Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Endemic

  • area endemic
  • island endemic
  • narrow endemic
  • plant endemic
  • species endemic

  • Terms modified by Endemic

  • endemic area
  • endemic bird
  • endemic control
  • endemic country
  • endemic flora
  • endemic genus
  • endemic lineage
  • endemic plant
  • endemic plant species
  • endemic population
  • endemic region
  • endemic regions
  • endemic situation
  • endemic species
  • endemic species richness
  • endemic subspecy
  • endemic taxa
  • endemic zone

  • Selected Abstracts

    Elevational patterns of frog species richness and endemic richness in the Hengduan Mountains, China: geometric constraints, area and climate effects

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2006
    Cuizhang Fu
    We studied frog biodiversity along an elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Endemic and non-endemic elevational diversity patterns were examined individually. Competing hypotheses were also tested for these patterns. Species richness of total frogs, endemics and non-endemics peaked at mid-elevations. The peak in endemic species richness was at higher elevations than the maxima of total species richness. Endemic species richness followed the mid-domain model predictions, and showed a nonlinear relationship with temperature. Water and energy were the most important variables in explaining elevational patterns of non-endemic species richness. A suite of interacting climatic and geometric factors best explained total species richness patterns along the elevational gradient. We suggest that the mid-domain effect was an important factor to explain elevational richness patterns, especially in regions with high endemism. [source]

    Epilepsy as a Consequence of Cerebral Malaria in Area in Which Malaria Is Endemic in Mali, West Africa

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2006
    Edgard Brice Ngoungou
    Summary:,Purpose: Cerebral malaria (CM) is suspected to be a potential cause of epilepsy in tropical areas, but little information is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CM in epilepsy among children in Mali. Methods: An exposed,nonexposed study was performed to identify children who had epilepsy after malaria in the 0- to 15-year age group. The exposure factor was CM defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and the nonexposure factor was symptomatic malaria without the characteristics of CM (NCM). All the children underwent a screening questionnaire and were examined by a medical physician. After the screening phase, a specialist in neuropediatrics examined the children suspected to have epilepsy. EEG and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in some of these patients. Results: In total, 101 subjects who had had CM and 222 who had had NCM were included. Fifty-four children (CM, 34; NCM, 20) were suspected to have epilepsy, and six were confirmed (CM, five; NCM, one). The incidence rate was 17.0 per 1000 person-years in the CM group and 1.8 per 1000 person-year in the NCM group; thus the relative risk (RR) was 9.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3,80.3; p = 0.02]. After adjustment on age and duration of follow-up, the RR was 14.3 (95% CI, 1.6,132.0; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The risk of sequelar epilepsy is significantly higher in the CM group compared with the NCM group. A reevaluation of this cohort should be carried out later to search for temporal epilepsy that appeared after age 10 years. [source]

    The Mechanics of Duetting in a New Zealand Endemic, the Kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni): Song at a Snail's Pace

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Laura E. Molles
    New Zealand's endemic, duetting kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) produce one of the longest known bird songs (ca 30 s) and duets that differ strikingly from those of most duetters in their unusual length and non-repetitive structure, long pauses between component phrases, and the great flexibility in sex roles. Here we present a structural analysis of the vocalizations of 17 kokako pairs collected during natural song bouts and in response to conspecific playback, to gain insight into the functional role of this extraordinary vocal behavior. Males tend to sing a greater proportion of the duet than females. Like many duetting species, kokako have a moderately sized repertoire of phrases (mean repertoire size =18) and pair members tend to sing antiphonally rather than in unison. Sharing of phrase types is high among neighboring kokako ( = 86%) and repertoires are not sex specific, as is typical of some but not all duetting species. Timing characteristics, broad sharing of phrase types, and countersinging behavior strongly suggest that kokako duets play an important role in territory defense. Additionally, differences in pairs' sex role and phrase sequence flexibility suggest that these aspects of duet performance may reflect pair-bond length or commitment, and require a time investment by pair members. [source]

    Differentiation of morphology, genetics and electric signals in a region of sympatry between sister species of African electric fish (Mormyridae)

    Abstract Mormyrid fishes produce and sense weak electric organ discharges (EODs) for object detection and communication, and they have been increasingly recognized as useful model organisms for studying signal evolution and speciation. EOD waveform variation can provide important clues to sympatric species boundaries between otherwise similar or morphologically cryptic forms. Endemic to the watersheds of Gabon (Central Africa), Ivindomyrus marchei and Ivindomyrus opdenboschi are morphologically similar to one another. Using morphometric, electrophysiological and molecular characters [cytochrome b sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotypes], we investigated to what extent these nominal mormyrid species have diverged into biological species. Our sampling covered the known distribution of each species with a focus on the Ivindo River, where the two taxa co-occur. An overall pattern of congruence among datasets suggests that I. opdenboschi and I. marchei are mostly distinct. Electric signal analysis showed that EODs of I. opdenboschi tend to have a smaller initial head-positive peak than those of I. marchei, and they often possess a small third waveform peak that is typically absent in EODs of I. marchei. Analysis of sympatric I. opdenboschi and I. marchei populations revealed slight, but significant, genetic partitioning between populations based on AFLP data (FST , 0.04). Taken separately, however, none of the characters we evaluated allowed us to discriminate two completely distinct or monophyletic groups. Lack of robust separation on the basis of any single character set may be a consequence of incomplete lineage sorting due to recent ancestry and/or introgressive hybridization. Incongruence between genetic datasets in one individual, which exhibited a mitochondrial haplotype characteristic of I. marchei but nevertheless fell within a genetic cluster of I. opdenboschi based on AFLP genotypes, suggests that a low level of recent hybridization may also be contributing to patterns of character variation in sympatry. Nevertheless, despite less than perfect separability based on any one dataset and inconclusive evidence for complete reproductive isolation between them in the Ivindo River, we find sufficient evidence to support the existence of two distinctive species, I. opdenboschi and I. marchei, even if not ,biological species' in the Mayrian sense. [source]

    Crisis Is Endemic to the Financial System

    As British Prime Minister Gordon Brown notes in this section, we are witnessing the birth pangs of a new global order in this deepest financial and economic crash since the Great Depression. There will be plenty of pain all around for a while. And when the quarter-century leveraged-debt bubble of the United States,the explosion of which detonated the crash,is finally unwound, the new global balance will favor an Asia flush with cash. The G-20 will replace the G-7 as the executive committee of globalization. And, if wise leadership stays the course, there will be a "green lining" to the recovery as the fiscal stimulus is imbued with an environmental sensibility. [source]

    Five years of Homo floresiensis

    Leslie C. Aiello
    Abstract Since Homo floresiensis was first described in October 2004 there has been a lively debate over its status. Is it a late surviving species of early Homo or merely a modern individual afflicted with disordered growth and one of the many syndromes resulting in microchephaly? Recently the discovery team has published a series of articles providing detailed descriptions of the hominin material, its geomorphological context, and the associated archaeology and faunal material (Morwood and Jungers: J Hum Evol 57 (2009) 437-648). In addition, other researchers have put forward new hypotheses for possible pathologies including Laron's Syndrome and Myxoedematous Endemic (ME) Cretinism. Here I review this new information and conclude that the evidence supports the hypothesis that Homo floresiensis is a late-surviving species of early Homo with its closest morphological affinities to early African pre- erectus/ergaster hominins. Although this hypothesis requires fundamental paradigm changes in our understanding of human evolution, it provides a more economical explanation for H. floresiensis than do the alternatives. None of the current explanations for microcephaly and disordered growth account for the range of features observed in H. floresiensis. Neither do they provide explanations for why a pathological condition in modern humans would mimic so closely the morphology observed in earlier hominins. This conclusion is based on the current evidence for H. floresiensis and on the particular pathological explanations that have appeared in the literature. There is no doubt that controversy over H. floresiensis will continue until new and conclusive evidence is available to settle the debate one way or another. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Reproduction, early development and larviculture of the barber goby, Elacatinus figaro (Sazima, Moura & Rosa 1997)

    Maria Eugenia Meirelles
    Abstract The barber goby, Elacatinus figaro, is a cleaner species of ecological importance and of keen interest to the aquarium trade. Endemic to Brazil, it is a threatened species and so aquaculture is a potential solution for reducing pressure on the natural stocks. This study describes the reproductive behaviour, the embryonic and larval development and the general breeding and rearing conditions. Ten wild fish initiated the formation of breeding pairs 20 days after acclimation to captivity. Spawning started 12 days after the first pair was formed, with one female from each pair spawning from 140 to 700 eggs (n=15 spawnings). The average period of incubation of the eggs was 6.8 days at 25 °C. The best hatching rate was 99.5% (n=10 spawnings). Larval rearing used Nannochloropsis oculata with rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis) as the first food (day 0,25); nauplii and meta-nauplii of Artemia were fed from day 18 until larval metamorphosis with subsequent weaning using commercial marine fish diets. The transformation to juveniles started at around the 30th day post hatch. The best larval survival rate until complete metamorphosis was 30.6% (n=4 larvicultures). After this period, the mortality was insignificant. This study demonstrated that the cultivation of barber goby is feasible. [source]

    Refining Biodiversity Conservation Priorities

    Bosque del Atlántico; percepción remota; priorización; SIG; sitios prioritarios para la conservación Abstract:,Although there is widespread agreement about conservation priorities at large scales (i.e., biodiversity hotspots), their boundaries remain too coarse for setting practical conservation goals. Refining hotspot conservation means identifying specific locations (individual habitat patches) of realistic size and scale for managers to protect and politicians to support. Because hotspots have lost most of their original habitat, species endemic to them rely on what remains. The issue now becomes identifying where this habitat is and these species are. We accomplished this by using straightforward remote sensing and GIS techniques, identifying specific locations in Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot important for bird conservation. Our method requires a regional map of current forest cover, so we explored six popular products for mapping and quantifying forest: MODIS continuous fields and a MODIS land cover (preclassified products), AVHRR, SPOT VGT, MODIS (satellite images), and a GeoCover Landsat thematic mapper mosaic (jpg). We compared subsets of these forest covers against a forest map based on a Landsat enhanced thematic mapper. The SPOT VGT forest cover predicted forest area and location well, so we combined it with elevation data to refine coarse distribution maps for forest endemic birds. Stacking these species distribution maps enabled identification of the subregion richest in threatened birds,the lowland forests of Rio de Janeiro State. We highlighted eight priority fragments, focusing on one with finer resolved imagery for detailed study. This method allows prioritization of areas for conservation from a region >1 million km2 to forest fragments of tens of square kilometers. To set priorities for biodiversity conservation, coarse biological information is sufficient. Hence, our method is attractive for tropical and biologically rich locations, where species location information is sparse. Resumen:,Aunque hay acuerdo generalizado sobre las prioridades de conservación a escalas mayores (i. e., sitios prioritarios para la conservación de la biodiversidad), los límites son muy gruesos como para definir metas de conservación prácticas. La refinación de la conservación de sitios prioritarios significa la identificación de localidades específicas (parches de hábitat individuales) de tamaño y escala realistas para ser protegidos por gestores y apoyados por políticos. Debido a que los sitios prioritarios han perdido la mayor parte de su hábitat original, las especies endémicas dependen del que permanece. Ahora el asunto es identificar donde están el hábitat y las especies. Logramos lo anterior mediante técnicas directas de percepción remota y de SIG para identificar localidades específicas importantes para la conservación de aves en el sitio prioritario Bosque del Atlántico en Brasil. Nuestro método requiere de un mapa regional de la cobertura forestal actual, así que exploramos seis productos populares para el mapeo y cuantificación de bosques: campos continuos MODIS y una cobertura de suelo MODIS (productos preclasificados), AVHRR, SPOT VGT, MODIS (imágenes de satélite) y un mosaico GeoCover Landsat thematic mapper (jpg). Comparamos subconjuntos de estas coberturas forestales con las de un mapa basado en un Landsat enhanced thematic mapper. La cobertura forestal SPOT VGT predijo bien la superficie y localización del bosque, así que lo combinamos con datos de altitud para refinar los mapas generales de distribución de aves endémicas de bosques. La sobreposición de estos mapas de distribución permitió la identificación de la subregión más rica en aves amenazadas,los bosques en bajíos del Estado de Río de Janeiro. Dimos relevancia a ocho fragmentos prioritarios, con atención en uno con imágenes de resolución fina para estudio en detalle. Este método permite la priorización de áreas para conservación de fragmentos de decenas de kilómetros cuadrados en una región >1 millón km2. La información biológica general es suficiente para definir prioridades de conservación de la biodiversidad. Por lo tanto, nuestro método es atractivo para localidades tropicales y biológicamente ricas, para las que la información sobre la ocalización de las especies es escasa. [source]

    Conservation Strategies for Endemic Fish Species Threatened by the Three Gorges Dam

    diseño de reserva; especies endémicas; modelo de comunidad; peces; presa Three Gorges Abstract: The largest damming project to date, the Three Gorges Dam has been built along the Yangtze River (China), the most species-rich river in the Palearctic region. Among 162 species of fish inhabiting the main channel of the upper Yangtze, 44 are endemic and are therefore under serious threat of global extinction from the dam. Accordingly, it is urgently necessary to develop strategies to minimize the impacts of the drastic environmental changes associated with the dam. We sought to identify potential reserves for the endemic species among the 17 tributaries in the upper Yangtze, based on presence/absence data for the 44 endemic species. Potential reserves for the endemic species were identified by characterizing the distribution patterns of endemic species with an adaptive learning algorithm called a "self-organizing map" (SOM). Using this method, we also predicted occurrence probabilities of species in potential reserves based on the distribution patterns of communities. Considering both SOM model results and actual knowledge of the biology of the considered species, our results suggested that 24 species may survive in the tributaries, 14 have an uncertain future, and 6 have a high probability of becoming extinct after dam filling. Resumen: El proyecto de represa más grande a la fecha, la Presa Three Gorges fue construida en el Río Yangtze (China), el río con mayor riqueza de especies en la región Paleártica. Entre las 162 especies de peces que habitan el canal principal del alto Yangtze, 44 son endémicas y por tanto están seriamente amenazadas de extinción global por la presa. Consecuentemente, es urgente desarrollar estrategias para minimizar los impactos de los cambios ambientales drásticos asociados con la presa. Tratamos de identificar las reservas potenciales para las especies endémicas entre los 17 afluentes en el alto Yangtze, en base a datos de presencia y ausencia de las 44 especies endémicas. Se identificaron las reservas potenciales para la especies endémicas caracterizando los patrones de distribución de especies endémicas con un algoritmo de aprendizaje adaptivo denominado "mapa auto-organizante" (MAO). Con este método, también predijimos las probabilidades de ocurrencia de especies en reservas potenciales en base a los patrones de distribución de las comunidades. Tomando en cuenta tanto los resultados del modelo MAO como el conocimiento actual de la biología de especies en consideración, nuestros resultados sugieren que 24 especies pueden sobrevivir en los afluentes, 14 tienen un futuro incierto y 6 tienen una alta probabilidad de extinguirse después del llenado de la presa. [source]

    Low Recruitment of Trees Dispersed by Animals in African Forest Fragments

    N. J. Cordeiro
    We compared adult and juvenile trees in forest transects in a 3500,ha submontane forest with those in four forest fragments of 521, 30, 9, and 0.5 ha. Preliminary results show that recruitment of seedlings and juveniles of 31 animal-dispersed tree species was more than three times greater in continuous forest and large forest fragments (,30 ha) than in small forest fragments (,9 ha), whereas recruitment of eight wind- and gravity-dispersed trees of the forest interior was unaffected. Recruitment of 10 endemic, animal-dispersed tree species was 40 times lower in small fragments than in continuous forest or large fragments. Counts of diurnal primates and birds in all five sites indicated that frugivorous species have declined with decreasing fragment size. These results are consistent with the idea that loss of dispersal agents depresses tree recruitment in the course of forest fragmentation. Resumen: Investigamos los efectos de la fragmentación del bosque en la desaparición de animales frugívoros y el reclutamiento de árboles dispersados por animales y viento en parches de bosques de 80 años de edad en las montañas del este de Usambara, Tanzania. Comparamos árboles adultos y juveniles en transectos de bosque en un bosque submontañoso de 3500 ha con transectos de cuatro fragmentos de bosque de 521, 30, 9 y 0.5 ha. Los resultados preliminares muestran que el reclutamiento de plántulas y juveniles especies de árboles dispersados por animales fue tres veces mayor en el bosque continuo y fragmentos grandes (,30 ha) que en fragmentos pequeños (,9 ha), mientras que el reclutamiento de ocho árboles dispersados por viento y gravedad del interior del bosque no fue afectado. El reclutamiento de 10 especies endémicas de árboles dispersados por animales fue 40 veces menor en los fragmentos pequeños que en el bosque continuo o en los fragmentos grandes. Los conteos de primates diurnos y aves en los cinco sitios indican que las especies frugívoras han disminuido con la disminución del tamaño del fragmento. Estos resultados son consistentes con la idea de que la pérdida de los agentes dispersores deprime el reclutamiento de los árboles en el transcurso de la fragmentación del bosque. [source]

    Phylogenetic Reanalysis of the Saudi Gazelle and Its Implications for Conservation

    Robert L. Hammond
    The Saudi gazelle ( Gazella saudiya) was endemic to the Arabian peninsula but is now considered extinct in the wild and is potentially a candidate for captive breeding and reintroduction. Using 375 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene derived from museum samples collected from the wild prior to the presumed extinction of this species, we show that G. saudiya is the sister taxon of the African dorcas gazelle ( G. dorcas). Reciprocal monophyly of G. saudiya mtDNA haplotypes with G. dorcas, coupled with morphological distinctiveness, suggests that it is an evolutionarily significant unit. These data indicate that captive populations identified previously as potential sources of G. saudiya for captive breeding appear incorrectly designated and are irrelevant to the conservation of G. saudiya. The polymerase chain reaction,restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP) analysis of several private collections of living gazelles in Saudi Arabia provides no evidence for the survival of G. saudiya. We recommend that field surveys be undertaken to establish whether G. saudiya is indeed extinct in the wild and that other private collections within the Arabian peninsula be screened genetically. We urge caution when captive animals of unknown provenance are used to investigate the phylogenetics of cryptic species groups. Resumen: La identificación de poblaciones taxonómicamente apropiadas de especies en peligro para programas de reproducción en cautiverio y de reintroducción es fundamental para su éxito. La Gacela Saudi (Gazella saudiya) fue endémica a la península de Arabia pero ahora está considerada como extinta en su medio y es un candidato potencial para reproducción en cautiverio y reintroducción. Utilizando 375 pares de bases de ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt) del gene citocromo b derivados de muestras de museos colectadas en el medio silvestre antes de la extinción de la especie, mostramos que G. saudiya es el taxón hermano de la gacela dorcas africana (G. dorcas). La monofilia recíproca de haplotipos de ADNmt de G. saudiya con G. dorcas, aunado a diferencias morfológicas, sugiere que es una unidad evolutiva significativa. Estos datos indican que las poblaciones cautivas identificadas previamente como fuente potencial de G. saudiya para reproducción en cautiverio están incorrectamente identificadas y son irrelevantes para la conservación de G. saudiya. El análisis PCR-RFLP de varias colecciones privadas de gacelas vivas en Arabia Saudita no proporcionan evidencia para la supervivencia de G. saudiya. Recomendamos que se realicen muestreos en el campo para establecer si en efecto G. saudiya está extinta en su hábitat y que se examinen genéticamente las otras colecciones privadas en la península Arábiga. Recomendamos precaución cuando animales cautivos de origen desconocido son utilizados para investigar la filogenia de grupos de especies crípticas. [source]

    Making the Monkey: How the Togean Macaque Went from "New Form" to "Endemic Species" in Indonesians' Conservation Biology

    Celia Lowe
    Indonesian scientists inhabit a postcolonial world where they are both elite (within the nation) and subaltern (within transnational science) at precisely the same moments. A study of science that is neither "ethno" nor "Euro" requires a postcolonial refiguration not only of how science's matter is made but of where and by whom. In the 1990s, the Togean macaque (Macaca togeanus) was proposed as a new species endemic to the Togean Islands, the proposed site of a new conservation area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In the scientific production of biodiverse nature, Indonesian primatologists identified the monkey first as a "new form," then as a "dubious name," and subsequently, as an "endemic species." Throughout these acts of making, unmaking, and remaking the monkey, its unique and endemic status was important for developing Indonesian conservation biology, attracting foreign donors, and enlisting government and public interest in Togean Island nature, even as forms of nature important to Togean peoples were overwritten in this process. [source]

    Obesity, bariatric surgery and type 2 diabetes,a systematic review

    Cynthia V. Ferchak
    Abstract Obesity is endemic in the United States and is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. Both obesity and diabetes are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Likewise, both conditions are resistant to treatment. Recent studies have evaluated prevention of type 2 diabetes through intensive lifestyle intervention, while others are examining the impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes. This article presents an overview of the impact of bariatric surgical and lifestyle interventions on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although studies using a variety of bariatric surgical techniques are included, the focus is on two interventions in particular: the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the laparoscopic silicone gastric banding procedure. Outcomes of these procedures are further contrasted with recent lifestyle intervention studies, in particular, the Diabetes Prevention Program study. Gastric bypass studies have been associated with a 99 to 100% prevention of diabetes in patients with IGT and an 80 to 90% clinical resolution of diagnosed early type 2 diabetes. Gastric banding procedures are associated with a lower median (50,60%) clinical remission of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention studies of obese and glucose-intolerant patients have achieved a 50% reduction in the progression of IGT to diabetes over the short term, with no reported resolution of the disease. Weight loss by any means in the obese patient appears to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes, at least in the short term. Furthermore, sustained weight loss through bariatric surgical intervention is associated both with prevention of progression of IGT and with clinical remission of early type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biodiversity and distribution of epibiontic communities on Caridina ensifera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Lake Poso: comparison with another ancient lake system of Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans
    Abstract Fernandez-Leborans, G. and von Rintelen, K. 2010. Biodiversity and distribution of epibiontic communities on Caridina ensifera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Lake Poso: comparison with another ancient lake system of Sulawesi (Indonesia). , Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 163,175 The epibiont communities of the shrimp Caridina ensifera, endemic to Lake Poso (Sulawesi, Indonesia), were analysed. Most of the epibiont species were ciliated protozoa belonging to three suctorian genera (Acineta, Podophrya and Spelaeophrya), three peritrich genera (Zoothamnium, Vorticella and Cothurnia), and a haptorid genus (Amphileptus). There was also a rotifer epibiont of the genus Embata. Epibionts were identified to species level. There were 14 to 1114 epibionts per shrimp. The distribution of the epibiont species on the surface of the basibiont was recorded, calculating the number on the different colonized individuals of C. ensifera. The most abundant species, Zoothamnium intermedium and Acineta sulawesiensis, were also the most widely distributed. There was a significant difference between the spatial distributions of the different epibiont species. The analysis of the number of the epibiont species throughout the anteroposterior axis of the shrimp showed a gradient from the anterior to the posterior end of the body. Data from Lake Poso were compared with those of the Malili lake system (Sulawesi), obtained from its endemic shrimp, Caridina lanceolata. Lake Poso had the highest mean diversity, while Lake Mahalona showed the highest maximum diversity. All lakes were correlated with respect to the mean number of epibionts on the anatomical units of the shrimp, which showed a similar general distribution. The distributions of the different epibiont species were compared between the lakes. The possible adaptations of the epibionts as well as the colonization patterns were discussed. From the statistical results and the analysis of the distributions, we propose that in these communities epibiont species have a pattern of colonization in which they follow a behaviour as a whole; each species has a differential distribution, with the species occupying the available substratum with the particular requirements of each functional group, but there is a trend towards maintaining an equilibrium among species and groups, compensating for diversity and number of individuals. In all lakes there was an epibiont distribution model comprising the maintenance of an anteroposterior axis gradient, which was supported by the fluctuation in diversity and number of individuals of the different functional groups of epibiont species. The functional role of the different groups of species seems to tend towards sustainability with little global variation among the lakes. [source]

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2006
    Edward B. Rackley
    Abstract This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a ,riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. [source]

    Range size, taxon age and hotspots of neoendemism in the California flora

    Nathan J. B. Kraft
    Abstract Aim, Sustaining biological diversity requires the protection of the ecological, evolutionary and landscape-level processes that generate it. Here, we identify areas of high neoendemism in a global diversity hotspot, the California flora, using range size data and molecular-based estimates of taxon age. Location, California, USA. Methods, We compiled distribution and range size data for all plant taxa endemic to California and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based age estimates for 337 putative neoendemics (15% of the endemic flora). This information was combined to identify areas in the state with high proportions of young and restricted-range taxa. We overlaid the distribution of neoendemic hotspots on maps of currently protected lands and also explored correlations between our diversity measures and climate. Results, The central coast of California, the Sierra Nevada and the San Bernardino Range contained endemics with the most restricted distributions on average, while areas in the Desert and Great Basin provinces found within the state were composed of the youngest neoendemics on average. Diversity measures that took age and range size into account shifted the estimate of highest endemic diversity in the state towards the Desert and Great Basin regions relative to simple counts of endemic species richness. Our diversity measures were poorly correlated with climate and topographic heterogeneity. Main conclusions, Substantial portions of California with high levels of plant neoendemism fall outside of protected lands, indicating that additional action will be needed to preserve the geographic areas apparently associated with high rates of plant diversification. The neoendemic flora of the deserts appears particularly young in our analyses, which may reflect the relatively recent origin of desert environments within the state. [source]

    Climate, climate change and range boundaries

    Chris D. Thomas
    Abstract Aim, A major issue in ecology, biogeography, conservation biology and invasion biology is the extent to which climate, and hence climate change, contributes to the positions of species' range boundaries. Thirty years of rapid climate warming provides an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis that climate acts as a major constraint on range boundaries, treating anthropogenic climate change as a large-scale experiment. Location, UK and global data, and literature. Methods, This article analyses the frequencies with which species have responded to climate change by shifting their range boundaries. It does not consider abundance or other changes. Results, For the majority of species, boundaries shifted in a direction that is concordant with being a response to climate change; 84% of all species have expanded in a polewards direction as the climate has warmed (for the best data available), which represents an excess of 68% of species after taking account of the fact that some species may shift in this direction for non-climatic reasons. Other data sets also show an excess of animal range boundaries expanding in the expected direction. Main conclusions, Climate is likely to contribute to the majority of terrestrial and freshwater range boundaries. This generalization excludes species that are endemic to specific islands, lakes, rivers and geological outcrops, although these local endemics are not immune from the effects of climate change. The observed shifts associated with recent climate change are likely to have been brought about through both direct and indirect (changes to species' interactions) effects of climate; indirect effects are discussed in relation to laboratory experiments and invasive species. Recent observations of range boundary shifts are consistent with the hypothesis that climate contributes to, but is not the sole determinant of, the position of the range boundaries of the majority of terrestrial animal species. [source]

    Land-cover and land-use change and its contribution to the large-scale organization of Puerto Rico's bird assemblages

    Miguel A. Acevedo
    ABSTRACT Global biodiversity is changing rapidly driven by human alteration of habitat, and nowhere this is more dramatic than in insular habitats. Yet land-cover change is a complex phenomenon that not only involves habitat destruction but also forest recovery over different time scales. Therefore, we might expect species to respond in diverse ways with likely consequences for the reorganization of regional assemblages. These changes, however, may be different in tropical islands because of their low species richness, generalist habits and high proportion of endemics. Here, we focus on the island of Puerto Rico and ask how island-wide changes in land cover and land use has influenced the large-scale organization of bird assemblages. To address this question, we combined in a Geographical Information System (GIS) the first 6 years (1997,2002) of the Puerto Rican Breeding Bird Survey (PR-BBS) with land-cover and land-use data extracted from a published digital map derived from the classification of Landsat images. A Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) ordination based on the composition and abundance of birds, and percentage land-use types showed that land use followed by climate could explain most of the variation observed among routes in terms of species composition and abundance. Moreover, endemic and exotic species were widely distributed throughout the island, but the proportion of endemic species is higher in closed forests while exotic species are more abundant in open habitats. However, historical accounts from the early 1900s indicate that endemic species were distributed across the entire island. Today, most of the land cover transformation in Puerto Rico occurs in the lowlands which may explain the high abundance of endemic species in cloud forests and the high abundance of exotic species in open habitats in the lowlands. [source]

    Biogeographical patterns of endemic terrestrial Afrotropical birds

    H. M. De Klerk
    Abstract. Biogeographical zones are described for terrestrial bird species endemic to the Afrotropics using up-to-date distributional data and multivariate statistical techniques. This provides an objective basis for a hierarchy of subregions, provinces and districts, based on a set of rules. Results are compared to previous studies at continental and regional scales. Biogeographical zones for passerines and non-passerines are compared and found to be similar. Peaks of species richness and narrow endemism are described for the six major subdivisions (subregions) identified by the cluster analysis. Coincidence of peaks of species richness and narrow endemism is found to be low, such that areas selected to represent high species richness tallies will often fail to represent narrow endemics. Strong regionalization of Afrotropical birds indicates the need to use a biogeographical framework in conservation priority setting exercises to ensure that unique, but species-poor, avifaunas are not neglected. [source]

    Typological thinking and the conservation of subspecies: the case of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike

    Michael A. Patten
    Abstract. ,Hybridization with closely related taxa poses a significant threat to endangered subspecies (e.g. outbreeding depression, inbreeding) and confounds efforts to manage and conserve these taxa through a loss of taxonomic identity, in part because of the practical necessity of defining subspecies in a typological manner. We examined nine morphological characters in 167 post-juvenile museum specimens to determine if loggerhead shrikes Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus 1766 on San Clemente Island (off the coast of California) remain diagnosable as L. l. mearnsi Ridgway (1903); an island endemic listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Four recent shrike specimens from the island were compared to historical specimens using a bivariate scatter plot and a discriminant function (the latter was used to classify recent specimens post hoc). The few recent specimens were not diagnosable as L. l. mearnsi, but instead appear to be intergrades between L. l. mearnsi and L. l. anthonyi Mearns 1898 (the subspecies endemic to Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa and Anacapa islands), and are perhaps closer to pure anthonyi. Our data and the species' natural history and distribution suggest that shrikes currently on San Clemente Island are the result of genetic ,swamping' of mearnsi by anthonyi. Under a necessarily typological definition of a subspecies, it is evident that mearnsi is probably no longer diagnosable. However, we conclude that protection of the entire Channel Islands population of the loggerhead shrike would be the best management strategy, as the species has declined drastically throughout the islands. [source]

    Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galápagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2002
    Eske Willerslev
    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galápagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. [source]

    Nutritional consequences of a change in diet from native to agricultural fruits for the Samoan fruit bat

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2000
    Suzanne L. Nelson
    The Samoan fruit bat Pteropus samoensis Peak, an endemic flying fox that inhabits the Samoan archipelago, prefers to forage on native fruit species. This species has recently been subjected to extreme population threats including hunting and severe storms, as well as large-scale habitat degradation. If habitat destruction continues at its present rate, P. samoensis may be forced to forage more within an agricultural matrix. In this study, we analyzed sixteen species of native fruits and four species of agricultural fruits for five organic components and eight minerals to test whether native fruits provided a higher quality diet or more varied diet than agricultural fruits. Within native fruits, we also focused on four species of figs, because these fruits are often considered an important food item for tropical frugivores. Overall, native fruits provided more variation and had higher average values for several nutrients than agricultural fruits. Native fruits were especially high in biologically important minerals (calcium, iron, and sodium), and provided up to 5 times more calcium, 10.5 times more iron, and 8 times more sodium than agricultural fruits. Figs were found to be an especially rich source of many nutrients, particularly for calcium. Thus. P. samoensis. a sequential specialist, may be better able to adjust its diet to obtain higher levels of minerals when consuming a variety of native fruits than when restricted to the consumption of only agricultural fruits. These findings suggest a need to preserve native habitat and to create parks to sustain the long term health and viability of P. samoensis. [source]

    Geographic variation in prey preference in bark beetle predators

    Abstract 1.,Bark beetles and their predators are useful systems for addressing questions concerning diet breadth and prey preference in arthropod natural enemies. These predators use bark beetle pheromones to locate their prey, and the response to different pheromones is a measure of prey preference. 2.,Trapping experiments were conducted to examine geographic variation in the response to prey pheromones by two bark beetle predators, Thanasimus dubius and Temnochila virescens. The experiments used pheromones for several Dendroctonus and Ips prey species (frontalin, ipsdienol, and ipsenol) and manipulated visual cues involved in prey location (black vs. white traps). The study sites included regions where the frontalin-emitter Dendroctonus frontalis was in outbreak vs. endemic or absent. 3.,There was significant geographic variation in pheromone preference for T. dubius. This predator strongly preferred a pheromone (frontalin) associated with D. frontalis at outbreak sites, while preference was more even at endemic and absent sites. No geographic variation was found in the response by T. virescens. White traps caught fewer insects than black traps for both predators, suggesting that visual cues are also important in prey location. 4.,The overall pattern for T. dubius is consistent with switching or optimal foraging theory, assuming D. frontalis is a higher quality prey than Ips. The two predator species partition the prey pheromones in areas where D. frontalis is abundant, possibly to minimise competition and intraguild predation. [source]

    Can host-range allow niche differentiation of invasive polyphagous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in La Réunion?

    Abstract 1.,Biological invasions bring together formerly isolated insect taxa and allow the study of ecological interactions between species with no coevolutionary history. Among polyphagous insects, such species may competitively exclude each other unless some form of niche partitioning allows them to coexist. 2.,In the present study, we investigate whether the ability to exploit different fruits can increase the likelihood of coexistence of four species of polyphagous Tephritidae, one endemic and three successive invaders, in the island of La Réunion. In the laboratory, we studied the performances of all four species on the four most abundant fruit resources in the island, as well as the relative abundances of fly species on these four fruit species in the field. We observe no indication of niche partitioning for any of the four abundant fruits. 3.,Analyses of an extensive field data series suggest that: (i) the four fly species largely overlap in fruit exploitation, once climatic effects are accounted for; (ii) however, one species (Ceratitis capitata) can exploit rare fruit species that are not exploited by others present in the same climatic niche; and (iii) the endemic species C. catoirii, now nearly extinct in La Réunion, has no private niche with respect to either climatic range or fruit use. 4.,On the whole, with the possible exception of C. capitata, the results point to a limited role of fruit diversity in encouraging coexistence among polyphagous tephritids recently brought into contact by accidental introductions. [source]

    Juvenile growth of two tilapia species in lakes Naivasha and Baringo, Kenya

    J. R. Britton
    Abstract,,, Tilapia species in East African lakes often form the basis of commercial fisheries, with information on their population biology assisting their management. This study utilised otolith microstructure, with validation by modal progression analysis, to provide growth data for two tilapia species in two Kenyan lakes for the first time. Otolith microstructure revealed the growth rate of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, a sub-species endemic to Lake Baringo, was fast compared with populations of Oreochromis niloticus; mean daily growth rates were >0.50 mm·d,1 in fish between 12 and 53 mm total length. Growth of Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha was also relatively fast when compared with the growth rates of other tilapia species, with mean daily growth rates of approximately 0.35,0.48 mm·d,1 in fish between 10 and 56 mm total length. Growth rates of both species were well described by the Gompertz model and were corroborated by modal progression analysis that revealed similar daily growth rates in modes of young-of-the-year fish. [source]

    Distribution, zoogeography and biology of the Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps Whitley, 1944), an atherinid endemic to the Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia

    M. G. Allen
    Abstract , The Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps) is endemic to the extremely arid Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia, where it is found in the Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne and DeGrey rivers, but is absent from numerous rivers within its range. The most likely explanation for the disjunct contemporary distribution is that C. cuneiceps has simply never inhabited the rivers from which it is conspicuously absent (e.g. Ashburton and Fortescue). Biogeographical, geological and palaeoclimatic evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. In the Murchison River, breeding was extremely protracted with recruitment occurring throughout the year. The largest female and male specimens captured were 96 mm total length (TL; 7.73 g) and 86 mm TL (5.57 g), respectively. Sex ratio was 1.09 females:1 male. Batch fecundity ranged from 46 to 454 (mean 167.5 ± 25.7 SE). Estimates for the length at which 50 and 95% of females first spawned were 36.4 and 44.3 mm TL, respectively. Craterocephalus cuneiceps is essentially a detritivore, but also feeds on aquatic invertebrates. Rainfall in the Murchison River catchment is unpredictable and pH, salinity and temperature are variable. A specialised diet, small size and young age at maturity and protracted spawning period, coupled with serial spawning and high fecundity, allows the numerical dominance of this species in competitive, harsh, arid and unpredictable desert environments. Resumen 1. Craterocephalus cuneiceps es una especie endémica de las cuencas del Océano Indico (i.e., Pilbara) de Australia Occidental. Se encuentra en los ríos Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne y DeGrey pero está ausente en numerosos ríos dentro de su área de distribución. La explicación más probable para esta distribución separada en la actualidad es que C. cuneiceps no ha habitado nunca los ríos en los que está ausente tales como los ríos Ashburton y Fortescue. Presentamos evidencia bio-geográfica, geológica y paleo-climática para soportar esta hipótesis. 2. En el río Murchison, la reproducción es extremadamente prolongada con reclutamiento a lo largo de todo el año. Los mayores machos y hembras capturados alcanzaron 96 mm LT (7.73 g) y 86 mm LT (5.57 g), respectivamente. La proporción de sexos fue 1.09 hembras: 1 macho. La fecundidad varió entre 46 y 454 (media 167.5 ± 25.7 SE) y la longitudes a la que el 50 y el 95% de las hembras se reproducen por primera vez alcanzaron 36.4 y 44.3 mm LT, respectivamente. 3. C. cuneiceps es esencialmente detritívoro pero también se alimenta de invertebrados acuáticos. La lluvia sobre la cuenca del río Murchison es impredecible y el pH, la salinidad y la temperatura son variables. Una dieta especializada, pequeño tamaño, una edad joven en la madurez, y un período reproductivo prolongado, ademos de una freza seriada y alta fecundidad, permiten la dominancia numérica de la especie en ambientes competitivos, duros, áridos e impredecibles. [source]

    Reproduction in three species of rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae) from rainforest streams in northern Queensland, Australia

    B. J. Pusey
    Abstract , The reproductive biology of three species of rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae) in northeastern Australian rainforest streams was investigated. Two species, Melanotaenia eachamensis and Cairnsichthys rhombosomoides are endemic to the area, whereas the third, M. splendida splendida, is more widespread. The species were all highly fecund, producing many hundreds of eggs between 1.10 and 1.24 mm in diameter. Melanotaenia eachamensis was the most fecund, produced the largest eggs of the three species, and consequently exhibited the greatest maternal investment (as measured by gonadosomatic index). The majority of reproductive effort occurred during the dry season, although reproductively active fish were present year-round for each of the species, but particularly so for M. s. splendida and C. rhombosomoides. No evidence for a role by temperature or photoperiod as environmental cues for reproduction was found, and it was suggested that gonad development was strongly tied to somatic growth. The concentration of reproduction to the dry season ensures that larvae are produced during a period of relatively stable and benign physical conditions. Comparison of temporal changes in gonadosomatic index values suggest that the spawning season of M. eachamensis, which occurs in high-elevation streams, is more restricted and commences about 1 month earlier than either other species. A similar phenology was observed for the M. s. splendida population found at high elevation and highlights the potential for spatial differences in stream productivity to influence life history., [source]

    A Reality Check for Data Snooping

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2000
    Halbert White
    Data snooping occurs when a given set of data is used more than once for purposes of inference or model selection. When such data reuse occurs, there is always the possibility that any satisfactory results obtained may simply be due to chance rather than to any merit inherent in the method yielding the results. This problem is practically unavoidable in the analysis of time-series data, as typically only a single history measuring a given phenomenon of interest is available for analysis. It is widely acknowledged by empirical researchers that data snooping is a dangerous practice to be avoided, but in fact it is endemic. The main problem has been a lack of sufficiently simple practical methods capable of assessing the potential dangers of data snooping in a given situation. Our purpose here is to provide such methods by specifying a straightforward procedure for testing the null hypothesis that the best model encountered in a specification search has no predictive superiority over a given benchmark model. This permits data snooping to be undertaken with some degree of confidence that one will not mistake results that could have been generated by chance for genuinely good results. [source]

    SELDI-TOF as a method for biomarker discovery in the urine of aristolochic-acid-treated mice

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7 2009
    Feilei Huang
    Abstract Aristolochic acids (AAs) present in Aristolochia plants are substances responsible for Chinese herbs nephropathy. Recently, strong indications have also been presented, which dietary poisoning with AA is responsible for endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), an enigmatic renal disease that affects rural population living in some countries in Southeastern Europe. A mouse model was applied to follow the effects of two forms of AA, AAI and AAII. SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry with normal phase chips were used to evaluate changes in the urine of treated animals. These two methods are demonstrated to be comparable. The use of SELDI-TOF MS for rapid analysis of a large number of samples and the combination of this method with nano-LC-ESI MS/MS for protein identification were demonstrated. Biomarker discovery after analysis of large cohort of EN patients will be the final aim of these investigations. [source]

    CE analysis of the acidic organelles of a single cell

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 14 2007
    Yun Chen
    Abstract The properties of organelles within a cell have been shown to be highly heterogeneous. Until now, it has been unclear just how much of this heterogeneity is endemic to the organelle subpopulations themselves and how much is actually due to stochastic cellular noise. An attractive approach for investigating the origins of heterogeneity among the organelles of a single cell is CE with LIF detection (CE-LIF). As a proof of principle, in this report we optimize and use a single cell CE-LIF method to investigate the properties of endocytic (acidic) organelles. Our results show that the properties of individual acidic organelles containing Alexa Fluor® 488 Dextran suggest that there are two groups of CCRF-CEM cells: a group with a high dextran content per cell, and a group with a low dextran content per cell. Furthermore, the individual organelle measurements of the single cells allow us to compare in each group the distributions of doxorubicin content per acidic organelle and electrophoretic mobilities of these organelles. [source]