Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Employment

  • aggregate employment
  • alternative employment
  • current employment
  • female employment
  • full employment
  • full-time employment
  • gainful employment
  • increased employment
  • industry employment
  • manufacturing employment
  • maternal employment
  • nonfarm employment
  • off-farm employment
  • paid employment
  • part-time employment
  • permanent employment
  • precarious employment
  • public employment
  • public sector employment
  • sector employment
  • stable employment
  • temporary employment
  • women employment

  • Terms modified by Employment

  • employment adjustment
  • employment agencies
  • employment and income
  • employment arrangement
  • employment center
  • employment change
  • employment condition
  • employment contract
  • employment creation
  • employment data
  • employment decision
  • employment dynamics
  • employment effects
  • employment experience
  • employment growth
  • employment history
  • employment issues
  • employment law
  • employment level
  • employment model
  • employment opportunities
  • employment opportunity
  • employment option
  • employment outcome
  • employment pattern
  • employment policy
  • employment practice
  • employment program
  • employment programme
  • employment prospect
  • employment protection
  • employment protection legislation
  • employment rate
  • employment relation
  • employment relation survey
  • employment relationship
  • employment relationships
  • employment sector
  • employment security
  • employment services
  • employment setting
  • employment share
  • employment status
  • employment strategy
  • employment structure
  • employment tax
  • employment trend

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2008
    Piotr ZientaraArticle first published online: 22 DEC 200
    The aim of this paper is to discuss barriers to the employment of older workers in Poland, where, due to various structural weaknesses and institutional arrangements, this problem has taken on a particularly acute seriousness. After analysing the causes of inactivity amongst older workers, the paper concludes by making policy recommendations. [source]


    Raquel Bernal
    This article develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after childbirth to evaluate the effects of these choices on children's cognitive ability. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate it. Results indicate that the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's ability are negative and sizable. Having a mother that works full-time and uses child care during one year is associated with a reduction in ability test scores of approximately 1.8% (0.13 standard deviations). We assess the impact of policies related to parental leave and child care on children's outcomes. [source]


    Audra J. Bowlus
    Conventional wisdom suggests abused women get caught in a cycle of violence and are unable or unwilling to leave their spouses. We estimate a model of domestic violence to determine who abuses, who is abused, and how women respond to abuse via employment and divorce. In contrast to conventional wisdom, abused women are 1.7,5.7 times more likely to divorce. Employment before abuse occurs is found to be a significant deterrent. For men, witnessing violence as a child is a strong predictor of abusive behavior: re-socializing men from violent homes lowers abuse rates by 26%,48%. [source]


    Jed Kolko
    ABSTRACT We use the National Establishment Time-Series database to describe shifts in the geographic dispersion of employment and ownership of firms. Focusing on data on business establishments in California, and establishments anywhere in the United States that are owned by firms headquartered in California, we find shifts in the operations of businesses headquartered in California to other states. However, this shift has been offset by increased employment in the state by firms headquartered elsewhere, resulting in California's share of national employment holding quite constant. The evidence points to increasing geographic dispersion of firms' operations, especially in industries with lower communication costs. [source]


    Hong-Kyun KIM
    In this paper, we examine whether IT job training raises the probability of getting employed and enables the trainee to obtain a high wage. In this paper, it is reported that, in the Republic of Korea, IT job training as a whole affects not only employment but also wage premium, even though the effect on wage premium is somewhat less conspicuous. In particular, the intensity of IT job training is more instrumental in the opportunity of getting employed than simply whether receiving IT job training or not. This effect is intensified in the low-education group. In this group, the probability for the persons who undergo IT job training for more than six months of getting employed is higher than that for a person without any job training. Additionally, provision of IT job training by a private institute and cost sharing with the government enhances the opportunity of employment. [source]


    In this paper, I examine the reasons for high rates of part-time employment among disabled workers in the UK. Evidence from the Labour Force Survey suggests that part-time employment provides an important way of accommodating a work-limiting disability rather than reflecting marginalization of the disabled by employers. Differences in part-time employment within the disabled group are also examined. [source]


    We use Census data to investigate the sources of the decline in the level of employment of working age males in Australia in recent decades. Alternative measures of the male employment rate are considered before settling on two complementary measures: the full-time employment rate and the full-time equivalent employment rate. The latter measure weights part-time jobs according to the fraction of a full-time job they represent. Models of the determinants of these two employment rates are estimated using data from the Censuses conducted between 1971 and 2001. We construct a pseudo panel by ,stacking' the seven Census data sets (Deaton, 1997; Kapteyn, et al., 2005). This facilitates the tracing of birth cohorts over time, in turn making it possible to control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias cross-sectional estimates of effects of other characteristics, in particular age and year/time period. We produce evidence that a number of factors have contributed to the decline in male employment, including the decline in couple households with dependent children, growth in income taxes and welfare replacement rates and changes in the structure of labour demand away from traditionally male-dominated industries. We also find that, all else (observable) constant, more recent birth cohorts have no lower , and possibly higher , employment rates than earlier birth cohorts. [source]

    Mental health care reform in Sweden, 1995

    C.-G. Stefansson
    Objective:,To describe the content of the Community Mental Health Care reform in Sweden, in effect from 1995 and directed to severely mentally ill people (SMI). Method:,Evaluating changes, at local and national level, in living conditions among SMI and resources of services directed to them, by using registers, questionnaires, interviews and case studies. Results:,A survey, covering 93% of the population, identified 43 000 SMI (prevalence of 0.63%); 4000 long-stay patients and 400 rehabilitation programmes were transferred from psychiatric services to social services (15% of the budget of psychiatric services). Employment and rehabilitation projects, family support and user programmes and educational projects for social services staff, were launched (funded by state subsidies). Conclusion:,SMI still have difficulties in obtaining adequate support on the basis of disability laws and there continue to be barriers between social services and psychiatric services. [source]

    Black Employment, Segregation, and the Social Organization of Metropolitan Labor Markets

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
    Niki T. Dickerson
    Abstract: This broad analysis of the employment of blacks in metropolitan areas examines the role of residential segregation in comparison with four other key structural explanations for racial metropolitan inequality: industrial composition, minority concentration, immigration, and the racial disparity in skills. The goal of the analysis was to determine whether the spatial configuration of blacks relative to whites in a metropolitan area influences the employment rates of black men and black women in the context of the structural conditions of the local labor market. The study expanded the analysis of space and work beyond an emphasis on the physical distance between black communities and jobs to a broader conceptualization of residential segregation as a structural feature of the entire metropolitan labor market that is representative of its social organization with regard to race. Using a longitudinal data set of the structural characteristics of the 95 largest U.S. cities from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 decennial censuses, the study used a cross-sectional analysis of the cities in 2000 and a fixed-effects analysis to assess the impact of five dimensions of residential segregation and the four other structural factors on the employment of blacks across different labor markets and across time within each labor market. The results revealed that when the other structural characteristics are controlled, the employment rates of blacks are lower in more segregated cities and decrease as cities become more segregated over time. The clustering and evenness dimensions of residential segregation were the most determinative of black employment. [source]

    Economic Policies for Growth and Employment

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 4 2005
    Article first published online: 26 OCT 200
    First page of article [source]

    Firing Costs, Employment Fluctuations and Average Employment: An Examination of Germany

    ECONOMICA, Issue 266 2000
    Jennifer Hunt
    West Germany's Employment Promotion Act of 1985 facilitated the use of fixed-term contracts and increased the number of dismissals above which the employer is required to establish a ,social plan' (involving severance payments). I assess the effect of this reduction in ,firing costs' on movements in employment, using monthly data on a panel of detailed manufacturing industries for 1977-92. I also examine the effect of introducing flexible hours of work in certain industries beginning in 1985. I find that employment adjustment was unaffected by the lower firing costs, but slowed by the greater working hours flexibility. [source]

    Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: a randomized controlled trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    Anthony DeFulio
    ABSTRACT Context Due to the chronic nature of cocaine dependence, long-term maintenance treatments may be required to sustain abstinence. Abstinence reinforcement is among the most effective means of initiating cocaine abstinence. Practical and effective means of maintaining abstinence reinforcement programs over time are needed. Objective To determine whether employment-based abstinence reinforcement can be an effective long-term maintenance intervention for cocaine dependence. Design Participants (n = 128) were enrolled in a 6-month job skills training and abstinence initiation program. Participants who initiated abstinence, attended regularly and developed needed job skills during the first 6 months were hired as operators in a data entry business and assigned randomly to an employment-only (control, n = 24) or abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group. Setting A non-profit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who used cocaine persistently while enrolled in methadone treatment in Baltimore. Intervention Abstinence-contingent employment participants received 1 year of employment-based contingency management, in which access to employment was contingent upon provision of drug-free urine samples under routine and then random drug testing. If a participant provided drug-positive urine or failed to provide a mandatory sample, then that participant received a temporary reduction in pay and could not work until urinalysis confirmed recent abstinence. Main outcome measure Cocaine-negative urine samples at monthly assessments across 1 year of employment. Results During the 1 year of employment, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative urine samples than employment-only participants [79.3% and 50.7%, respectively; P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.60,8.69]. Conclusions Employment-based abstinence reinforcement that includes random drug testing is effective as a long-term maintenance intervention, and is among the most promising treatments for drug dependence. Work-places could serve as therapeutic agents in the treatment of drug dependence by arranging long-term employment-based contingency management programs. [source]

    Microbial community dynamics in a humic lake: differential persistence of common freshwater phylotypes

    Ryan J. Newton
    Summary In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to patterns in freshwater bacterioplankton community composition and diversity, we coupled automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) to analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to follow the persistence patterns of 46 individual phylotypes over 3 years in Crystal Bog Lake. Additionally, we sought to identify linkages between the observed phylotype variations and known chemical and biological drivers. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes obtained from the water column indicated the presence of phylotypes associated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia phyla, as well as phylotypes with unknown affiliation. Employment of the 16S rRNA gene/ARISA method revealed that specific phylotypes varied independently of the entire bacterial community dynamics. Actinobacteria, which were present on greater than 95% of sampling dates, did not share the large temporal variability of the other identified phyla. Examination of phylotype relative abundance patterns (inferred using ARISA fragment relative fluorescence) revealed a strong correlation between the dominant phytoplankton succession and the relative abundance patterns of the majority of individual phylotypes. Further analysis revealed covariation among unique phylotypes, which formed several distinct bacterial assemblages correlated with particular phytoplankton communities. These data indicate the existence of unique persistence patterns for different common freshwater phylotypes, which may be linked to the presence of dominant phytoplankton species. [source]

    Employers' Attitudes to Employment of People with Epilepsy: Still the Same Old Story?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2005
    Ann Jacoby
    Summary:,Purpose: One area of life quality known to be compromised by having epilepsy is employment, and one factor contributing to the employment problems of people with epilepsy (PWE) is employer attitudes. Much research on this topic is now outdated and given the changing legal, medical, and social contexts in which PWE live, we therefore reexamined employer attitudes in the united Kingdom. Method: A mail survey of a random sample of U.K. companies selected to be representative of the 14 U.K. economic regions and proportional to the number of employees. Findings: The overall response rate was 41% (n = 204). Twenty-six percent of respondents reported having experience of employing PWE. Sixteen percent considered that there were no jobs in their company suitable for PWE; 21% thought employing PWE would be "a major issue." Employers were uniformly of the view that PWE, even when in remission, should disclose their condition to a prospective employer. Seizure severity, frequency, and controllability were all considered important features of epilepsy in the context of employment. Epilepsy created high concern to around half of employers, including the likelihood of it being linked to a work-related accident. Employers were willing to make accommodations for PWE, in particular job sharing, temporary reassignment of duties, and flexible working hours. Attitudes to employment of PWE were influenced by company size and type and previous experience of doing so. Conclusions: We conclude that it is still the same old story for employers' attitudes toward PWE, though happily for PWE, with some room for optimism. [source]

    Overview and Perspectives of Employment in People with Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2005
    Hanneke M. De Boer
    Summary:, Even though it is now the viewpoint of the majority of professionals working in epilepsy care that most people with epilepsy should and can perform on the labor market as does anybody else, research tells a different story. Most figures concerning employment rates of people with epilepsy indicate that they do not perform as well on the labor market as others do. Although both research figures and research groups vary, generally unemployment rates are higher for people with epilepsy than for the general population. Early studies showed that the situation for people with epilepsy was rather grim. Later studies showed similar outcomes. Unemployment rates vary between groups and countries. Research shows that being employed is an important ingredient of the quality of life of people with epilepsy. The World Health Organization also recognizes the importance of employment as a part of social health, and therefore, improving the quality of life. It is important to know the perspectives on the labor market for people with epilepsy and what the possible problems are. I describe a Dutch research project and give an overview of the findings concerning the employment and consequent employability of people with epilepsy and questions pertaining to employment and epilepsy. Possible interventions [i.e., public education and employment programs for people with epilepsy with the aim to improve the (re)integration of people with epilepsy into the labor market, thus improving the quality of life of (potential) employees with epilepsy], are described extensively. [source]

    Graduate Employment and Work in Selected European Countries

    Ulrich Teichler
    First page of article [source]

    Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Austria

    Paul Kellermann
    First page of article [source]

    Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Finland

    Osmo Kivinen
    First page of article [source]

    Changes in Wives' Employment When Husbands Stop Working: A Recession-Prosperity Comparison

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2010
    Marybeth J. Mattingly
    American families are experiencing the effects of the "Great Recession." Most of the job losses are accruing to men, so families may find it strategic for wives to enter the labor force, or increase their work hours. We consider this possibility using the May 2008 and 2009 Current Population Survey, and compare findings to May 2004 and 2005 data, a time of relative prosperity. We find that wives of husbands who stopped working during the recession were more likely to increase work hours, and more likely to commence or seek work. During the Great Recession years, the effect for wives entering the labor force is significantly greater than during the earlier years of relative prosperity. [source]

    Inhibition of human ether go-go potassium channels by Ca2+/calmodulin binding to the cytosolic N- and C-termini

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2006
    Ulrike Ziechner
    Human ether go-go potassium channels (hEAG1) open in response to membrane depolarization and they are inhibited by Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM), presumably binding to the C-terminal domain of the channel subunits. Deletion of the cytosolic N-terminal domain resulted in complete abolition of Ca2+/CaM sensitivity suggesting the existence of further CaM binding sites. A peptide array-based screen of the entire cytosolic protein of hEAG1 identified three putative CaM-binding domains, two in the C-terminus (BD-C1: 674,683, BD-C2: 711,721) and one in the N-terminus (BD-N: 151,165). Binding of GST-fusion proteins to Ca2+/CaM was assayed with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and precipitation assays. In the presence of Ca2+, BD-N and BD-C2 provided dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, BD-C1 bound with lower affinity. Mutations in the binding domains reduced inhibition of the functional channels by Ca2+/CaM. Employment of CaM-EF-hand mutants showed that CaM binding to the N- and C-terminus are primarily dependent on EF-hand motifs 3 and 4. Hence, closure of EAG channels presumably requires the binding of multiple CaM molecules in a manner more complex than previously assumed. [source]

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Simulation , Part 1: Benchmarking Available Fuel Cell Vehicle Simulation Tools

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 3 2003
    K.H. Hauer
    Abstract Fuel cell vehicle simulation is one method for systematic and fast investigation of the different vehicle options (fuel choice, hybridization, reformer technologies). However, a sufficient modeling program, capable of modeling the different design options, is not available today. Modern simulation programs should be capable of serving as tools for analysis as well as development. Shortfalls of the existing programs, initially developed for internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles, are: (i)Insufficient modeling of transient characteristics; (ii) Insufficient modeling of the fuel cells system; (iii) Insufficient modeling of advanced hybrid systems; (iv) Employment of a non-causal (backwards looking) structure; (v) Significant shortcomings in the area of controls. In the area of analysis, a modeling tool for fuel cell vehicles needs to address the transient dynamic interaction between the electric drive train and the fuel cell system. Especially for vehicles with slow responding on-board fuel processor, this interaction is very different from the interaction between a battery (as power source) and an electric drive train in an electric vehicle design. Non-transient modeling leads to inaccurate predictions of vehicle performance and fuel consumption. When applied in the area of development, the existing programs do not support the employment of newer techniques, such as rapid prototyping. This is because the program structure merges control algorithms and component models, or different control algorithms (from different components) are lumped together in one single control block and not assigned to individual components as they are in real vehicles. In both cases, the transfer of control algorithms from the model into existing hardware is not possible. This paper is the first part of a three part series and benchmarks the "state of the art" of existing programs. The second paper introduces a new simulation program, which tries to overcome existing barriers. Specifically it explicitly recognizes the dynamic interaction between fuel cell system, drive train and optional additional energy storage. [source]

    Marking Difference and Negotiating Belonging: Refugee Women, Volunteering and Employment

    Frances Tomlinson
    Refugee women occupy a position at a neglected point of intersection of many categories of difference. This article draws on a study of pathways from voluntary work into paid employment for refugee women in the UK and reveals how they drew on these markers of difference to express and explain their experiences of exclusion or belonging. Their accounts are considered alongside those of organizational representatives, who drew on vocabularies of equality and diversity to construct refugee women as organizational outsiders or insiders. The article explores the interplay between the active agency of refugee women in negotiating the possibilities of belonging and the effect of discursive practices and structural processes that tend to perpetuate their outsider status. It concludes by briefly considering the relevance of these findings to current controversies concerning the impact of policies of managing diversity and multiculturalism on combating inequality and discrimination. [source]

    Women's Scientific Employment and Family Formation: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Louisa Blackwell
    We focus here on the retention of highly qualified women scientists in science-based employment in England and Wales. Using linked Census records from the Longitudinal Study 1971,1991 we show that women's education and employment rates in science, engineering and technology increased somewhat, although some fields show persistently low representation. We then compare retention in employing women with health-related degrees with that of women with degrees in science, engineering and technology, showing that the latter group has markedly lower retention rates. Those who stay on in science-based employment have children later than other types of graduate and their rates of non-motherhood are higher. Four-fifths of women in health-related occupations were mothers, compared to only two-fifths in science, engineering and technology. Our findings have implications for policymakers who wish to make best use of the knowledge base: attention should be paid to retention, as well as the more usual focus on qualifications and recruitment. The findings also suggest the potential for institutionally based theories to explain why highly qualified women have such low retention rates in science-based employment. [source]

    The Equality Deficit: Protection against Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Employment

    Nicole Busby
    The provisions of UK law offer no specific protection to gay men and lesbians suffering discrimination in the workplace on the grounds of sexual orientation. Such discrimination may take many forms and can result in ,fair' dismissal in certain circumstances. This article considers the degree of legal protection available under current provisions and investigates possible sources for the development of specific anti-discrimination legislation. It is concluded that, despite the application of certain aspects of employment law, the level of protection afforded to this group of workers amounts to an equality deficit in comparison to the legal redress available to those discriminated against on other grounds. Although the development of human rights legislation may have some application in this context, the combination of institutionalized discrimination and wider public policy concerns suggest that the introduction of specific legislation aimed at eliminating such discrimination in the United Kingdom is still some way off. [source]

    Work and Employment in Small Businesses: Perpetuating and Challenging Gender Traditions

    Susan Baines
    More and more women and men are becoming dependent on some form of small business activity for all or part of their livelihoods but there is little research offering insight into gender and working practices in small businesses. In this article we assess some theoretical approaches and discuss these against an empirical investigation of micro-firms run by women, men and mixed sex partnerships. In the ,entrepreneurship' literature, with its emphasis on the individual business owner, we find little guidance. We argue that in the ,modern' micro-business, family and work are brought into proximity as in the ,in between' organizational form described by Weber. The celebrated ,flexibility' of small firms often involves the reproduction within modernity of seemingly pre-modern practices in household organization and gender divisions of labour. This is true in the Britain of the 1990s in a growing business sector normally associated neither with tradition nor with the family. Tradition, however, is never automatic or uncontested in a ,post-traditional society'. A minority of women and men in micro-enterprises actively resist traditional solutions and even traditional imagery of male and female behaviour. For this small group alone new economic conditions seem to bring new freedom. [source]

    Change in the Concentration of Employment in Computer Services: Spatial Estimation at the U.S. Metro County Level

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2007
    ABSTRACT This article models the concentration of computer services activity across the U.S. with factors that incorporate spatial relationships. Specifically, we enhance the standard home-area study with an analysis that allows conditions in neighboring counties to affect the concentration of employment in the home county. We use county-level data for metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1997. To measure change in employment concentration, we use the change in location quotients for SIC 737, which captures employment concentration changes caused by both the number of firms and the scale of their activity relative to the national average. After controlling for local demand for computer services, our results support the importance of the presence of a qualified labor supply, interindustry linkages, proximity to a major airport, and spatial processes in explaining changes in computer services employment concentration, finding little support for the influence of cost factors. Our enhanced model reveals interjurisdictional relationships among these metro counties that could not be captured with standard estimates by state, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or county. Using counties within MSAs, therefore, provides more general results than case studies but still allows measurement of local interactions. [source]

    Unequal Pieces of a Shrinking Pie: The Struggle between African Americans and Latinos over Education, Employment, and Empowerment in Compton, California

    Emily E. Straus
    First page of article [source]

    Temporary Employment and Strategic Staffing in the Manufacturing Sector

    While prior research has identified different ways of using temporary workers to achieve numerical flexibility, quantitative analysis of temporary employment has been limited to a few key empirical indicators of demand variability that may confound important differences. Our analysis provides evidence that many manufacturers use temporary workers to achieve what we call planned and systematic numerical flexibility rather than simply in a reactive manner to deal with unexpected problems. Although temporary work may provide many benefits for employers, a key function appears to be the provision of numerical flexibility not to buffer core workers but to externalize certain jobs. [source]

    Employment of People with Disabilities Following the ADA

    Douglas Kruse
    Studies finding a negative effect of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) on the employment of people with disabilities have used the work disability measure, which has several potential problems in measuring employment trends. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data that permit alternative measures of disability, this study finds decreased employment among those reporting work disabilities in the first few years after the ADA was passed but increased employment when using a more probably appropriate measure of ADA coverage (functional and activity limitations that do not prevent work). State-by-state variation in labor market tightness is used to find that people with disabilities may have especially procyclical employment, but the contrary results in overall employment trends remain after accounting for labor market tightness. Given the problems in measuring who is covered by the ADA, there is reason to be cautious of both positive and negative findings. [source]