End-of-life Care (end-of-life + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADVANCE DIRECTIVES AND QUALITY OF END-OF-LIFE CARE: A NATIONAL STUDY

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
Julie Starr RN
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Society of Pediatric Nurses Initiatives for End-of-Life Care

JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN PEDIATRIC NURSING, Issue 2 2001
Dana Nicholson
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Physicians "Missing in Action": Family Perspectives on Physician and Staffing Problems in End-of-Life Care in the Nursing Home

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 10 2005
Renée R. Shield PhD
Objectives: To understand the roles of physicians and staff in nursing homes in relation to end-of-life care through narrative interviews with family members close to a decedent. Design: Qualitative follow-up interviews with 54 respondents who had participated in an earlier national survey of 1,578 informants. Setting: Brown University interviewers conducted telephone interviews with participants throughout the United States. Participants: The 54 participants agreed to a follow-up qualitative interview and were family members or close to the decedent. Measurements: A five-member, multidisciplinary team to identify overarching themes taped, transcribed, and then coded interviews. Results: Respondents report that healthcare professionals often insufficiently address the needs of dying patients in nursing homes and that "missing in action" physicians and insufficient staffing create extra burdens on dying nursing home residents and their families. Conclusion: Sustained efforts to increase the presence of physicians and improve staffing in nursing homes are suggested to improve end-of-life care for dying residents in nursing homes. [source]


End-of-Life Care and Family Involvement

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2004
Abid H. Iraqi MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


End-of-Life Care in Assisted Living and Related Residential Care Settings: Comparison with Nursing Homes

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2003
Philip D. Sloane MD
Objectives: To define the current state of end-of-life care in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) facilities and nursing homes (NHs) and to compare these two types of care settings. Design: Interviews of staff and family informants about deaths that occurred during a longitudinal study. Setting: Fifty-five RC/AL facilities and 26 NHs in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, and North Carolina. Participants: Two hundred twenty-four staff and family informants that best knew the 73 RC/AL residents and 72 NH residents who died in or within 3 days after discharge from a study facility. Measurements: Telephone interviews conducted with the facility staff member who knew the decedent best and the family member who was most involved in care during the last month of life of the decedent. Data were collected on circumstances of death, perceptions of dying process, cause of death, care during the last month of life, mood, discomfort, and family satisfaction. Results: Most decedents died in the facility where they had resided, and more than half of the subjects were alone when they died. Greater proportions of staff and family in the NHs knew that the resident's death was only days or weeks away. Both RC/AL and NH residents experienced few highly negative moods, and even on their most uncom-fortable day, the overall discomfort was low for residents in both facility types. Summary ratings of family satisfaction were significantly higher for the RC/AL (32.1) than the NH (41.2) group (P=.016). Conclusion: These data suggest that end-of-life care in RC/AL settings appears similar in process and outcomes to that provided in NHs. Thus, aging and dying-in-place can effectively occur in RC/AL. [source]


Is the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Compatible with Good End-of-Life Care?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2009
MICHAEL B. GILL
abstract Many have held that there is some kind of incompatibility between a commitment to good end-of-life care and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. This opposition to physician-assisted suicide encompasses a cluster of different claims. In this essay I try to clarify some of the most important of these claims and show that they do not stand up well to conceptual and empirical scrutiny. [source]


Role of Ethics Committees, Ethics Networks, and Ethics Centers in Improving End-of-Life Care

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2001
Myra Christopher BS
This article chronicles the work of Midwest Bioethics Center, several community-state partnerships, and other local and national initiatives to determine their proper role and appropriate contribution. Professional education and development, institutional reform, and community engagement are areas of concern because ethics committees, networks, and centers sponsor workshops and conferences on palliative care for healthcare professionals, hold public forums, develop advance care planning projects, and provide expertise to legislators and other policymakers. The leading edge of the work being done by ethics committees, networks, and centers appears to be using continuous quality improvement methods, specifically the development of quality indicators, to promote accountability in end-of-life care reform efforts. This work is something that ethics committees can and should take on. [source]


End-of-Life Care: Communication and a Stable Patient-Physician Relationship Lead to Better Decisions

CA: A CANCER JOURNAL FOR CLINICIANS, Issue 4 2009
Mary Desmond Pinkowish News & Views Editor
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


A Case for Education in Palliative and End-of-life Care in Emergency Medicine

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
Michael A. Gisondi MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


End-of-life care in intensive care units Save lives that can be saved, offer the dying a peaceful and dignified death

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2003
P. Klepstad
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


End-of-life care in Italy: personal experience of family caregivers.

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
A content analysis of open questions from the Italian Survey of the Dying of Cancer (ISDOC)
Abstract Objective: This study aims at describing the emotional and practical experience of a representative sample of Italian non-professional caregivers when caring for a terminally ill family member and is part of the ,Italian Survey of the Dying of Cancer', which involved 2000 adult cancer deaths representative of the whole country. Methods: Information on patients' experience was gathered from non-professional caregivers by an interview. A specific question was asked about the caregivers' emotional and practical experiences while assisting a terminally ill relative. A content analysis of the open question on caregivers' perceptions was performed on transcribed answers. Three researchers independently generated categories. Subsequently, areas where they differed were reconsidered and an interpretation was agreed upon. Results: Valid interviews were obtained from 1231 non-professional caregivers. Answers were classified according to the perception of the experience as positive (33.1%), negative (65.1%) or neutral (1.8%). Conclusion: Assisting a family member with cancer in his/her last three months of life is a very strong physical and mental stress for the caregiver. In some cases, this experience is nevertheless perceived as an evolution chance. Health-care providers should need to develop programs to ensure that family caregivers' needs for information and support are given great importance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


End-of-life care for older cancer patients in the Veterans Health Administration versus the private sector,,§¶

CANCER, Issue 15 2010
Nancy L. Keating MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Treatment of older cancer patients at the end of life has become increasingly aggressive, despite the absence of evidence for better outcomes. We compared aggressiveness of end-of-life care of older metastatic cancer patients treated in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and those under fee-for-service Medicare arrangements. METHODS: Using propensity score methods, we matched 2913 male veterans who were diagnosed with stage IV lung or colorectal cancer in 2001-2002 and died before 2006 with 2913 similar men enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare living in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) areas. We assessed chemotherapy within 14 days of death, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions within 30 days of death, and >1 emergency room visit within 30 days of death. RESULTS: Among matched cohorts, men treated in the VHA were less likely than men in the private sector to receive chemotherapy within 14 days of death (4.6% vs 7.5%, P < .001), be admitted to an ICU within 30 days of death (12.5% vs 19.7%, P < .001), or have >1 emergency room visit within 30 days of death (13.1 vs 14.7, P = .09). CONCLUSIONS: Older men with metastatic lung or colorectal cancer treated in the VHA healthcare system received less aggressive end-of-life care than similar men in fee-for-service Medicare. This may result from the absence of financial incentives for more intensive care in the VHA or because this integrated delivery system is better structured to limit potentially overly aggressive care. Additional studies are needed to assess whether men undergoing less aggressive end-of-life care also experience better outcomes. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]


Special considerations for haematology patients in relation to end-of-life care: Australian findings

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 2 2007
P. MCGRATH bsocwk, senior research fellow
Recent haematology clinical guidelines recommend that palliative care specialists should have central roles in haemato-oncology teams. However, the available research evidence indicates there are presently significant obstacles to the integration of palliative care in haematology. The following discussion presents findings from an Australian study designed to address the problems associated with lack of referral of haematology patients to the palliative system through the development of a best-practice model for end-of-life care for these diagnostic groups. The preliminary step in the development of such a model is to document the factors that denote the special characteristics of the end-of-life stage of haematological conditions and their treatments. This article presents the list of special considerations from a nursing perspective, including issues associated with the high-tech nature of treatments, the speed of change to a terminal event, the need for blood products and possibility of catastrophic bleeds, the therapeutic optimism based on a myriad of treatment options and the clinical indices of the terminal trajectory. The nursing insights provide an important foundation for building a practical, patient-centred model for terminal care in haematology. [source]


Non-medical palliative care and education to improve end-of-life care at geriatric health services facilities: A nationwide questionnaire survey of chief nurses

GERIATRICS & GERONTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2007
Yoshihisa Hirakawa
Background: Geriatric health services facilities (GHSF) are expected to assume a growing role in caring for the dying elderly. However, research in this area has so far been scant. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the status of non-medical palliative care and staff education aiming at improving and enhancing end-of-life care at GHSF. Methods: The subjects were 2876 chief nurses of GHSF. Data was collected through a mailed questionnaire in 2003. The questionnaire covered the following: (i) staff perception of end-of-life care policies; (ii) staff education; and (iii) available non-medical care. To evaluate the factors correlated with end-of-life care policies at GHSF, we divided the facilities into two groups. Results: We analyzed the answers collected from 313 facilities with a progressive policy toward end-of-life care (PP group) and 818 with a regressive policy toward it (RP group). It was found that staff training was conducted more frequently among PP facilities. Generally, nurses in the PP facilities were more confident that they could provide comprehensive on-site end-of-life care and grieving support, but did not feel so sure about their ability to provide better end-of-life environments for dying residents and family by organizing outside support from voluntary and/or governmental organizations and religious organization for healing and to pursue appropriately a written follow-up communication with the bereaved family. Conclusions: Our results suggest that providing GHSF staff with education about end-of-life issues or setting up collaboration with the outside is an important factor to enhance overall end-of-life care at these facilities. [source]


Medical Expenditures during the Last Year of Life: Findings from the 1992,1996 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 6 2002
Donald R Hoover
Objective. To compare medical expenditures for the elderly (65 years old) over the last year of life with those for nonterminal years. Data Source. From the 1992,1996 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data from about ten thousand elderly persons each year. Study Design. Medical expenditures for the last year of life and nonterminal years by source of payment and type of care were estimated using robust covariance linear model approaches applied to MCBS data. Data Collection. The MCBS is a panel survey of a complex weighted multilevel random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. A structured questionnaire is administered at four-month intervals to collect all medical costs by payer and service. Medicare costs are validated by claims records. Principal Findings. From 1992 to 1996, mean annual medical expenditures (1996 dollars) for persons aged 65 and older were $37,581 during the last year of life versus $7,365 for nonterminal years. Mean total last-year-of-life expenditures did not differ greatly by age at death. However, non-Medicare last-year-of-life expenditures were higher and Medicare last-year-of-life expenditures were lower for those dying at older ages. Last-year-of-life expenses constituted 22 percent of all medical, 26 percent of Medicare, 18 percent of all non-Medicare expenditures, and 25 percent of Medicaid expenditures. Conclusions. While health services delivered near the end of life will continue to consume large portions of medical dollars, the portion paid by non-Medicare sources will likely rise as the population ages. Policies promoting improved allocation of resources for end-of-life care may not affect non-Medicare expenditures, which disproportionately support chronic and custodial care. [source]


Third-wave public health?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDIES, Issue 4 2004
Compassion, community, end-of-life care
Abstract Clinical approaches to end-of-life care often extend their practise into community care, but frequently that practise has been under-recognized and under-theorized. A seamless practise connection with community approaches to end-of-life care is crucial to a total healthcare response to death and loss. One-on-one practises find their greatest therapeutic and aftercare support in a complementary community approach to that care. What public health models might we adapt to assist the psychological professions to support a community response to death and loss? This article reviews recent World Health Organization (WHO) work in community development, in particular the "Healthy Cities" projects. From this review, a "Compassionate Cities" framework is suggested as one fruitful way forward to address issues of prevention, health promotion, and aftercare in a holistic approach to end-of-life care. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Promoting peaceful death in the intensive care unit in Thailand

INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
W. Kongsuwan rn
Background:, Having a peaceful death is a common wish among Thai people. Thai culture and religious beliefs offer practical ways to enhance having a peaceful death. Dying in an intensive care unit (ICU) is unnatural and oftentimes painful for the patient and their loved ones. Promoting a peaceful death is one of the least understood yet critical roles of nurses who practise in ICUs. Purpose:, To explore the ways that ICU nurses in Thailand could promote peaceful death and to attempt a definition of the concept of ,peaceful death'. Method:, Data were generated from ICU nurses' descriptions of peaceful death. These were given during in-depth telephone interviews, tape-recorded and analysed using the grounded theory method of analysis. Findings:, ICU nurses promote peaceful death through a three-dimensional process: awareness of dying; creating a caring environment; and promoting end-of-life care. Conclusions:, The study provided opportunities for nurses to understand and influence the practice of promoting peaceful death in ICUs in Thailand. Further research is needed to enhance the practices and processes necessary for promoting peaceful death among ICU patients. It is anticipated that this will advance policy changes in nursing care processes in Thailand. [source]


Decision-making about artificial feeding in end-of-life care: literature review

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 1 2008
Els Bryon
Abstract Title.,Decision-making about artificial feeding in end-of-life care: literature review. Aim., This paper is a report of a review of nurses' roles and their perceptions of these roles in decision-making processes surrounding artificial food and fluid administration in adult patients. Background., Of all caregivers, nurses have the closest and most trusting relationship with severely ill patients and their families during the entire end-of-life care process. As a result, nurses become closely involved in complex ethical decision-making processes concerning artificial administration of food or fluids for these patients. Data sources., We searched seven electronic databases (1990,2007) and examined the reference lists of relevant papers. Review methods., This mixed methods review was conducted with guidance of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines on systematic reviews. Results., Although their direct impact is limited, nurses play a significant indirect role during decision-making processes. Because of their unique position, they often initiate decision-making processes, function as patient advocates and provide guidance, information and support to patients and families. Although nurses considered their role to be very valuable, they felt that their role was not always defined clearly or appreciated. Whether nurses experience decision-making processes positively depended on several contextual factors. Conclusion., Given their knowledge and practice skills, nurses are in a prime position to contribute valuably to decision-making processes. Nevertheless, they remain sidelined. For nurses to receive sufficient recognition, their decision-making tasks and responsibilities need to be clarified and made manifest to other participants. [source]


A concept analysis of renal supportive care: the changing world of nephrology

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 6 2007
Helen Noble
Abstract Title.,A concept analysis of renal supportive care: the changing world of nephrology Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of renal supportive care. Background., Approximately 1·5 million people worldwide are kept alive by renal dialysis. As services are required to support patients who decide not to start or to withdraw from dialysis, the term renal supportive care is emerging. Being similar to the terms palliative care, end-of-life care, terminal care and conservative management, there is a need for conceptual clarity. Method., Rodgers' evolutionary method was used as the organizing framework for this concept analysis. Data were collected from a review of CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and ASSIA (1806,2006) using, ,renal' and ,supportive care' as keywords. All articles with an abstract were considered. The World Wide Web was also searched in English utilizing the phrase ,renal supportive care'. Results., Five attributes of renal supportive care were identified: available from diagnosis to death with an emphasis on honesty regarding prognosis and impact of disease; interdisciplinary approach to care; restorative care; family and carer support and effective, lucid communication to ensure informed choice and clear lines of decision-making. Conclusion., Renal supportive care is a dynamic and emerging concept relevant, but not limited to, the end phase of life. It suggests a central philosophy underpinning renal service development that allows patients, carers and the multidisciplinary team time to work together to realize complex goals. It has relevance for the renal community and is likely to be integrated increasingly into everyday nephrology practice. [source]


The Oldest Old in the Last Year of Life: Population-Based Findings from Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study Participants Aged 85 and Older at Death

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2010
Jun Zhao MSc
OBJECTIVES: To characterize people of advanced old age in their last year of life and compare those dying in their late 80s with those dying aged 90 and older to inform policy and planning. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected population-based data from the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) Study, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 85 and older at death who died less than 1 year after taking part in any CC75C survey (N=321). MEASUREMENTS: Physical health, functional disability, self-rated health, cognitive status. RESULTS: Functional and cognitive impairments were markedly higher for those who died aged 90 and older, predominantly women,than for those who died aged 85 to 89. At least half (49.4,93.6%) of subjects aged 90 and older needed maximum assistance in virtually every daily activity; those aged 85 to 89 needed this only for shopping and laundry. Disability in basic and instrumental activities rose from 59.1% before to 85.4% after the age of 90 and cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score ,21) from 41.7% to 69.4%. Despite this and proximity to death, 60.5% and 67.0%, respectively, rated their health positively. Only one in five reported needing more help. CONCLUSION: This study provides new data identifying high levels of physical and cognitive disability in very old people in the year before death. As the very old population rises, so will support needs for people dying in extreme old age. The mismatch between health perceptions and functional limitations suggests that these vulnerable older adults may not seek help from which they could benefit. These findings have major policy and planning implications for end-of-life care for the oldest old. [source]


Geriatric Oncology and Primary Care: Promoting Partnerships in Practice and Research

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2009
Julia Hannum Rose PhD
This supplement is a compilation of original work that was presented at an interdisciplinary conference on "Geriatric Oncology and Primary Care: Promoting Partnerships in Practice and Research" held in Cleveland, Ohio, April 3 to 4, 2008. An audience of 77 clinicians and researchers attended this conference, primarily coming from Ohio and adjacent states. Articles are organized around a conceptual framework to consider primary and shared care roles of primary care physicians (PCPs) and oncologists in the care of older patients with cancer and their families. Articles in Section One focus on evidence-based clinical practice and recommendations. Section Two includes articles on original psychosocial and health services research that inform this topic. Papers in this conference were developed in recognition of the greater prevalence and growing incidence of cancer in older adults; the unique geriatric expertise and practice considerations essential to the prevention and control of cancer in older adults; the important and effective roles that PCPs may play in such care; and the need to develop shared care models that foster collaboration between PCPs and oncologists, from cancer prevention through long-term survivorship and end-of-life care of older adults. Models of shared care between oncologists and PCPs should be tested and compared for optimal care of older patients with cancer and their families. Potential implications of ideally shared care include more-informed patient-centered decision-making, better adherence to treatment, improved match between older patient goals and treatments, and thus better outcomes. [source]


Nursing Home Capabilities and Decisions to Hospitalize: A Survey of Medical Directors and Directors of Nursing

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
Joan L. Buchanan PhD
OBJECTIVES: To obtain information from decision makers about attitudes toward hospitalization and the factors that influence their decisions to hospitalize nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Four hundred forty-eight nursing homes, 76% of which were nonprofit, from 25 states. PARTICIPANTS: Medical directors and directors of nursing (DONs). MEASUREMENTS: Participants were surveyed about resource availability, determinants of hospitalization, causes of overhospitalization, and nursing home practice. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 81%, with at least one survey from 93% of the facilities. Medical directors and DONs agreed that resident preference was the most important determinant in the decision to hospitalize, followed by quality of life. Although both groups ranked on-site doctor/nurse practitioner evaluation within 4 hours as the least accessible resource, they did not rank doctors not being quickly available as an important cause of overhospitalization. Rather, medical directors perceived the lack of information and support to residents and families around end-of-life care and the lack of familiarity with residents by covering doctors as the most important causes of overhospitalization. DONs agreed but reversed the order. Medical directors and DONs expressed confidence in provider and staff ability, although DONs were significantly more positive. CONCLUSION: Medical directors and DONs agree about most factors that influence decisions to hospitalize nursing home residents. Patient-centered factors play the largest roles, and the most important causes of overhospitalization are potentially modifiable. [source]


Are Patient Preferences for Life-Sustaining Treatment Really a Barrier to Hospice Enrollment for Older Adults with Serious Illness?

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
David Casarett MD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patient preferences are a barrier to hospice enrollment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Fifteen ambulatory primary care and specialty clinics and three general medicine inpatient units. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred three seriously ill patients with cancer (n=65, 32%), congestive heart failure (n=77, 38%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=61, 30%) completed multiple interviews over a period of up to 24 months. MEASUREMENTS: Preferences for high- and low-burden life-sustaining treatment and site of death and concern about being kept alive by machines. RESULTS: Patients were more likely to enroll in hospice after interviews at which they said that they did not want low-burden treatment (3 patients enrolled/16 interviews at which patients did not want low-burden treatment vs 47 patients enrolled/841 interviews at which patients wanted low-burden treatment; relative risk (RR)=3.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17,9.66), as were interviews at which patients said they would not want high-burden treatment (5/28 vs 45/826; RR=3.28, 95% CI=1.14,7.62), although most patients whose preferences were consistent with hospice did not enroll before the next interview. In multivariable Cox regression models, patients with noncancer diagnoses who desired low-burden treatment (hazard ratio (HR)=0.46, 95% CI=0.33,0.68) were less likely to enroll in hospice, and those who were concerned that they would be kept alive by machines were more likely to enroll (HR=5.46, 95% CI=1.86,15.88), although in patients with cancer, neither preferences nor concerns about receiving excessive treatment were associated with hospice enrollment. Preference for site of death was not associated with hospice enrollment. CONCLUSION: Overall, few patients had treatment preferences that would make them eligible for hospice, although even in patients whose preferences were consistent with hospice, few enrolled. Efforts to improve end-of-life care should offer alternatives to hospice that do not require patients to give up life-sustaining treatment, as well as interventions to improve communication about patients' preferences. [source]


Physicians "Missing in Action": Family Perspectives on Physician and Staffing Problems in End-of-Life Care in the Nursing Home

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 10 2005
Renée R. Shield PhD
Objectives: To understand the roles of physicians and staff in nursing homes in relation to end-of-life care through narrative interviews with family members close to a decedent. Design: Qualitative follow-up interviews with 54 respondents who had participated in an earlier national survey of 1,578 informants. Setting: Brown University interviewers conducted telephone interviews with participants throughout the United States. Participants: The 54 participants agreed to a follow-up qualitative interview and were family members or close to the decedent. Measurements: A five-member, multidisciplinary team to identify overarching themes taped, transcribed, and then coded interviews. Results: Respondents report that healthcare professionals often insufficiently address the needs of dying patients in nursing homes and that "missing in action" physicians and insufficient staffing create extra burdens on dying nursing home residents and their families. Conclusion: Sustained efforts to increase the presence of physicians and improve staffing in nursing homes are suggested to improve end-of-life care for dying residents in nursing homes. [source]


Qualitative Analysis of Medicare Claims in the Last 3 Years of Life: A Pilot Study

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2005
Amber E. Barnato MD
Objectives: To study end-of-life care of a representative sample of older people using qualitative interpretation of administrative claims by clinicians and to explore whether this method yields insights into patient care, including continuity, errors, and cause of death. Design: Random, stratified sampling of decedents and all their Medicare-covered healthcare claims in the 3 years before death from a 5% sample of elderly fee-for-service beneficiaries, condensation of all claims into a chronological clinical summary, and abstraction by two independent clinicians using a standardized form. Setting: United States. Participants: One hundred Medicare fee-for-service older people without disability or end-stage renal disease entitlement who died in 1996 to 1999 and had at least 36 months of continuous Part A and Part B enrollment before death. Measurements: Qualitative narrative of the patient's medical course; clinician assessment of care continuity and apparent medical errors; cause, trajectory, and place of death. Results: The qualitative narratives developed by the independent abstracters were highly concordant. Clinicians felt that 75% of cases lacked continuity of care that could have improved the quality of life and the way the person died, and 13% of cases had a medical error identified by both abstracters. Abstracters disagreed about assignment of a single cause of death in 28% of cases, and abstracters and the computer algorithm disagreed in 43% of cases. Conclusion: Qualitative claims analysis illuminated many problems in the care of chronically ill older people at the end of life and suggested that traditional vital statistics assignation of a single cause of death may distort policy priorities. This novel approach to claims review is feasible and deserves further study. [source]


End-of-Life Care in Assisted Living and Related Residential Care Settings: Comparison with Nursing Homes

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2003
Philip D. Sloane MD
Objectives: To define the current state of end-of-life care in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) facilities and nursing homes (NHs) and to compare these two types of care settings. Design: Interviews of staff and family informants about deaths that occurred during a longitudinal study. Setting: Fifty-five RC/AL facilities and 26 NHs in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, and North Carolina. Participants: Two hundred twenty-four staff and family informants that best knew the 73 RC/AL residents and 72 NH residents who died in or within 3 days after discharge from a study facility. Measurements: Telephone interviews conducted with the facility staff member who knew the decedent best and the family member who was most involved in care during the last month of life of the decedent. Data were collected on circumstances of death, perceptions of dying process, cause of death, care during the last month of life, mood, discomfort, and family satisfaction. Results: Most decedents died in the facility where they had resided, and more than half of the subjects were alone when they died. Greater proportions of staff and family in the NHs knew that the resident's death was only days or weeks away. Both RC/AL and NH residents experienced few highly negative moods, and even on their most uncom-fortable day, the overall discomfort was low for residents in both facility types. Summary ratings of family satisfaction were significantly higher for the RC/AL (32.1) than the NH (41.2) group (P=.016). Conclusion: These data suggest that end-of-life care in RC/AL settings appears similar in process and outcomes to that provided in NHs. Thus, aging and dying-in-place can effectively occur in RC/AL. [source]


Life-Sustaining Treatments: What Do Physicians Want and Do They Express Their Wishes to Others?

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 7 2003
Joseph J. Gallo MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether older physicians have discussed their preferences for medical care at the end of life with their physicians, whether they have established an advance directive, and what life-sustaining treatment they wish in the event of incapacity to make these decisions for themselves. DESIGN: Mailed survey to a cohort of physicians. SETTING: Physicians who were medical students at the Johns Hopkins University in graduating classes from 1946 to 1964. PARTICIPANTS: Physicians who completed the advance directive questionnaire (mean age 68). MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires were sent out to known surviving physicians of the Precursors Study, an on-going study that began in 1946, asking physicians about their preferences for life-sustaining treatments. RESULTS: Of 999 physicians who were sent the survey, 765 (77%) responded. Forty-six percent of the physicians felt that their own doctors were unaware of their treatment preferences or were not sure, and of these respondents, 59% had no intention of discussing their wishes with their doctors within the next year. In contrast, 89% thought their families were probably or definitely aware of their preferences. Sixty-four percent reported that they had established an advance directive. Compared with physicians without advance directives, physicians who established an advance directive were more likely to believe that their doctors (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.49,4.69) or family members (OR = 9.58, 95% CI = 5.33,17.23) were aware of their preferences for end-of-life care and were more likely to refuse treatments than those without advance directives. CONCLUSION: This survey of physicians calls attention to the gap between preferences for medical care at the end of life and expressing wishes to others through discussion and advance directives, even among physicians. [source]


Is the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Compatible with Good End-of-Life Care?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2009
MICHAEL B. GILL
abstract Many have held that there is some kind of incompatibility between a commitment to good end-of-life care and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. This opposition to physician-assisted suicide encompasses a cluster of different claims. In this essay I try to clarify some of the most important of these claims and show that they do not stand up well to conceptual and empirical scrutiny. [source]


The essentials of Advance Care Planning for end-of-life care for older people

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 3-4 2010
Sarah Yeun-Sim Jeong
Aims and objectives., The aim of the study was to investigate the phenomenon of Advance Care Planning and the use of Advance Care Directives in residential aged care facilities in Australia. The objectives were to: ,,investigate the implementation process of Advance Care Planning and the use of Advance Care Directives; ,,investigate the outcomes of Advance Care Planning and experiences of people involved in Advance Care Planning and Advance Care Directives, including residents, families and nursing staff. Background., Benefits of Advance Care Planning for older residents are considerable given their degenerative health-breakdown and minimal chance of recovery. To date, the use of Advance Care Planning and Advance Care Directives is limited and models of service delivery and processes are needed to enhance best practice with Advance Care Planning and positive outcomes for older Australians. Design., Case study. Methods., The study conducted using multiple sources of evidence to enrich understanding of the phenomenon of Advance Care Planning. The researcher engaged in data collection over six months involving participant observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The findings contribute to the limited knowledge of options currently available to older adults and their families in their decision-making about end-of-life care options. Permission to conduct the study., Prior to commencement of the data collection, ethics clearances from the University of Newcastle and the regional Area Health Service were achieved. Permission to access the residential aged care facilities to undertake the study was obtained from the relevant residential aged care facility ethics committees or designated authorities. The researcher undertook several strategies to ensure all the ethical principles were considered and adhered to while conducting the project. Results., The research identified the components and factors involved in the Advance Care Planning process and in attaining desired outcomes. The conceptual framework developed elaborates how Advance Care Planning should be implemented and what may constitute successful implementation of Advance Care Planning in residential aged care facilities. The four main elements (input, throughput, output, feedback), and 20 sub-elements were requisites for nurses to initiate and implement the Advance Care Planning. Conclusion., The essential components for end-of-life care are identified in the implementation processes of Advance Care Planning in residential aged care facilities. The study contributes to greater awareness of the processes needed for ,dying well' and highlights the need to explore experiences of ,successful dying' and the way nurses contribute to these events. Relevance to clinical practice., The case study identified four determinative requisites for successful implementation of Advance Care Planning in aged care facilities: the expert nurse, discussion, education and involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Nurses should take these factors into account and use person-centred approach in formalised processes to encourage participation in plans for end-of-life care. [source]


Response to Ingleton C & Froggatt K (2009) Commentary on Hewison A, Badger F, Clifford C & Thomas K (2009) Delivering ,Gold Standards' in end-of-life care in care homes: a question of teamwork?

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 22 2009
1765 in Journal of Clinical Nursing 1, Journal of Clinical Nursing 1
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