End-expiratory Pressure (end-expiratory + pressure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of End-expiratory Pressure

  • high positive end-expiratory pressure
  • positive end-expiratory pressure

  • Selected Abstracts

    A Single Ventilator for Multiple Simulated Patients to Meet Disaster Surge

    Greg Neyman MD
    Objectives To determine if a ventilator available in an emergency department could quickly be modified to provide ventilation for four adults simultaneously. Methods Using lung simulators, readily available plastic tubing, and ventilators (840 Series Ventilator; Puritan-Bennett), human lung simulators were added in parallel until the ventilator was ventilating the equivalent of four adults. Data collected included peak pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, total tidal volume, and total minute ventilation. Any obvious asymmetry in the delivery of gas to the lung simulators was also documented. The ventilator was run for almost 12 consecutive hours (5.5 hours of pressure control and more than six hours of volume control). Results Using readily available plastic tubing set up to minimize dead space volume, the four lung simulators were easily ventilated for 12 hours using one ventilator. In pressure control (set at 25 mm H2O), the mean tidal volume was 1,884 mL (approximately 471 mL/lung simulator) with an average minute ventilation of 30.2 L/min (or 7.5 L/min/lung simulator). In volume control (set at 2 L), the mean peak pressure was 28 cm H2O and the minute ventilation was 32.5 L/min total (8.1 L/min/lung simulator). Conclusions A single ventilator may be quickly modified to ventilate four simulated adults for a limited time. The volumes delivered in this simulation should be able to sustain four 70-kg individuals. While further study is necessary, this pilot study suggests significant potential for the expanded use of a single ventilator during cases of disaster surge involving multiple casualties with respiratory failure. [source]

    The effects of methylene blue on ovine post-pneumonectomy pulmonary oedema

    Background: We recently reported that post-pneumonectomy pulmonary oedema (PPO) occurs after ventilating the remaining lung with excessive tidal volumes. Studies in small animals have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) release increases in hyper-inflated lungs, but confirmatory evidence from larger animals is still lacking. We hypothesized that PPO could be prevented by methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Methods: Sheep were subjected to a right-sided pneumonectomy (PE) and randomly assigned to a protectively ventilated group ((PROTV group, n=7) with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg at 20 inflations/min and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 2 cmH2O, and two groups undergoing ,injurious ventilation' (INJV) with tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg and zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), a control group (INJV group, n=7) and a treatment group subjected to MB 1 h after PE (INJV+MB group, n=7). Haemodynamic variables, lung mechanics, blood gases and plasma nitrites and nitrates (NOx) were determined. Results: PE reduced pulmonary blood volume, extravascular lung water (EVLWI) and quasistatic lung compliance in all groups, in parallel with a rise in peak airway pressure (P<0.05). In the INJV group, pulmonary arterial pressure, EVLWI and pulmonary vascular permeability index increased and arterial oxygenation decreased towards cessation of the experiments. These changes were not antagonized by MB. Plasma NOx increased in all the groups compared with baseline, but with no intergroup difference. Conclusion: MB did not reduce PPO and accumulation of NOx in sheep subjected to ventilation with excessive tidal volumes and ZEEP. [source]

    How do COPD and healthy-lung patients tolerate the reduced volume ventilation strategy during OLV ventilation.

    Background: Although a strategy of tidal volume (Vt) reduction during the one-lung ventilation (OLV) period is advised in thoracic surgery, the influence of the pre-operative respiratory status on the tolerance of this strategy remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the pulmonary function between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy-lung patients during the operative and the post-operative period. Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing a planned lobectomy for cancer and presenting either a healthy lung function (n=24) or a moderate COPD stage (n=24) were ventilated without external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and received 9 ml/kg Vt during the two-lung ventilation (TLV) period, secondary reduced to 6 ml/kg during the OLV period. Lung function was assessed by peroperative gas exchange, venous admixture, respiratory mechanical parameters and post-operative spirometric measurements. Results: Although the PaO2 was superior in the healthy-lung group during the TLV, once the OLV was established, no difference was observed between the two groups. Moreover, the PaO2/FiO2 was proportionally more impaired in the healthy-lung group compared with the COPD group (50 ▒ 13 vs. 72 ▒ 19% of the baseline values after exclusion and 32 ▒ 15 vs. 51 ▒ 25% after the thoracotomy, P<0.05 for each) as well as the venous admixture. In the post-operative period, a higher decrease was observed in the healthy-lung group for the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume. Conclusions: Reducing Vt to 6 ml/kg without the adjunction of external PEEP during OLV is associated with better preservation of lung function in the case of moderate COPD than in the case of healthy-lung status. [source]

    Hepatic effects of an open lung strategy and cardiac output restoration in an experimental lung injury

    Background: Ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can lead to liver dysfunction. We hypothesized that an open lung concept (OLC) using high PEEP impairs liver function and integrity dependent on the stabilization of cardiac output. Methods: Juvenile female Pietrain pigs instrumented with flow probes around the common hepatic artery and portal vein, pulmonary and hepatic vein catheters underwent a lavage-induced lung injury. Ventilation was continued with a conventional approach (CON) using pre-defined combinations of PEEP and inspiratory oxygen fraction or with an OLC using PEEP set above the lower inflection point of the lung. Volume replacement with colloids was guided to maintain cardiac output in the CON(V+) and OLC(V+) groups or acceptable blood pressure and heart rate in the OLC(V,) group. Indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR), blood gases, liver-specific serum enzymes, bilirubin, hyaluronic acid and lactate were tested. Finally, liver tissue was examined for neutrophil accumulation, TUNEL staining, caspase-3 activity and heat shock protein 70 mRNA expression. Results: Hepatic venous oxygen saturation was reduced to 18 ▒ 16% in the OLC(V,) group, while portal venous blood flow decreased by 45%. ICG-PDR was not reduced and serum enzymes, bilirubin and lactate were not elevated. Liver cell apoptosis was negligible. Liver sinusoids in the OLC(V+) and OLC(V,) groups showed about two- and fourfold more granulocytes than the CON(V+) group. Heat shock protein 70 tended to be higher in the OLC(V,) group. Conclusions: Open lung ventilation elicited neutrophil infiltration, but no liver dysfunction even without the stabilization of cardiac output. [source]

    Diagnosing acute lung injury in the critically ill: a national survey among critical care physicians

    A. P. J. VLAAR
    Background: Incidence reports on acute lung injury (ALI) vary widely. An insight into the diagnostic preferences of critical care physicians when diagnosing ALI may improve identification of the ALI patient population. Methods: Critical care physicians in the Netherlands were surveyed using vignettes involving hypothetical patients and a questionnaire. The vignettes varied in seven diagnostic determinants based on the North American European Consensus Conference and the lung injury score. Preferences were analyzed using a mixed-effects logistic regression model and presented as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval. Results: From 243 surveys sent to 30 hospitals, 101 were returned (42%). ORs were as follows: chest X-ray consistent with ALI: OR 1.7 (1.3,2.3), high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (15 cmH2O): OR 5.0 (3.9,6.6), low pulmonary artery occlusion pressures (PAOP) (<18 mmHg): OR 4.7 (3.6,6.1), low compliance (30 ml/cmH2O): OR 0.7 (0.5,0.9), low PaO2/FiO2 (<250 mmHg): OR 9.2 (6.9,12.3), absence of heart failure: OR 1.2 (0.9,1.5), presence of a risk factor for ALI (sepsis): OR 1.0 (0.8,1.3). The questionnaire revealed that critical care physicians with an anesthesiology background differed from physicians with an internal medicine background with regard to hemodynamic variables when considering an ALI diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: Dutch critical care physicians consider the PEEP level, but not the presence of a risk factor for ALI, as an important factor to diagnose ALI. Background specialty of critical care physicians influences diagnostic preferences and may account for variance in the reported incidence of ALI. [source]

    Visualization of alveolar recruitment in a porcine model of unilateral lung lavage using 3He-MRI

    Background: In the acute respiratory distress syndrome potentially recruitable lung volume is currently discussed. 3He-magnetic resonance imaging (3He-MRI) offers the possibility to visualize alveolar recruitment directly. Methods: With the approval of the state animal care committee, unilateral lung damage was induced in seven anesthetized pigs by saline lavage of the right lungs. The left lung served as an intraindividual control (healthy lung). Unilateral lung damage was confirmed by conventional proton MRI and spiral-CT scanning. The total aerated lung volume was determined both at a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0 and 10 mbar from three-dimensionally reconstructed 3He images, both for healthy and damaged lungs. The fractional increase of aerated volume in damaged and healthy lungs, followed by a PEEP increase from 0 to 10 mbar, was compared. Results: Aerated gas space was visualized with a high spatial resolution in the three-dimensionally reconstructed 3He-MR images, and aeration defects in the lavaged lung matched the regional distribution of atelectasis in proton MRI. After recruitment and PEEP increase, the aerated volume increased significantly both in healthy lungs from 415 ml [270,445] (median [min,max]) to 481 ml [347,523] and in lavaged lungs from 264 ml [71,424] to 424 ml [129,520]. The fractional increase in lavaged lungs was significantly larger than that in healthy lungs (healthy: 17% [11,38] vs. lavage: 42% [14,90] (P=0.031). Conclusion: The 3He-MRI signal might offer an experimental approach to discriminate atelectatic vs. poor aerated lung areas in a lung damage animal model. Our results confirm the presence of potential recruitable lung volume by either alveolar collapse or alveolar flooding, in accordance with previous reports by computed tomography. [source]

    A Scandinavian survey of drug administration through inhalation, suctioning and recruitment maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients

    Background: The aim was to describe current practices for drug administration through inhalation, endotracheal suctioning and lung recruitment maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients in Scandinavian intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: We invited 161 ICUs to participate in a web-based survey regarding (1) their routine standards and (2) current treatment of ventilated patients during the past 24 h. In order to characterize the patients, the lowest PaO2 with the corresponding highest FiO2, and the highest PaO2 with the corresponding lowest FiO2 during the 24-h study period were recorded. Results: Eighty-seven ICUs answered and reported 186 patients. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels (cmH2O) were 5,9 in 65% and >10 in 31% of the patients. Forty percent of the patients had heated humidification and 50% received inhalation of drugs. Endotracheal suctioning was performed >7 times during the study period in 40% of the patients, of which 23% had closed suction systems. Twenty percent of the patients underwent recruitment maneuvers. The most common recruitment maneuver was to increase PEEP and gradually increase the inspiratory pressure. Twenty-six percent of the calculated PaO2/FiO2 ratios varied >13 kPa for the same patient. Conclusion: Frequent use of drug administration through inhalation and endotracheal suctioning predispose to derecruitment of the lungs, possibly resulting in the large variations in PaO2/FiO2 ratios observed during the 24-h study period. Recruitment maneuvers were performed only in one-fifth of the patients during the day of the survey. [source]

    Isoflurane attenuates pulmonary interleukin-1, and systemic tumor necrosis factor-, following mechanical ventilation in healthy mice

    Background: Mechanical ventilation (MV) induces an inflammatory response in healthy lungs. The resulting pro-inflammatory state is a risk factor for ventilator-induced lung injury and peripheral organ dysfunction. Isoflurane is known to have protective immunological effects on different organ systems. We tested the hypothesis that the MV-induced inflammatory response in healthy lungs is reduced by isoflurane. Methods: Healthy C57BL6 mice (n=34) were mechanically ventilated (tidal volume, 8 ml/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure, 4 cmH2O; and fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.4) for 4 h under general anesthesia using a mix of ketamine, medetomidine and atropine (KMA). Animals were divided into four groups: (1) Unventilated control group; (2) MV group using KMA anesthesia; (3) MV group using KMA with 0.25 MAC isoflurane; (4) MV group using KMA with 0.75 MAC isoflurane. Cytokine levels were measured in lung homogenate and plasma. Leukocytes were counted in lung tissue. Results: Lung homogenates: MV increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. In mice receiving KMA+ isoflurane 0.75 MAC, no significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1, was found compared with non-ventilated control mice. Plasma: MV induced a systemic pro-inflammatory response. In mice anesthetized with KMA+ isoflurane (both 0.25 and 0.75 MAC), no significant increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, was found compared with non-ventilated control mice. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that isoflurane attenuates the pulmonary IL-1, and systemic TNF-, response following MV in healthy mice. [source]

    Monitoring pulmonary perfusion by electrical impedance tomography: an evaluation in a pig model

    Background: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive technique that generates images of impedance distribution. Changes in the pulmonary content of air and blood are major determinants of thoracic impedance. This study was designed to evaluate EIT in monitoring pulmonary perfusion in a wide range of cardiac output. Methods: Eight anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated pigs were fitted with a 16-electrode belt at the mid-thoracic level to generate EIT images that were analysed to determine pulse-synchronous systolic changes in impedance (,Zsys). Stroke volume (SV) was derived using a pulmonary artery catheter. Reductions in cardiac pre-load, and thus pulmonary perfusion, were induced either by inflating the balloon of a Fogarty catheter positioned in the inferior caval vein or by increasing the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). All measurements were performed in a steady state during a short apnoea. Results: Pulse-synchronous changes in ,Zsys were easily discernable during apnoea. Balloon inflation reduced SV to 36% of the baseline, with a corresponding decrease in ,Zsys to 45% of baseline. PEEP reduced SV and ,Zsys to 52% and 44% of the baseline, respectively. Significant correlations between SV and ,Zsys were demonstrated during all measurements (,=0.62) as well as during balloon inflation (,=0.73) and increased PEEP (,=0.40). A Bland,Altman comparison of relative changes in SV and ,Zsys demonstrated a bias of ,7%, with 95% limits of agreement at ,51% and 36%. Conclusions: EIT provided beat-to-beat approximations of pulmonary perfusion that significantly correlated to a wide range of SV values achieved during both extra and intrapulmonary interventions to change cardiac output. [source]

    Hemodynamic effects of PEEP in a porcine model of HCl-induced mild acute lung injury

    C. K. MARUMO
    Background: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and sustained inspiratory insufflations (SI) during acute lung injury (ALI) are suggested to improve oxygenation and respiratory mechanics. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of PEEP with and without alveolar recruiting maneuver in a mild ALI model induced by inhalation of hydrochloric acid. Methods: Thirty-two pigs were randomly allocated into four groups (Control,PEEP, Control,SI, ALI,PEEP and ALI,SI). ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP values were progressively increased and decreased from 5, 10, 15 and 20 cmH2O in all groups. Three SIs maneuvers of 30 cmH2O for 20 s were applied to the assignable groups between each PEEP level. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), global hemodynamics, oxygenation indexes and gastric tonometry were measured 5 min after the maneuvers had been concluded and at each established value of PEEP (5, 10, 15 and 20 cmH2O). Results: The cardiac index, ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume of right ventricle were significantly (P<0.001) decreased with PEEP in both Control and ALI groups. Left ventricle echocardiography showed a significant decrease in end-diastolic volume at 20 cmH2O of PEEP (P<0.001). SIs did not exert any significant hemodynamic effects either early (after 5 min) or late (after 3 h). Conclusions: In a mild ALI model induced by inhalation of hydrochloric acid, significant hemodynamic impairment characterized by cardiac function deterioration occurred during PEEP increment, but SI, probably due to low applied values (30 cmH2O), did not exert further negative hemodynamic effects. PEEP should be used cautiously in ALI caused by acid gastric content inhalation. [source]

    Beneficial effects of high positive end-expiratory pressure in lung respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic surgery

    Background: The effect of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the elastic properties of the respiratory system during pneumoperitoneum (PnP) remains a controversial subject. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NMB and PEEP on respiratory mechanics. Methods: We performed a dynamic analysis of respiratory mechanics in patients subjected to PnP. Twenty-one patients underwent cholecystectomy videolaparoscopy and total intravenous anesthesia. The respiratory system resistance (RRS), pulmonary elastance (EP), chest wall elastance (ECW), and respiratory system elastance (ERS) were computed via the least squares fit technique using an equation describing the motion of the respiratory system, which uses primary signs such as airway pressure, tidal volume, air flow, and esophageal pressures. Measurements were taken after tracheal intubation, PnP, NMB, establishment of PEEP (10 cmH2O), and PEEP withdrawal [zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP)]. Results: PnP significantly increased ERS by 27%; both EP and ECW increased 21.3 and 64.1%, respectively (P<0.001). NMB did not alter the respiratory mechanic properties. Setting PEEP reduced ERS by 8.6% (P<0.05), with a reduction of 10.9% in EP (P<0.01) and a significant decline of 15.7% in RRS (P<0.05). These transitory changes in elastance disappeared after ZEEP. Conclusions: We concluded that the 10 cmH2O of PEEP attenuates the effects of PnP in respiratory mechanics, lowering RRS, EP, and ERS. These effects may be useful in the ventilatory approach for patients experiencing a non-physiological increase in IAP owing to PnP in laparoscopic procedures. [source]

    Effects of PEEP levels following repeated recruitment maneuvers on ventilator-induced lung injury

    S.-C. KO
    Background: Different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with and without a recruitment maneuver (RM) may have a significant impact on ventilator-induced lung injury but this issue has not been well addressed. Methods: Anesthetized rats received hydrochloric acid (HCl, pH 1.5) aspiration, followed by mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg. The animals were randomized into four groups of 10 each: (1) high PEEP at 6 cm H2O with an RM by applying peak airway pressure at 30 cm H2O for 10 s every 15 min; (2) low PEEP at 2 cm H2O with RM; (3) high PEEP alone; and (4) low PEEP alone. Results: The mean arterial pressure and the amounts of fluid infused were similar in the four groups. Application of the higher PEEP improved oxygenation compared with the lower PEEP groups (P<0.05). The lung compliance was better reserved, and the systemic cytokine responses and lung wet to dry ratio were lower in the high PEEP than in the low PEEP group for a given RM (P<0.05). Conclusions: The use of a combination of periodic RM and the higher PEEP had an additive effect in improving oxygenation and pulmonary mechanics and attenuation of inflammation. [source]

    Arterial oxygen tension increase 2,3 h after hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a prospective observational study

    B. Ratzenhofer-Komenda
    Background:, Inhalation of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been reported to decrease arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) in the early period after exposure. The current investigation aimed at evaluating whether and to what extent arterial blood gases were affected in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients within 6 h after HBO treatment. Methods:, Arterial blood gases were measured in 11 ventilated subjects [nine males, two females, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) mode] undergoing HBO therapy for necrotizing soft tissue infection (seven patients), burn injury (two patients), crush injury (one patient) and major abdominal surgery (one patient). Blood gases were obtained with the patients in the supine position under continuous analgesia and sedation before the hyperbaric session (baseline), during isopression, after decompression, after each transport, and 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after exposure. Heart rates and blood pressures were recorded. Intensive care unit (ICU) ventilator settings remained unchanged. Transport and chamber ventilator settings were adjusted to baseline with maintenance of tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. The hyperbaric protocol consisted of 222.9 kPa (2.2 absolute atmospheres) and a 50-min isopression phase. The paired Wilcoxon's test was used. Results:, Major findings (median values, 25%/75% quantiles) as per cent change of baseline: PaO2 values decreased by 19.7% (7.0/31.7, P < 0.01) after 1 h and were elevated over baseline by 9.3% (1.5/13.7, P < 0.05) after 3 h. SaO2, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference and PaO2/FiO2 ratio behaved concomitantly. Acid-base status and carbon dioxide tension were unaffected. Conclusion:, Arterial oxygen tension declines transiently after HBO and subsequently improves over baseline in intensive care patients on volume-controlled mechanical ventilation. The effectiveness of other ventilation modes or a standardized recruitment manoeuvre has yet to be evaluated. [source]

    Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization using electric impedance tomography in morbidly obese patients during laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery

    K. Erlandsson
    Background:, Morbidly obese patients have an increased risk for peri-operative lung complications and develop a decrease in functional residual capacity (FRC). Electric impedance tomography (EIT) can be used for continuous, fast-response measurement of lung volume changes. This method was used to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain FRC. Methods:, Fifteen patients with a body mass index of 49 ▒ 8 kg/m2 were studied during anaesthesia for laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. Before induction, 16 electrodes were placed around the thorax to monitor ventilation-induced impedance changes. Calibration of the electric impedance tomograph against lung volume changes was made by increasing the tidal volume in steps of 200 ml. PEEP was titrated stepwise to maintain a horizontal baseline of the EIT curve, corresponding to a stable FRC. Absolute FRC was measured with a nitrogen wash-out/wash-in technique. Cardiac output was measured with an oesophageal Doppler method. Volume expanders, 1 ▒ 0.5 l, were given to prevent PEEP-induced haemodynamic impairment. Results:, Impedance changes closely followed tidal volume changes (R2 > 0.95). The optimal PEEP level was 15 ▒ 1 cmH2O, and FRC at this PEEP level was 1706 ▒ 447 ml before and 2210 ▒ 540 ml after surgery (P < 0.01). The cardiac index increased significantly from 2.6 ▒ 0.5 before to 3.1 ▒ 0.8 l/min/m2 after surgery, and the alveolar dead space decreased. PaO2/FiO2, shunt and compliance remained unchanged. Conclusion:, EIT enables rapid assessment of lung volume changes in morbidly obese patients, and optimization of PEEP. High PEEP levels need to be used to maintain a normal FRC and to minimize shunt. Volume loading prevents circulatory depression in spite of a high PEEP level. [source]

    Ventilator treatment in the Nordic countries.

    A multicenter survey
    Background: A 1-day point prevalence study was performed in the Nordic countries to identify ventilator-treatment strategies in the region. Material and methods: On 30 May 30 2001 all mechanically ventilated patients in 27 intensive care units (ICUs) were registered via the internet. The results are shown as medians (25th, 75th percentile). Results: ,One hundred and eight patients were included (69% male) with new simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) 48 (37,57) and 4.5 d (2,11) of ventilator treatment. The most frequent indication for ventilator treatment was acute respiratory failure (73%). Airway management was by endotracheal tube (64%), tracheostomy (32%) and facial mask (4%). Pressure regulated ventilator modes were used in 86% of the patients and spontaneous triggering was allowed in 75%. The tidal volume was 7 ml/kg (6,9), peak inspiratory pressure 22 cmH2O (18,26) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 6 cmH2O (6,9). FiO2 was 40% (35,50), SaO2 97% (95,98), PaO2 11 kPa (10,13), PaCO2 5.4 kPa (4.7,6.3), pH 7.43 (7.38,7.47) and BE 2.0 mmol/l (, 0.5,5). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 220 mmHg (166,283). The peak inspiratory pressure (r=0.37), mean airway pressure (r=0.36), PEEP (r=0.33), tidal volume (r=0.22) and SAPS score (r=0.19) were identified as independent variables in relation to the PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Conclusion: The vast majority of patients were ventilated with pressure-regulated modes. Tidal volume was well below what has been considered conventional in recent large trials. Correlations between the parameters of gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, ventilator settings and physiological status of the patients was poor. It appears that blood gas values are the main tool used to steer ventilator treatment. These results may help to design future interventional studies of ventilator treatment. [source]

    Performance of three minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring systems

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 7 2009
    R. B. P. De Wilde
    Summary We evaluated cardiac output (CO) using three new methods , the auto-calibrated FloTrac,Vigileo (COed), the non-calibrated Modelflow (COmf,) pulse contour method and the ultra-sound HemoSonic system (COhs) , with thermodilution (COtd) as the reference. In 13 postoperative cardiac surgical patients, 104 paired CO values were assessed before, during and after four interventions: (i) an increase of tidal volume by 50%; (ii) a 10 cm H2O increase in positive end-expiratory pressure; (iii) passive leg raising and (iv) head up position. With the pooled data the difference (bias (2SD)) between COed and COtd, COmf and COtd and COhs and COtd was 0.33 (0.90), 0.30 (0.69) and ,0.41 (1.11) l.min,1, respectively. Thus, Modelflow had the lowest mean squared error, suggesting that it had the best performance. COed significantly overestimates changes in cardiac output while COmf and COhs values are not significantly different from those of COtd. Directional changes in cardiac output by thermodilution were detected with a high score by all three methods. [source]

    Pumpless extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide combined with ventilation using low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure in a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2 2009
    T. Bein
    Summary The effects of the combination of a ,lowest' lung ventilation with extracorporeal elimination of carbon dioxide by interventional lung assist are described in a patient presenting with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to fulminant pneumonia. Reducing tidal volume to 3 ml.kg,1 together with interventional lung assist resulted in a decrease in severe hypercapnia without alveolar collapse or hypoxaemia but with a decrease in serum levels of interleukin-6. This approach was applied for 12 days with recovery of the patient, without complications. Extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide by interventional lung assist may be a useful tool to enable ,ultraprotective' ventilation in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. [source]


    Stuart B Hooper
    SUMMARY 1The transition to extra-uterine life at birth is critically dependent on airway liquid clearance to allow the entry of air and the onset of gaseous ventilation. We have used phase contrast X-ray imaging to identify factors that regulate lung aeration at birth in spontaneously breathing term and mechanically ventilated preterm rabbit pups. 2Phase contrast X-ray imaging exploits the difference in refractive index between air and water to enhance image contrast, enabling the smallest air-filled structures of the lung (alveoli; < 100 Ám) to be resolved. Using this technique, the lungs become visible as they aerate, allowing the air,liquid interface to be observed as it moves distally during lung aeration. 3Spontaneously breathing term rabbit pups rapidly aerate their lungs, with most fully recruiting their functional residual capacity (FRC) within the first few breaths. The increase in FRC occurs mainly during individual breaths, demonstrating that airway liquid clearance and lung aeration is closely associated with inspiration. We suggest that transpulmonary pressures generated by inspiration provide a hydrostatic pressure gradient for the movement of water out of the airways and into the surrounding lung tissue after birth. 4In mechanically ventilated preterm pups, lung aeration is closely associated with lung inflation and a positive end-expiratory pressure is required to generate and maintain FRC after birth. 5In summary, phase contrast X-ray imaging can image the air-filled lung with high temporal and spatial resolution and is ideal for identifying factors that regulate lung aeration at birth in both spontaneously breathing term and mechanically ventilated preterm neonates. [source]