma in the stomach. For analyzing the magnified endoscopic findings, there were two different basic principles (mucosal microstructural change and subepithelial microvascular changes). Overall diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing a neoplastic lesion was above 80% throughout the upper GI tract. Although the diagnostic accuracy of the zoom endoscopy technique seems to be superior to that of the ordinary endoscopy technique alone, the continuous efforts to establish standardized guidelines and procedures are mandatory in order to lead to the routine use of upper GI zoom endoscopy in clinical practice. [source]


    BILIOPANCREATIC ENDOSCOPY FOR DIAGNOSIS and TREATMENT: WHAT IS NECESSARY TO STANDARDIZE BILIOPANCREATIC ENDOSCOPY IN JAPAN

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2002
    Hiroyuki Maguchi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MAGNIFYING ENDOSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY GASTRIC CANCER

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2002
    Yasumasa Niwa
    Magnifying endoscopy of stomach cancer requires observation of minute structure and minute vessel patterns of the mucosal surface. The small pits, various-sized pits, irregularly branched pits and irregular vessels were found to be characteristics as the surface structure of early gastric cancer. Small pits were commonly observed on the differentiated type of early gastric cancer (88%) compared with the undifferentiated type (50%). We found it important to analyze not only the minute vessel patterns, but also the minute surface structure to ensure magnifying endoscopic observation using 0.1% indigo-carmine and the binarized images would be effective in determining the margin of the lesion. The relationship between the findings of magnifying endoscopy in cancer and the histology should now be investigated. Applying the techniques mentioned above, more delicate observation in the regular endoscopy and prudent photographing to obtain clear images might be promoted. Thus, this would contribute to endoscopy with a concept similar to optical biopsy, and which can depend on the usual biopsy methods. [source]


    RECENT PROGRESS IN ENDOSCOPY-BASED DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 1 2001
    Tadashi Sato
    Numerous invasive and non-invasive tests are available in the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopy-based tests that include rapid urease test, histological examination and culture are important generally in the assessment of H. pylori status before eradication therapy. Recently, several new endoscopy-based diagnostic methods have been developed aiming at rapid and accurate detection of the organisms. It would be possible to diagnose H. pylori infection in treated patients by using these new highly sensitive tests. Although the diagnosis of H. pylori infection itself is possible by using non-invasive diagnostic tests, endoscopy-based tests provide not only the diagnosis of the organisms, but also the exclusive information such as treatment indications and the susceptibility for the antimicrobial drugs. Recently, new triple therapy including clarithromycin has been widely performed in Japan. Along with an increase in the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant strains, culture may become a more important diagnostic method in the future. The inappropriate application of the tests may increase the potential risk of the misdiagnosis and the treatment failures. The diagnostic method should be selected by taking into account the circumstances in which a diagnosis is to be performed. [source]


    Association of body mass index with heartburn, regurgitation and esophagitis: Results of the Progression of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease study

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Marc Nocon
    Abstract Background:, Overweight and obesity are believed to be risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the severity and frequency of reflux symptoms and esophagitis in a large cohort of reflux patients. Methods:, As part of the Progression of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (ProGERD) study, 6215 patients with clinically assessed GERD were included in the present investigation (53% male, 52 14 years; 47% female, 56 14 years). Heartburn and regurgitation symptoms were assessed using the validated Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopies were performed and patients were subsequently classified as having non-erosive or erosive disease. To examine the association between BMI, GERD symptoms, and esophagitis, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using logistic regression models. Results:, In patients with GERD, higher BMI was associated with more frequent and more severe heartburn and regurgitation, as well as with esophagitis. The effects were more pronounced for regurgitation than for heartburn. The strongest association was between obesity and severity of regurgitation symptoms (women: OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.60,2.77; men: OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.59,2.90). Obese women, but not men, had an increased risk of severe esophagitis compared to women with normal weight (OR 2.51, 95%CI 1.53,4.12). Conclusions:, In patients with GERD, higher BMI was associated with more severe and more frequent reflux symptoms and esophagitis. [source]


    PARTIAL REGRESSION OF DUODENAL LESIONS OF INTESTINAL FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA AFTER ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2010
    Tomonori Yaguchi
    A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of duodenal lesions of lymphoma. Endoscopy showed multiple tiny smooth whitish granules in the second portion of the duodenum including the papilla of Vater. Biopsy specimens showed medium-sized centrocyte-like cells forming lymphoid follicles, and immunohistology showed positive staining for bcl-2 and CD10. A small bowel series showed multiple granular lesions extending from the second portion of the duodenum to the proximal jejunum and the proximal ileum. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as stage I follicular lymphoma (FL). Although the patient was negative for Helicobacter pylori, he underwent antibiotic treatment. The lesions improved 3 months after antibiotic treatment, but biopsy specimens showed residual lymphoma cells. The patient therefore received combination chemotherapy with rituximab. Endoscopy 4 months later showed regression of FL, and there was no evidence of recurrence during 3 years of follow up. The partial regression of duodenal lesions of intestinal FL may be due to the effect of antibiotic treatment. [source]


    TOWARD THE GLOBAL STANDARDIZATION OF ENDOSCOPIC SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION PROPOSAL FOR 10 YEARS FROM NOW , PRESENT AND FUTURE VIEW OF KOREA

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2009
    Joo Young Cho
    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the main treatment of early gastric cancer in Korea. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) has organized an ESD research group and made several plans to standardize pathologic and therapeutic points of view. This article is to introduce the present and future view of ESD in Korea. [source]


    MANAGEMENT OF ANTIPLATELET THERAPY FOR ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURES: OPTIMAL CESSATION PERIOD OF ANTIPLATELET THERAPY FOR JAPANESE

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2007
    Yoshiko Tamai
    Although antiplatelet agents are widely used for the treatment and prevention of thrombotic diseases, only a few studies have reported the validity of the cessation period prior to endoscopic procedures. In 2002, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) published a reference on the management of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for endoscopic procedures, but it should be confirmed as appropriate for use in Asian patients. To evaluate the optimal cessation period of antiplatelet agents prior to endoscopic procedures for Japanese, we have studied: (i) the current clinically adopted cessation period of antiplatelet agents prior to invasive endoscopic procedures in Japan; (ii) the relationship between the cessation period of antiplatelet agents and complications around the invasive endoscopic procedures; (iii) colonic mucosal bleeding time after aspirin ingestion; and (iv) the time course of primary hemostasis after cessation of antiplatelet agents. We conclude that 3 days cessation period for aspirin, 5 days cessation for ticlopidine and 7 days cessation for aspirin + ticlopidine administration should be sufficient for Japanese. [source]


    PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL AND GASTRIC CANCER THAT DEMONSTRATED AN STK11 MISSENSE MUTATION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2006
    Hiromi Kataoka
    A 75-year-old male was admitted to the gastroenterology unit of Nagoya City University Hospital due to epigastralgia after surgical treatment for right renal cancer. Endoscopy revealed advanced type 1 gastric cancer in the corpus of the stomach and multiple polypoid lesions in the stomach and duodenum. X-ray examination of the small intestine using barium showed multiple polyps in the upper jejunum. Faint pigmentation on the palm was also detected. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) was diagnosed, despite a lack of family history. Total gastrectomy, resection of part of the upper jejunum and intraoperative endoscopic polypectomy of duodenal polyps was performed. This is the second reported case of PJS associated with renal cancer. We also detected a missense mutation in the tumor suppressor gene STK11 that, when mutated, is causative for PJS. [source]


    Abstracts presented at the Poster and Video sessions at the 4th Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy held on 26 March 2005 in Seoul, Korea

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2006
    Article first published online: 22 FEB 200
    First page of article [source]


    A CASE OF DUODENAL LIPOMA REMOVED BY ENDOSCOPIC POLYPECTOMY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2004
    Tuyoshi Shoji
    A rare case of duodenal lipoma removed by endoscopic polypectomy is presented herein. A 64-year-old female was found to have a polypoid lesion in the duodenum on gastrointestinal endoscopic examination. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor located on the second portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) demonstrated a homogenous, hyperechoic mass continuous with the submucosal layer, suggesting a lipoma. Because of the likelihood of the tumor ultimately causing obstruction or bleeding, endoscopic polypectomy was performed. There were no complications after treatment. [source]


    Endoscopic band ligation for postpolypectomy gastric bleeding

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2003
    RYOSAKU TOMIYAMA
    We report a case of a patient in whom endoscopic band ligation was achieved for postpolypectomy gastric bleeding. A 76-year-old man visited our hospital because of anemia. Endoscopy revealed a gastric polyp, approximately 12 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the distal gastric body. The polyp was considered to be the source of chronic anemia and was therefore removed by using standard careful snare-cautery polypectomy technique. Four days later, follow-up endoscopy was performed to evaluate the postpolypectomy site, and an active bleeding postpolypectomy ulcer was identified. Initial attempts to achieve hemostasis with ethanol injection were unsuccessful. Immediate hemostasis was obtained with a subsequent endoscopic band ligation device. There has been no recurrent bleeding. Endoscopic band ligation might be a good treatment modality for the treatment of a postpolypectomy gastric bleeding lesion. [source]


    CONCURRENT GASTRIC AND COLONIC LOW-GRADE MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE LYMPHOMATA IN A PATIENT WITHOUT HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 1 2003
    HIROYUKI OKADA
    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomata observed simultaneously in the stomach and colon are rare. We report concurrent gastric and colonic low-grade MALT lymphomata that originated from the same clone in a 58-year-old Japanese man without Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy showed multiple erosive lesions in the gastric body and antrum, and a single flat elevation with an irregular margin in the sigmoid colon. Histopathological findings of both lesions suggested low-grade MALT lymphoma. Lymphoepithelial lesions were evident in the gastric lesions, but not in the colonic lesion. Southern blot analysis of lymphoma cells revealed the same immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement pattern. The chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was also observed. After six courses of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and predonisolone, the gastric lesions disappeared endoscopically, while the colonic lesion persisted. A sigmoidectomy was consequently performed. The chromosomal translocation may be related to the pathogenesis of the present MALT lymphoma case without H. pylori infection. It is interesting that the gastric and colonic lesions differed in response to treatment and in their endoscopic and histologic features, despite having the same origin. [source]


    RECENT PROGRESS IN ENDOSCOPY-BASED DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 1 2001
    Tadashi Sato
    Numerous invasive and non-invasive tests are available in the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopy-based tests that include rapid urease test, histological examination and culture are important generally in the assessment of H. pylori status before eradication therapy. Recently, several new endoscopy-based diagnostic methods have been developed aiming at rapid and accurate detection of the organisms. It would be possible to diagnose H. pylori infection in treated patients by using these new highly sensitive tests. Although the diagnosis of H. pylori infection itself is possible by using non-invasive diagnostic tests, endoscopy-based tests provide not only the diagnosis of the organisms, but also the exclusive information such as treatment indications and the susceptibility for the antimicrobial drugs. Recently, new triple therapy including clarithromycin has been widely performed in Japan. Along with an increase in the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant strains, culture may become a more important diagnostic method in the future. The inappropriate application of the tests may increase the potential risk of the misdiagnosis and the treatment failures. The diagnostic method should be selected by taking into account the circumstances in which a diagnosis is to be performed. [source]


    Plenary Lecture: Applications of Magnifying Endoscopy and Endoscopic Ultrasonography to Colorectal Neoplastic Lesions

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2000
    Masao Ando
    First page of article [source]


    ILEITIS AS A MAIN RECURRENT LESION IN A PATIENT WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS: REPORT OF A CASE

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2000
    Shuichi Sano
    We report a case of ulcerative colitis complicating ileitis that endoscopically and histologically resembled a colonic lesion. Eight years prior to the time of writing, the patient had undergone proctosigmoidectomy and ileocecal resection because of severe hemorrhagic lesions of ulcerative colitis. A month prior to the time of writing, bleeding from the stoma occurred. Endoscopy revealed erosions on easy-bleeding mucosa in the ileum but no active inflammatory lesions in colonic mucosa except for small erosions in the descending colon beneath the stoma. Histologic findings of biopsy specimens from the ileal mucosa showed marked inflammation including neutrophile infiltration and crypt abscesses. This is a rare case of ulcerative colitis showing ileitis as a main recurrent lesion, suggesting that careful observation of the small intestine will be required after ileocecal resection in ulcerative colitis patients. [source]


    Distal esophagitis in patients with mustard-gas induced chronic cough

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2006
    M. Ghanei
    SUMMARY., Although confounded by some factors such as medications or surgical complications, the relationship between esophageal pathology and pulmonary disorders has been the subject of many studies. The present study sought to investigate the said relationship in patients inflicted by respiratory disorders induced by mustard gas (MG). A case group of patients complaining of respiratory complications and chronic coughs following MG exposure, and a control group of patients with chronic coughs but without a history of MG exposure were studied. All the case and control subjects had symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Chest high resolution tomography (HRCT) was performed to evaluate the existence of pulmonary disorders. Endoscopy and histological studies were carried out to determine the severity of esophagitis in both groups presenting with gastroesophageal reflux. Ninety male patients, who had met our criteria, along with 40 male control cases underwent the diagnostic procedures. The frequency of endoscopic esophagitis findings in the chemically exposed group was significantly higher than that in the control group (70.0%vs. 42.5%). A pathological evaluation revealed that the frequency of esophagitis in the cases was more than that in the controls (32.3%vs. 14.2%). Chest HRCT evaluation demonstrated that half the case group had more than 25% air trapping in expiratory films, mostly compatible with bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). In addition, they were suffering from asthma, chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. Bronchiolitis obliterans, along with other lung disorders, can be considered as contributors in the pathogenesis of esophagitis in MG exposed patients. [source]


    Treatment of an osteoblastic osteosarcoma in an aged gelding

    EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 4 2010
    T. Springer
    Summary A 27-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was examined for a right nasal mass visible inside the right nares. Airflow through the right nostril was absent. Endoscopy and radiography revealed the mass to occupy the entire right nasal passage. Nasal biopsies were inconclusive, so en bloc resection was performed. A diagnosis of an incompletely resected osteoblastic osteosarcoma was made. Endoscopic biopsies performed 4 weeks post surgery revealed osteosarcoma cells present in the caudal right nasal cavity. Metastatic disease was not present in mandibular lymph node aspirates or on thoracic radiographs. The right nasal passage was irradiated with 12 treatments over the course of 4 weeks. Comfort and quality of life were excellent during treatment and no adverse side effects were noted. Endoscopy and follow-up biopsies at 1, 2, 4, 12 and 14 months post radiation therapy have not found any evidence of regrowth of the osteosarcoma. [source]


    Sedation with detomidine and acepromazine influences the endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function in horses

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    C. Lindegaard
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Endoscopy of the upper airways of horses is used as a diagnostic tool and at purchase examinations. On some occasions it is necessary to use sedation during the procedure and it is often speculated that the result of the examination might be influenced due to the muscle-relaxing properties of the most commonly used sedatives. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bwt) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt) on the appearance of symmetry of rima glottidis, ability to abduct maximally the arytenoid cartilages and the effect on recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) grade. Methods: Forty-two apparently normal horses underwent endoscopic examination of the upper airways on 3 different occasions, under the influence of 3 different treatments: no sedation (control), sedation with detomidine and sedation with acepromazine. All examinations were performed with a minimum of one week apart. The study was performed as an observer-blind cross-over study. Results: Sedation with detomidine had a significant effect on the RLN grading (OR = 2.91) and ability maximally to abduct the left arytenoid cartilages (OR = 2.91). Sedation with acepromazine resulted in OR = 2.43 for the RLN grading and OR = 2.22 for the ability to abduct maximally. The ability to abduct maximally the right arytenoid cartilage was not altered. Conclusions: Sedating apparently healthy horses with detomidine or acepromazine significantly impairs these horses' ability to abduct fully the left but not the right arytenoid cartilage. This resulted in different diagnosis with respect to RLN when comparing sedation to no sedation. Potential relevance: Since the ability to abduct the right arytenoid cartilage fully is not altered by sedation, it is speculated that horses changing from normal to abnormal laryngeal function when sedated, might be horses in an early stage of the disease. To confirm or reject these speculations, further studies are needed. Until then sedation during endoscopy should be used with care. [source]


    Effects of phlebotomy on haemodynamic characteristics during exercise in Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2001
    P. FUNKQUIST
    Summary Five Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV) were compared before and after removal of approximately 22% (36 ml/kg bwt) of the total blood volume in order to evaluate the haemodynamic responses, haemorheological alterations and oxygen transport during exercise to fatigue. Data were recorded during submaximal exercise at 4 different speeds on a treadmill and then during continued running at the highest speed step until fatigue. Oxygen uptake (V,O2), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic artery pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were measured. Arteriovenous O2 content difference (C(a-v,)O2), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total systemic resistance (TSR) were calculated. Whole blood and plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were determined with a rotational viscometer. Endoscopy was performed after exercise. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Phlebotomy resulted in a decrease in haematocrit and Hb during the course of exercise. Blood and plasma viscosity were lower and erythrocyte aggregation tendency was higher after phlebotomy. Throughout exercise, including submaximal work and continued running to fatigue, PAP, SAP, PVR, TSR and C(a-v,)O2 were lower after phlebotomy. HR was higher after phlebotomy during submaximal exercise. Oxygen delivery and VO2 were lower after phlebotomy in the period from submaximal exercise to fatigue. Run time to fatigue was shorter after phlebotomy. Four horses showed exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) before phlebotomy and the degree of bleeding was diminished but not abolished after phlebotomy. The reductions in PVR, TSR, PAP and SAP after phlebotomy were probably a result of reduced blood viscosity. In conclusion, although a 22% reduction in blood volume improved the haemodynamic and haemorheological parameters and the degree of EIPH, it was found that RCHV trotters have to rely on high oxygen delivery to the working muscles for maintenance of maximal performance. [source]


    Comparison of High Resolution Magnifying Endoscopy and Standard Videoendoscopy for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Gastritis in Routine Clinical Practice: A Prospective Study

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2009
    Can Gonen
    Abstract Background:, It has been shown that standard endoscopic features often labeled as gastritis has a poor correlation with histopathology. Recently, high resolution magnifying endoscopy has been reported to be an effective method to diagnose gastritis. The aim of the present study was to compare standard endoscopy with magnifying endoscopy for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and to determine whether gastritis can be diagnosed based on findings at magnification endoscopy. Materials and Methods:, A total of 129 patients were enrolled into the study. Erythema, erosions, prominent area gastrica, nodularity, and regular arrangement of collecting venules (RAC) were investigated by standard endoscopy. Standard endoscopy was followed by magnifying endoscopy in all patients, and repeated in 55 patients after indigo carmine spraying. Results:, None of the standard endoscopic features showed a sensitivity of more than 70% for H. pylori gastritis, except RAC pattern analysis. Absence of a corporal RAC pattern had 85.7% sensitivity and 82.8% specificity for predicting H. pylori infection. Under magnification, the sensitivity and specificity of regular corporal pattern (regular collecting and capillary vascular structures with gastric pits resembling pinholes) for predicting normal histology were 90.3% and 93.9%, respectively. Loss of collecting venules, or both collecting and capillary structures was correlated with chronic inflammation and activity. With the progression of mucosal atrophy, irregular collecting venules became visible. The values for irregularly arranged antral ridge pattern for the prediction of antral gastritis were 89.3% and 65.2%, respectively. Indigo carmine staining increased sensitivity and specificity up to 97.6% and 100% for corporal gastritis, and up to 88.4% and 75.0% for antral gastritis, respectively. Indigo carmine staining significantly increases the detection of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions:, High resolution magnifying is superior to standard endoscopy for the diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis, and identification of specific histopathologic features such as atrophy and intestinal metaplasia seems possible. [source]


    Should Non-Invasive Helicobacter pylori Testing Replace Endoscopy in Investigation of Dyspepsia?

    HELICOBACTER, Issue S1 2000
    Kenneth McColl
    Our knowledge of Helicobacter pylori infection is now changing the way in which we investigate patients presenting with dyspepsia, with noninvasive H. pylori testing replacing endoscopy. Non-invasive H. pylori testing has been shown to be useful in predicting the underlying diagnosis in patients presenting with dyspepsia. Several studies have shown that 20,50% of dyspeptic patients with a positive H. pylori test will have evidence of underlying ulcer disease or duodenitis. In contrast, less than 5% of dyspeptic patients with a negative H. pylori test will have evidence of ulcer disease and in these subjects, the likeliest diagnosis is gastroesophageal reflux disease. This has led to many groups recommending that noninvasive H. pylori testing should be used in place of endoscopy, with all those testing positive being given anti- H. pylori therapy and those testing negative being treated symptomatically. One concern about nonendoscopic management of dyspeptic patients is the possibility of missing underlying malignancy but studies have shown that in western countries this is rare in patients less than 55 years of age presenting with dyspepsia in the absence of sinister symptoms. There is increasing evidence supporting eradication of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients without ulcer disease. Meta-analysis of four prospective randomized trials indicates that such treatment is superior to placebo in about 10% of subjects. H. pylori -positive dyspeptic patients are also recognized to have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease in the future which will be removed by treating the infection. Another justification for eradicating the infection in the absence of ulcer disease is the fact that H. pylori infection is now proven to be a risk factor for gastric cancer. Prospective randomized studies comparing endoscopy with noninvasive H. pylori testing in the management of dyspeptic patients indicate that managing dyspepsia by noninvasive H. pylori testing is at least as effective as endoscopic-based management in producing symptomatic resolution and saves a substantial number of endoscopic procedures. There is therefore now substantial evidence indicating that noninvasive H. pylori testing should be used in place of endoscopy to determine the management of younger dyspeptic patients without sinister symptoms and who are not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. [source]


    Oral contrast-enhanced sonography for the diagnosis and grading of postsurgical recurrence of Crohn's disease

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 9 2008
    Fabiana Castiglione MD
    Abstract Background: Postsurgical recurrence (PSR) is very common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and previous surgery. Endoscopy is crucial for the diagnosis of PSR, also showing high prognostic value. Bowel sonography (BS) with or without oral contrast enhancement (OCBS) is accurate for CD diagnosis but its role in PSR detection and grading is poorly investigated. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of BS and OCBS for PSR compared to the endoscopical Rutgeerts's grading system. Methods: We prospectively performed endoscopy, BS, and OCBS in 40 CD patients with previous bowel resection to provide evidence of possible PSR. Endoscopy, BS, and OCBS were executed 1 year after surgery, with PSR diagnosis and grading made in accordance with Rutgeerts. BS and OCBS were considered suggestive for PSR in the presence of bowel wall thickness (BWT) >3 mm. OCBS was performed after ingestion of 750 mL of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Also, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed in order to define the best cutoff of BWT to discriminate mild from severe PSR (grade 0,2 versus 3,4 of Rutgeerts) for both BS and OCBS. Results: In all, 22 out of the 40 CD showed an endoscopic evidence of PSR (55%). A severe PSR was present in 14 patients (64%). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 77%, 94%, 93%, and 80% for BS, and 82%, 94%, 93%, and 84% for OCBS. On the ROC curve a BWT >5 mm showed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 93%, 96%, 88%, and 97% for the diagnosis of severe PSR at BS, while a BWT >4 mm was the best cutoff differentiating the mild from the severe CD recurrence for OCBS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 86%, 96%, 97%, and 79%, respectively. Conclusions: Both BS and OCBS show good sensitivity and high specificity for the diagnosis of PSR in CD, with a BWT >5 mm for BS and BWT >4 mm for OCBS strongly indicative of severe endoscopic PSR. Accordingly, these techniques could replace endoscopy for the diagnosis and grading of PSR in many cases. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]