Entrepreneurship

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Entrepreneurship

  • academic entrepreneurship
  • corporate entrepreneurship
  • policy entrepreneurship
  • social entrepreneurship

  • Terms modified by Entrepreneurship

  • entrepreneurship literature
  • entrepreneurship research
  • entrepreneurship researcher
  • entrepreneurship theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE BUSINESS OF RECONCILIATION: ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY IN POST-CONFLICT RWANDA

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2007
    Karol Boudreaux
    In post-conflict Rwanda trade and enterprise are leading to increased levels of co-operation among former enemies. Economic interaction is providing a cost-effective alternative to state-led reconciliation programmes as a mechanism for justice and healing. Governments seeking to provide effective transitional justice and reconciliation should therefore facilitate private-sector efforts by actively working to improve the institutional environment for doing business. [source]


    CONTEMPLATING "ENTERPRISE": THE BUSINESS AND LEGAL CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    AMERICAN BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Gail A. Lasprogata
    [source]


    Entrepreneurship, Money and Coordination: Hayek's Theory of Cultural Evolution.

    ECONOMICA, Issue 301 2009
    By JURGEN G. BACKHAUS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Roots of Entrepreneurship and Labour Demand: Individual Ability and Low Risk Aversion

    ECONOMICA, Issue 269 2001
    C. M. Van Praag
    This paper develops a model as a means to explain business formation and the labour demand of entrepreneurs. An individual will become an entrepreneur if the expected rewards surpass the wages of employment, and the expected rewards depend on an assessment of individual ability and on risk attitude. Actual ability determines success and hence the demand for wage labour of the firm. In equilibrium these factors govern the distribution of a given workforce over entrepreneurs and employees. The model is fitted to Dutch survey data. The empirical results confirm the importance of both risk-taking and ability for successful entrepreneurship. [source]


    Corruption and Entrepreneurship: How Formal and Informal Institutions Shape Small Firm Behavior in Transition and Mature Market Economies

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2010
    VartuhÝ Tonoyan
    This article explores the determinants of corruption in transition economies of the post-Soviet Union, Central-Eastern Europe, and Western industrialized states. We look in-depth at the East,West gap in corruption, and why entrepreneurs and small business owners become engaged in corrupt deals. Part of the answers lie in the country-specific formal and informal institutional make-up. The likelihood of engaging in corruption is influenced by the lower efficiency of financial and legal institutions and the lack of their enforcements. Also, viewing illegal business activities as a widespread business practice provides the rationale for entrepreneurs to justify their own corrupt activities. Moreover, closed social networks with family, friends, and national bureaucrats reduce the opportunism of the contracting party of the corrupt deal, thus providing breeding grounds for corruption. [source]


    The Impact of Environment and Entrepreneurial Perceptions on Venture-Creation Efforts: Bridging the Discovery and Creation Views of Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2010
    Linda Edelman
    Recent literature has highlighted two conflicting theories of entrepreneurship. In the "discovery" perspective, objective environmental conditions are considered to be the source of entrepreneurial opportunities and thus drivers of subsequent entrepreneurial action. The "creation" view, in contrast, is based on entrepreneurial perceptions and socio-cognitive enactment processes. While empirical studies have separately utilized each of these perspectives, few attempts have been made to integrate insights from both theories to empirically examine the interrelationships among environmental conditions, entrepreneurial perceptions, entrepreneurial action, and outcomes. In this article, we explicate the roles that both objective environmental conditions and entrepreneurial perceptions of opportunity and resource availability play in the process of firm creation. Utilizing longitudinal data on nascent entrepreneurs, we find that as hypothesized, entrepreneurs' opportunity perceptions mediate between objective characteristics of the environment and the entrepreneurs' efforts to start a new venture. Contrary to our expectations, we do not find a similar mediating effect for perceived resource availability. These findings have important implications for further theory development in entrepreneurship as well as for practice and education in the field. [source]


    The Differential Impact of the Internet on Spurring Regional Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2010
    Douglas Cumming
    This paper studies the effect of the introduction of government-provided Internet technology to rural communities (Internet communities) on regional entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship increases among larger Internet communities, as the Internet spurs entrepreneurial activities by enabling agglomeration across areas that have a preexisting cluster of real entrepreneurial activities. There is, however, a decrease in entrepreneurship among smaller and more geographically remote Internet communities, as the Internet facilitates the consumption of items and services not produced within such smaller communities. Overall, the key finding is that virtual entrepreneurial clusters are not independent of real entrepreneurial clusters. [source]


    The Legitimacy of Social Entrepreneurship: Reflexive Isomorphism in a Pre-Paradigmatic Field

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2010
    Alex Nicholls
    Following Kuhn, this article conceptualizes social entrepreneurship as a field of action in a pre-paradigmatic state that currently lacks an established epistemology. Using approaches from neo-institutional theory, this research focuses on the microstructures of legitimation that characterize the development of social entrepreneurship in terms of its key actors, discourses, and emerging narrative logics. This analysis suggests that the dominant discourses of social entrepreneurship represent legitimating material for resource-rich actors in a process of reflexive isomorphism. Returning to Kuhn, the article concludes by delineating a critical role for scholarly research on social entrepreneurship in terms of resolving conflicting discourses within its future paradigmatic development. [source]


    How Opportunities Develop in Social Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2010
    Patricia Doyle Corner
    The purpose of this article was to extend existing research on opportunity identification in the social entrepreneurship literature through empirically examining this phenomenon. We used an inductive, theory-building design that surfaced patterns in social value creation across multiple case studies. The patterns showed actors seeing a social need and prospecting ideas that could address it. Data also revealed multiple, not individual, actors, dynamically engaged in interactions that nudged an opportunity into manifestation. Also, data suggested complementarities to effectuation and rational/economic processes that are divergent theoretical approaches to the study of entrepreneurship to date. [source]


    Institutional Theory and Entrepreneurship: Where Are We Now and Where Do We Need to Move in the Future?

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2010
    Garry D. Bruton
    Institutional theory is an increasingly utilized theoretical lens for entrepreneurship research. However, while institutional theory has proven highly useful, its use has reached a point that there is a need to establish a clearer understanding of its wide-ranging application to entrepreneurship research. Therefore, we will initially review the existing entrepreneurship literature that employs institutional theory to both understand the current status of the field, its current shortcomings, and where we need to move in the future. We then summarize and discuss the articles in this special issue and how they contribute to this process of advancing institutional theory and its application in entrepreneurship research. [source]


    Entrepreneurship in Russia and China: The Impact of Formal Institutional Voids

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2010
    Sheila M. Puffer
    Transition economies are often characterized by underdeveloped formal institutions, often resulting in an unstable environment and creating a void usually filled by informal ones. Entrepreneurs in transition environments thus face more uncertainty and risk than those in more developed economies. This article examines the relationship of institutions and entrepreneurship in Russia and China in the context of institutional theory by analyzing private property as a formal institution, as well as trust and blat/guanxi as informal institutions. This article thus contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship and institutional theory by focusing on these topics in transition economies, and by emphasizing how their relationship differs from that in developed economies. We conclude that full convergence toward entrepreneurs' reliance on formal institutions may not readily occur in countries like Russia and China due to the embeddedness of informal institutions. Instead, such countries and their entrepreneurs may develop unique balances between informal and formal institutions that better fit their circumstances. Implications for the theory and practice of entrepreneurship in such environments are also offered. [source]


    Transnational Entrepreneurship: Determinants of Firm Type and Owner Attributions of Success

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2009
    Jennifer M. Sequeira
    Building on a typology of transnational firm types, developed by Landolt, Autler, and Baires in 1999, we examine whether immigrant attitudes toward the host country and their degree of embeddedness in the home country can predict the specific type of transnational enterprise that an immigrant is likely to begin. We also investigate whether the determinants of success of transnational enterprises vary by firm type. Based on a sample of 1,202 transnational business owners drawn from the Comparative Immigrant Entrepreneurship Project database, our analyses indicate general support for our hypotheses. More specifically, we found that transnational entrepreneurs' positive perceptions of host country opportunities and greater embeddedness in home country activities helped predict the specific type of ventures they would undertake. Further, the degree of embeddedness in the home country may influence the determinants of success for these types of firms. Depending on firm type, owners attributed their primary success to either personal characteristics, social support, or to the quality of their products and services. [source]


    Strategic Entrepreneurship: Exploring Different Perspectives of an Emerging Concept

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
    Donald F. Kuratko
    Within the entrepreneurship and strategic management domains there has been a movement by scholars to combine certain aspects of both areas to create a new concept of strategic entrepreneurship. To date, however, there remains much to know about what constitutes this concept. This special issue is the result of a unique research conference in Germany where some of the world's most renowned scholars gathered to explore this concept in depth. The set of articles in this special issue examine different perspectives that relate to strategic entrepreneurship and we believe contribute to the growing body of knowledge on this concept by examining diverse scholarly topics. This introduction provides the overview of the perspectives contained in strategic entrepreneurship and argues for the importance of embracing diverse views at this stage rather than attempting to restrict the analysis of this emerging topic. [source]


    The Role of Government Policy on Entrepreneurial Activity: Productive, Unproductive, or Destructive?

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2008
    Maria Minniti
    This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice on government policy and entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurship is an important engine of growth. Government policy, in turn, shapes the institutional environment in which entrepreneurial decisions are made. Thus, government policy is important for entrepreneurship. But what policies are more conducive to productive entrepreneurship? In spite of a significant amount of work on this and related topics, there is still much we do not know about this important relationship. After reviewing recent literature on entrepreneurship policy, this paper summarizes the contributions included in this volume and puts them in the context of the ongoing research debate. The goal of the special issue is to address important unanswered questions and trigger a constructive debate among diverging views. [source]


    Innovation Policy and Nanotechnology Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2008
    Jennifer L. Woolley
    In this article, we explore the relationship between innovation policy and new venture creation in the United States. Specifically, we examine two components of innovation policy in nanotechnology,science and technology (S&T) initiatives and economic initiatives,and their relationship with the founding of nanotechnology firms. We find strong support relating new firm formation to S&T and economic initiatives. States with both S&T and economic initiatives had six times as many firms founded than those states without such initiatives. We also find evidence of a first-mover advantage as states with the earliest innovation policies had higher rates of related firm foundings over time. These findings suggest that states that are most attractive to entrepreneurs not only pursue technological innovation and provide resources, but also encourage and legitimize commercial development. Implications for public policy makers and scholars are provided. [source]


    Researching Small Firms and Entrepreneurship in the U.K.: Developments and Distinctiveness

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2008
    Robert A. Blackburn
    This article charts the development of research on small firms and entrepreneurship in the U.K. over the last 30 years or so and identifies distinctive characteristics of the current orientation of the research field. The paper analyses the rapid increase in the number of researchers contributing to the field over the period, together with its growing legitimacy and institutionalization. One of the key underlying themes is the rich diversity of approaches, reflecting the origins and development path, with clusters of researchers ranging from those with normative objectives to those who view the phenomenon as an object of study. Specific features of the U.K. research field identified include its policy orientation; a rich empirical tradition, with methodological diversity; an emphasis on small firms, and entrepreneurship as a subject for study, rather than an object for promotion; aspects of the boundaries and language of small business and entrepreneurship research; and pre-paradigmatic and middle range theory development i.e., somewhere between grand theory and empirical findings. [source]


    Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: Where Are We Today and Where Should the Research Go in the Future

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2008
    Garry D. Bruton
    Emerging economies are characterized by an increasing market orientation and an expanding economic foundation. The success of many of these economies is such that they are rapidly becoming major economic forces in the world. Entrepreneurship plays a key role in this economic development. Yet to date, little is known about entrepreneurship in emerging economies. This introductory article to the special issue on entrepreneurship in emerging economies examines the literature that exists to date in this important domain. It then reviews the research that was generated as part of this special issue on this topic. The article concludes with a discussion of the critical future research needs in this area. [source]


    The Role of Human Capital in Technological Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 6 2007
    Mike Wright
    This special issue addresses the role that the human capital characteristics of individuals and teams play in the complex process of technological entrepreneurship. In this article, we position the special issue on human capital and technology-based entrepreneurship within the literatures concerning academic entrepreneurship, technology transfer and innovation, and corporate spin-offs. We summarize the articles in the special issue and also outline a research agenda at the firm, entrepreneurial team, and individual entrepreneur levels. Finally, we discuss managerial and policy implications. [source]


    Advancing a Framework for Coherent Research on Women's Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2007
    Anne De Bruin
    First page of article [source]


    The Entrepreneurial Propensity of Women

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2007
    Nan Langowitz
    Entrepreneurship is becoming an increasingly important source of employment for women across many countries. The level of female involvement in entrepreneurial activity, however, is still significantly lower than that of men. We take a behavioral economics approach and, using a large sample of individuals in 17 countries, we investigate what variables influence the entrepreneurial propensity of women and whether those variables have a significant correlation with differences across genders. In addition to demographic and economic variables, we include a number of perceptual variables. Our results show that subjective perceptual variables have a crucial influence on the entrepreneurial propensity of women and account for much of the difference in entrepreneurial activity between the sexes. Specifically, we find that women tend to perceive themselves and the entrepreneurial environment in a less favorable light than men across all countries in our sample and regardless of entrepreneurial motivation. Our results suggest that perceptual variables may be significant universal factors influencing entrepreneurial behavior. [source]


    Introduction to the Special Issue: Towards Building Cumulative Knowledge on Women's Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2006
    Anne De Bruin
    First page of article [source]


    Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2006
    James Austin
    Entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key similarities and differences between these two forms of entrepreneurship and presents a framework on how to approach the social entrepreneurial process more systematically and effectively. We explore the implications of this analysis of social entrepreneurship for both practitioners and researchers. [source]


    Defining International Entrepreneurship and Modeling the Speed of Internationalization,

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 5 2005
    Benjamin M. Oviatt
    This article provides a reformulated definition of international entrepreneurship. Consistent with the new definition, a model is presented of how the speed of entrepreneurial internationalization is influenced by various forces. The model begins with an entrepreneurial opportunity and depicts the enabling forces of technology, the motivating forces of competition, the mediating perceptions of entrepreneurs, and the moderating forces of knowledge and networks that collectively determine the speed of internationalization. [source]


    Toward a Dynamic Learning Perspective of Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2005
    Jason Cope
    This conceptual article introduces a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship that builds upon existing "dominant" theoretical approaches to understanding entrepreneurial activity. As many aspects of entrepreneurial learning remain poorly understood, this article maps out and extends current boundaries of thinking regarding how entrepreneurs learn. It presents key conclusions from emergent empirical and conceptual work on the subject and synthesizes a broad range of contributory adult, management, and individual learning literature to develop a robust and integrated thematic conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning. Three distinctive, interrelated elements of entrepreneurial learning are proposed,dynamic temporal phases, interrelated processes, and overarching characteristics. The article concludes by demonstrating how a "learning lens" can be applied to create further avenues for research in entrepreneurship from a learning perspective. [source]


    Enterprise Education: Influencing Students' Perceptions of Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2003
    Nicole E. Peterman
    This research examines the effect of participation in an enterprise education program on perceptions of the desirability and feasibility of starting a business. Changes in the perceptions of a sample of secondary school students enrolled in the Young Achievement Australia (YAA) enterprise program are analysed using a pre-test post-test control group research design. After completing the enterprise program, participants reported significantly higher perceptions of both desirability and feasibility. The degree of change in perceptions is related to the positiveness of prior experience and to the positiveness of the experience in the enterprise education program. Self-efficacy theory is used to explain the impact of the program. Overall, the study provides empirical evidence to support including exposure to entrepreneurship education as an additional exposure variable in entrepreneurial intentions models. [source]


    Social Networks and Entrepreneurship

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2003
    Arent Greve
    We study network activities of entrepreneurs through three phases of establishing a firm in four countries. Entrepreneurs access people in their networks to discuss aspects of establishing and running a business. We find that entrepreneurs build networks that systematically vary by the phase of entrepreneurship, analyzing number of their discussion partners, and the time spent networking. Entrepreneurs talk with more people during the planning than other phases. Family members are present in their networks in all phases, particularly among those who took over an existing firm. However, women use their kin to a larger extent than men, and even more than men when they take over an existing firm. Experienced entrepreneurs have the same networking patterns as novices. Moreover, these networking patterns are the same in all countries. However, there are country differences in size of discussion networks and time spent networking. [source]


    Academic Entrepreneurship in France: the promotion of economic returns of public research and its political and scientific challenges

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 3 2008
    CHRISTELLE MANIFET
    Emphasising the level of the observation of university configurations and the example of academic entrepreneurship, the author analyses the drivers of economic returns of public research in France. Based on the study of national public policy in this field since 1999 and a general survey of the paths of researchers-entrepreneurs, the article highlights the weight of political and scientific logics. It also shows that behind the justification of promoting the knowledge economy lies a commercialisation of knowledge that underpins a process to defend the interests of a public research sector in support of mixed mercantile, managerial and professional and scientific logics. [source]


    Intellectual capital and the Discourses of Love and Entrepreneurship in New Public Management

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2005
    Jan Mouritsen
    First page of article [source]


    Would a Flat-Rate Tax Stimulate Entrepreneurship in Germany?

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2009
    A Behavioural Microsimulation Analysis Allowing for Risk
    H24; J23; L26; D81 Abstract When potential income tax reforms are debated, the suspected impact on entrepreneurship is often used as an argument in favour of or against a certain policy. Quantitative ex-ante evaluations of the effect of certain tax reform options on entrepreneurship are very rare, however. This paper estimates the ex-ante effects of the German tax reform 2000 and of two hypothetical flat-rate tax scenarios on entries into and exits out of self-employment based on a structural microsimulation model with econometrically estimated transition rates under risk. The simulation results indicate that flatter tax systems do not encourage people to choose self-employment, but rather discourage them from doing so. This is explained by the reduction of entrepreneurs' income risk through progressive taxation. [source]


    Ethnic Entrepreneurship Among Indian Women in New Zealand: A Bittersweet Process

    GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 5 2007
    Edwina Pio
    This research article explores the lived-in and lived-through experiences of Indian women entrepreneurs in New Zealand in the context of ethnic entrepreneurship. Through a four-stage model emerging from qualitative interviews, the article illuminates the bittersweet entrepreneurial process of ethnic minority migrant women. The four stages are: the low permeability for entry into the job market for ethnic minority migrant women; underemployment; setting up a micro-enterprise and expanding the business and creating employment for others, primarily co-ethnics as well as an expanding customer base. A combination of factors ranging from perceived discrimination, low self esteem and feelings of being devalued, to ethnic networks and lack of access/knowledge of government resources and the entry of women from Indian business families feed into each of the four stages of this model. The article offers an analysis of minority voices, along with implications for future research. [source]